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National Conference on Architecture, Software System and Green Computing (NCASG) || July 2012

S.No. Article Title Page No. PDF

An Overview of maintaining security in Web services

S.Anjugam P.Visalakshi


Web Services are a loosely-coupled, language-neutral,platform- independent way of linking applicationswithin organizations, across enterprises, and across the Internet. With web services we can exchange data between different applications and different platforms. While we are exchanging the data, the unauthorized entities should not be able to access the information within the message. In this paper, we discuss the areas of security and how to maintain that security. It also describes the benefits of the web services and the standards which are used on the web services.

Key Words: Web service components, Benefits of Web service,and Web Services Security.
01-04 PDF

Call Admission Control, Packet Level QOS in 4G broad band Wireless Access System with CDMA

M.Annam, Mr.M.Ramasubramanian


Consider the problem of scheduling data in the down link of a cellular network over parallel time-varying channels, while providing quality of service (QoS) guarantees to multiple users in the network. I design simple and efficient admission control, resource allocation, and scheduling algorithms for guaranteeing requested QoS. Here propose a novel down link scheduling scheme for QoS provisioning in BWASs.The proposed scheme employs practical economic models through the use of novel utility and opportunity cost functions to simultaneously satisfy the diverse QoS requirements of mobile users and maximize the revenues of network operators. The proposed scheme is general and can support multiple QoS classes with users having different QoS and traffic demands. To demonstrate its generality, I show how the utility function can be used to support three different types of traffic, namely best effort traffic, traffic with maximum data rate requirements, and traffic with minimum packet delay requirements. Extensive performance analysis is carried out to show the effectiveness and strengths of the proposed packet scheduling scheme. High speed Downlink Packet Access System and 802.16 broadband wireless access systems will enhance the multimedia applications that have support of different QoS requirements. The scheduling decision in applicable in code domains as well.
05-08 PDF

Energy Efficient Algorithm Using Data Integrity In Wired Networks

T.Balasathuragiri, Prof Mr.T.Anand


Designing cost-efficient, secure network protocols for Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) are a challenging problem because sensors are resource-limited wireless devices. Since the communication cost is the most dominant factor in a sensor's energy consumption, we introduce an energy-efficient Virtual Energy-Based Encryption and Keying (VEBEK) scheme for WSNs that significantly reduces the number of transmissions needed for rekeying to avoid stale keys. In addition to the goal of saving energy, minimal transmission is imperative for some military applications of WSNs where an adversary could be monitoring the wireless spectrum. VEBEK is a secure communication framework where sensed data is encoded using a scheme based on a permutation code generated via the RC4 encryption mechanism. The key to the RC4 encryption mechanism dynamically changes as a function of the residual virtual energy of the sensor. Thus, a one-time dynamic key is employed for one packet only and different keys are used for the successive packets of the stream. The intermediate nodes along the path to the sink are able to verify the authenticity and integrity of the incoming packets using a predicted value of the key generated by the sender's virtual energy, thus requiring no need for specific rekeying messages. VEBEK is able to efficiently detect and filter false data injected into the network by malicious outsiders.

Key words: Security, WSN security, VEBEK, virtual energy-based keying, resource-constrained devices.
12-16 PDF

Linux Device Driver Coding for Pseudo Device

Murali. B. A


Device driver is the most important software of operating system to interact with hardware devices. As an essential part of operating system, device drivers must be reliable and efficient, because wrong operation can make a fatal system error and hardware performance depends on the device driver. Therefore, it must be developed carefully. In this paper, I present Linux Device Driver coding for Pseudo Device. The main goal of our work is reliable coding for Pseudo Device to improve quality.

17-28 PDF

Modification on Non-Cryptographic Hash Function

C. Krishna Kumar, Dr. C. Suyambulingom


This paper presents an automatic approach to Modification on non-cryptographic hash function design based on grammar guided genetic programming. The paper describes how it is possible to design a non-cryptographic hash function, implementation issues such as terminal and nonterminal symbols, fitness measure, and used context-free grammar. The main aim of this paper is to link the expert knowledge in the design of non-cryptographic hash function and the process of automatic design which can try many more combinations then an expert can. The hash function automatically designed in the paper is competitive with human design and it is compared with the most used non-cryptographic hashes in the field of speed of processing and in the field of collision resistance. The results are discussed in the last section and further improvement is mentioned.

Key words: Modification on Non-cryptographic Hash Function, Evolutionary optimization, Genetic Programming, Context-free Grammar, Collision Resistance.
29-35 PDF

Bruit Bait: Peer To Peer Systems

P.Devika, Dr.R.S.Ponmagal


Anonymizing Peer-to-Peer (P2P) systems often incurs extra costs in terms of transfer efficiency; many systems try to mask the identities of their users for privacy considerations. Existing anonymity approaches are mainly path-based: peers have to pre-construct an anonymous path before transmission. The overhead of maintaining and updating such paths is significantly high. Bruit Bait, a lightweight mutual anonymity protocol for decentralized P2P systems is proposed in this project. Bruit Bait employs a random walk scheme which frees initiating peers from the heavy load of path construction. Compared with previous RSA-based anonymity approaches, Bruit Bait also takes advantage of lower cryptographic overhead by mainly utilizing a symmetric cryptographic algorithm to achieve anonymity.
36-40 PDF

Green Computing Future of Liveliness

Sk. Fayaz Ahamad, P.V.Ravikanth


Green computing is a effective and efficient way for designing, manufacturing and using of computers and computer related products that would help preserve natural resources and reduce the harmful impact on the environment.
41-45 PDF

CRM System in Cloud Computing with Different Service Providers

Mrs.I.Golda Selia, S.K. Madhumithaa


Enterprises always store the data in the internal storage of the organization itself. Especially in a Customer Relationship management system all the data of the customers will be stored in the internal storage itself. But the main disadvantage in the storage of the data is there may be hackers in the administrator side and they may get the information of the customer because the application of CRM system, encryption/decryption and storage of the data is done in the same service provider in a cloud computing environment. To avoid this kind of challenges cloud computing provides three different service providers for the security of the data in a cloud computing. This paper discusses about the main concept of providing the different service providers and their advantages and the techniques involves in providing the different service providers in a cloud computing environment.

Keywords: cloud computing, encryption and decryption, CRM, cloud services, service provider.
46-49 PDF

Solution for Accessing a Computer Using VNC in Mobile Cloud Computing

I.Golda Selia, R.Iswarya


This paper discusses about a Virtual Network Computing (VNC) based architecture for accessing a desktop of remote computer from a cellular phone. Mobile cloud computing provides a solution to meet the increasing functionality demands of end users, as all application logic is executed in distant servers and only user interface functionalities reside on the mobile device. The mobile device acts as a remote display, capturing user input and rendering the display updates received from the distant server. Varying wireless channel conditions, short battery lifetime and interaction latency introduces major challenges for the remote display of cloud application on mobile devices. In this paper we discuss a number of adequate solution that have recently been proposed to tackle the main issues associated with the remote display of cloud services on mobile devices.

Keywords- VNC, WNIC, ICA, Packetization, Google Apps RFB.
50-55 PDF

Implementation of Honeypot using Kerberos Authentication

Aishwarya.S, SurabhiKinariwala, Sujatha.G


Implementation of Honeypot with Kerberos authentication provides a 3-step authentication process to classify white hat and black hat users. It uses an Authentication System, Ticket Granting System and A Server with symmetric key Cryptography to authenticate a client. It uses double encryption in the exchange of tokens and requires every client to authenticate with each of the three systems before accessing the service it requested. Any user who fails to authenticate will be identified as a hacker but with a negative token without the knowledge of the Client. At decryption only the three Systems can identify a user with a positive or negative token. And hence identify an external or internal hacker. Once authenticated with a negative token the hacker's interactions are monitored and logged. In gathering this information the network administration can devise efficient warning systems to notify when the system is breached by an attacker. In using Kerberos with honeypot, we overcome the restricted identification provided by IP Address and comparisons of network Services. The development of the system can be done with a platform-independent technology and can accommodate large and small traffic supporting systems.

Keywords- Kerberos, Honeypot, 3-Step Authentication, Positive and Negative Tokens, Hacker, Warning System, Platform-independent.
56-59 PDF

Developing Framework to do the Reliability Testing on webMethods Product Suite

Harsh Chincholi, Sandhya S, Rameshchandra V


Over the past few years, use of integration server (IS) in critical situations has been increasing and need for high dependable integration server is necessary. Now, reliability as the primary characteristic of dependability is a key factor to evaluate integration server .So a Reliability framework is developed which is an automatic testing tool for integration server. Reliability framework examines the type information of a set of Java classes and constructs code fragments that will create instances of different types to test the behavior of public methods under random data. Reliability framework attempts to detect bugs by causing the program under test to "crash", that is, to throw an undeclared runtime exception. It also has the advantage of being completely automatic: no supervision is required except for off-line inspection of the test cases that have caused a crash.

Keywords: - Integration server, reliability, test cases.
60-64 PDF

Intrusion Detection for Smart phone using Cloud

G.Hemaprabha, Visalatchi.R


Smart phones have recently become increasingly popular because they provide "all-in-one" convenience by integrating traditional mobile phones with handled computing devices. Unfortunately these mobile devices are beginning to face many of the same security threats as desktops. Since smart phones software architecture is similar to the PCs software architecture, they are vulnerable to similar type of security risks such as worms, Trojans and viruses. So, this system proposes a cloud based smart phone specific intrusion detection and response engine. If any unsecured file or misbehaviour is detected, the system will take the corresponding response actions to handle the threat. This system will produce accurate intrusion detection and response with light resource requirement.

Keywords- IDS (Intrusion Detection System), PDA (Personal digital Assistant), IP (Internet Protocol),
65-68 PDF

Intrusion Detection System Using K-SVMeans Clustering Algorithm

Jaisankar N, Swetha Balaji, Lalita S, Sruthi D


In recent years, as the usage of internet increases, new types of attack on network information keep increasing. Intrusion Detection System (IDS) is an important tool to identify various attacks to secure the networks. Traditional clustering algorithms work on "flat" data, making the assumption that the data instances are homogeneous in nature. Many real world data, however, is heterogeneous in nature. To handle the heterogeneity of the data, in this paper, we propose IDS using K-SVMeans clustering algorithm and other classification techniques. Here we use KDD-Cup99 dataset as simulation dataset for our experiment. The experimental results show that the proposed model reduces the time complexity, improves overall detection accuracy and minimizes the false alarm rate considerably.

Keywords: IDS; Fuzzy logic; spatial outlier detection; K- SVMeans Clustering; EC4.5; SVM; KDD-Cup99 Dataset.
69-73 PDF

Policy for Security issues in Cloud Computing

Jijo S. Nair, Mukesh Kumar


IT industry and organizations revolutionized with a staggering velocity in the last decimvir by the inlet of Cloud Computing Technology .Day by day more and more academicians, research scholars, IT industries, SME (Small and Medium Enterprises) gerents are drifting themselves towards the hot chocolaty flavored moorland of "Cloud Computing". As more and more enterprises, government agencies, and companies started to explore cloud computing, security issues came out as a gigantic gamut, as every individual preferred to work on a safe environment where privacy and security of their data is a major concern. This paper discusses cloud computing concepts, technical characteristics of cloud computing, analyses information security in cloud computing, security strategies and challenges that Cloud Service Providers (CSP) or vendors face during cloud engineering.

Keywords: Cloud Computing, Cloud Policy.
74-77 PDF

Data Security in Cloud

Jijo.S. Nair, BholaNath Roy


Cloud computing is a model for delivering information technology services over the Internet as per the Customers demand. Big conquerors'of IT commercial enterprise is drifting ahead for big business profits to Cloud Computing podium. Even after the backbreaking work by the organization very few customers are exercising cloud although numberless clients are ready to get services on from Cloud. The hurdle most of the customers are facing is with the availability and security of data in Cloud.

Keywords: Cloud, Data storage, Security of Cloud, Steganography, Peer to peer data acces
78-79 PDF

Cloud Computing: Review

Jijo S. Nair, Mukesh Kumar


Cloud computing is the acclaimedword in Information Technology's world. It is becoming very famous day by day. It is the fifth generation of the internet. Cloud computing helps IT business to transform power of computing in a smart, efficient, high performance way to solicit with their business solution. In this paper we analyze and highlight the concept of the cloud computing like service model, virtue of cloud computing, contingency of cloud and application. This paper will help in better understanding of cloud computing and explain how it works. It also discusses the different application that use in computing model as a platform for execution.
80-82 PDF

Software Visualization of Text Content in Ecosystem

Karthiga Mohanmani, Chamundeswari Arumugam


Software ecosystem analysis is on focus due to open source communities. It need to be analyzed at the high level through visualization techniques for the better understanding of the interactive relationship. Analysis of ecosystem has been usually represented using developer's data, project's data, based on the dependencies that exist. Dependencies at high level are explored, while the low level fine grained information is unexplored. Thus an attempt has been done in this paper, to visualize the low level information related to open source ecosystem GRAPPA. This ecosystem's source files are analyzed with the low level vocabularies such as non-keywords and represented as tag cloud. Tag cloud visualizes all the non-keywords such as class name, methods, and data in GRAPPA. This analysis exposes the project vocabularies with different weight based on the frequency count.

Keywords- software ecosystem, text visualization, tag cloud, tag operation.
83-87 PDF

Synchronous and Asynchronous Collabrative Writing Methods on the Cloud

Ms.R. Mangala Gowri, K.Kumaran


In Academic writing, school and college students need to create common documents collaboratively. I-write tools provide means for creating and managing collaborative and individual writing assignments in large number of groups. Implementation can be done by deploying the I-write tools on the cloud, by using some cloud service providers such as Microsoft's windows Azure or Google's Google docs. Assignment manager is a third party cloud services and it has to be designed to use the cloud computing applications and their API's as well as allocation of courses to the group of students in collaborative writing. The NLP technique is used in I-write tools to provide automated feedback, automatic question generation and process analysis techniques. By using these techniques the student can pass the document to the next student and he can easily work on the same common document by getting the metadata of that document. The collaborative writing has two kinds of methods, such as Synchronous and Asynchronous Collaborative writing methods by using I-write tools on the Cloud.

88-90 PDF

An Enhanced Energy Efficient Routing Protocol for MANETs

Kadiveti. Koteswar Rao, Ragendra.C, Ramesh.Ragala


Micro sensor networks are widely deployed in sensor networks typical geographical areas where human interaction is almost impossible. A WSN is a collection of several small energy limited sensors. These devices perform the job data collection and forwarding to central node called sink. Ad hoc networks are network which operates without the need of an infrastructure. Low control over head and power cost are two key issues in wireless sensor networks to improve the protocol efficiency. Aodv is predefined routing protocol in wireless sensor networks. The routing overhead of Aodv is drawback is power-constrained environment. In this paper we present an Enhance routing algorithm E-AODV which reduces the routing overhead and improve the efficiency. In standard AODV, hello packet broadcast mechanism is enhance to save time- and- gain discarding and rediscovering the routes.Ns2 simulator used for performance evaluation. The results show that the proposed algorithm is efficient with reduced control overhead and end-to-end delay.

Keywords: wireless sensor networks, Mobile Ad hoc Networks, AODV, power-constrained environment, protocol efficiency, routing overhead and end-to-end delay.

91-95 PDF

Improving the Performance of Search Engine With Respect To Content Mining

Kr.Jansi, L.Radha


R- Google is a dedicated stream search engine, can help users retrieve dynamic real-time streams, focusing on quality and topic relevance rather than simple query matching. The popularity of Text mining[1] has created overwhelming quantities of Web data that has led to an evolution in the way people produce and consume information. Content is increasingly being delivered in streams—a series of text documents that arrive over time as content based document. The stream search engine that attempts to provide topic-focused searches for various live streams from the web. The proposed search engine architecture accounts for the structural and temporal characteristics unique to content based search, focusing on the problems of content relevance judgment and ranking.

96-100 PDF

A New Image Compression Scheme with Wavelet Packets for Best Basis Selection Using Improved Pso

 Manish Kumar, Prof.Nishat Kanvel


This project presents a new image compression scheme with wavelet packets for best basis selection using PSO and improved PSO. The PSO is utilized to find out the best wavelet packet basis for image compression. Wavelet packet transform provides a more precise analysis to image, which not only decomposes the low frequency components but also decomposes high frequency components. The wavelet packet-based library contains a number of wavelet packet basis .If we choose different wavelet packet , we will get different image features and achieve different compression effect. In this project, we propose a modified PSO structure for best basis image wavelet packet selection to achieve max PSNR and Compression Ratio. We are employing two parallel PSO prediction structure to initially find best optimal Partition pattern size and Best Threshold Finding in second Step of Prediction. Compared with the existing PSO method compression algorithm implemented in MATLAB software, the novel method manages to find out the best wavelet packet basis and achieves better compression capability. The PSO can automatically access and accumulate the information in the search space and adaptively control the search process to gain the global optimal solution. PSO is simple and has fast optimization ability. To facilitate the implementation of PSO in image compression ,a fitness function is designed in terms of Mean Square Error(MSE) and sum of all the all the entropy values of the node(ESUM) which obtained from PSO optimal wavelet packet coefficients.

101-106 PDF

A 32-Bit Signed/Unsigned Fixed Point Non-Restoring Square-Root Operation Using VHDL

Ms. M.U. Buradkar, Prof. P. P. Zode


After analyzing the advantages and disadvantages of all the general algorithms adopted in designing square root on FPGA chips with pipeline technology, a proposed algorithm based on digit by digit calculation method is discussed. The algorithm is realized on the ModelSim SE 6.3f development platform with VHDL language and the simulation results show that it is characterized by occupying less resource as well as processing is in a faster speed. Therefore it is an effective algorithm for implementing square root on commonly-used FPGA chips with pipeline technology. Square root operation deserves attention because of its frequent use in a number of applications. Square root operation basically is considered difficult to implement in hardware and it's a basic operation in computer graphics and scientific calculation applications. A pipelined architecture to implement 32-bit fixed-point signed/unsigned square root operation on an FPGA using a non-restoring pipelined algorithm that does not require floating-point hardware is discussed. The main principle of proposed method is two-bit shifting and subtract-multiplexing operations, in order to achieve a simpler implementation and faster calculation. The proposed algorithm is used to implement FPGA based signed and unsigned 32-bit square root successfully and it is efficient in hardware resource.

Keywords: Pipelining, fixed-point arithmetic, signed and unsigned square root, non-restoring algorithm, FPGA, digit recurrence calculation.

107-116 PDF

Embedded Web Server using Soft Processor on FPGA Platform

 V. Muthamil Selvi, Dr. K. Rathnakannan


This paper describes the design of Embedded Web Server on Soft core, a configurable RISC processor available on Spartan 3a FPGA kit. An Embedded Web Server is used to monitor and control embedded application using any web browser. Embedded web server does not need high configuration computers, hence replaces the conventional heavy weight traditional web servers providing high speed low power consumption, reduced cost, complexity, footprint and size. Web server application is designed using Xilinx Platform studio. The embedded web server can communicate with web browser using TCP/HTTP and supports I/O communication. The Web server application runs on XMK Xilinx Microkernel operating system.

Keywords: Micro Blaze, FPGA, IP, TCP/HTTP, EDK, SDK

117-120 PDF

Role of Feature Reduction in Intrusion Detection Systems for 802.11 Attacks



Intrusion Detection Systems (IDSs) are a major line of defense for protecting network resources from illegal penetrations. A common approach in intrusion detection models, specifically in anomaly detection models, is to use classifiers as detectors. Selecting the best set of features is central to ensuring the performance, speed of learning, accuracy, and reliability of these detectors as well as to remove noise from the set of features used to construct the classifiers. In most current systems, the features used for training and testing the intrusion detection systems consist of basic information related to the TCP/IP header, with no considerable attention to the features associated with lower level protocol frames. The resulting detectors were efficient and accurate in detecting network attacks at the network and transport layers, but unfortunately, not capable of detecting 802.11-specific attacks such as deauthentication attacks or MAC layer DoS attacks.

Keywords: Feature selection, intrusion detection systems, K-means, information gain ratio, wireless networks, neural networks.
121-127 PDF

Provably Protected Nested One-Time Secret Mechanisms for Rapid Mutual Certification and Key Swap in Mobile Interactions

 N.Mahesh, K.Subba Reddy, P.V.Ravikanth


Many security mechanisms for mobile interactions have been introduced in the literature. Among these mechanisms, certification plays a quite important role in the entire mobile network system and acts as the first defense against attackers since it ensures the correctness of the identities of distributed interaction entities before they engage in any other interaction activity. Therefore, in order to guarantee the quality of this advanced service, an efficient (especially user-efficient) and protected certification scheme is urgently desired. In this paper, we come up with a novel certification mechanism, called the nested one-time secret mechanism, tailored for mobile interaction environments. Through maintaining inner and outer synchronously changeable common secrets, respectively, every mobile user can be rapidly authenticated by visited location register (VLR) and home location register (HLR), respectively, in the proposed scheme. Not only does the proposed solution achieve mutual certification, but it also greatly reduces the computation and interaction cost of the mobile users as compared to the existing certification schemes. Finally, the security of the Proposed scheme will be demonstrated by formal proofs.

Keywords: Information security, mutual certification, one time secrets, protected mobile interaction.
128-133 PDF

Group Movement Pattern Mining Algorithm for Data Compression

P.Saranya, P.Divya Rani, S.Dhivya Prabha, V.SathyaBama


To reduce the data volume, various algorithms have been proposed for data compression and data aggregation. In object tracking applications, natural phenomena show that many creatures form large social groups and move in regular patterns. However, the previous works do not address application level semantics, such as the group relationships and movement patterns, in the location data. In this paper, we first introduce an efficient distributed mining algorithm to approach the moving object clustering problem and discover group movement patterns. Afterward, we propose a novel compression algorithm, based on the discovered group movement patterns to overcome the group data compression problem. Our experimental results show that the proposed compression algorithm effectively and efficiently reduces the amount of delivered data and reduces energy consumption expense for data transmission in WSNs.

Keywords: Data compression, data aggregation, distributed mining, object tracking ,energy consumption.
134-138 PDF

Reconstruction of sensible 3D Face Counterpart From 2D Images - A hybrid approach

M. Ramasubramanian, M.A. Dorai Rangaswamy


In this paper, we are going to implement a, realistic algorithm, for the reconstruction of, three dimensional head model, from a two dimensional image, using a hybrid method. The proposed system, reconstructs the, 3D head model, is the combination of, two components that are, cubical ray projection method and weighted normalization linear - based algorithm. for the first part, we propose a, new cubical ray projection algorithm that uses the linear equation, to recover the texture and shape parameters irrespective of lighting conditions and the pose of the input face image. By matching the recovered shape and texture parameters, the face recognition is implemented. In addition, we apply the weighted normalization linear-based technique, to establish the dense correspondences, between each three dimensional face model, and the reference face model. For the reconstruction of 3D face, from a single image, the proposed algorithm finds the, best combination of the output values. An investigational result shows that the, proposed 3D face reconstruction algorithm provides, adequate result and takes less time on a regular PC.

Keywords:2d to 3d conversion
139-144 PDF

Developing a Conceptual Relationship between Web Service Supply Chain Entities Using KPS Mining Algorithm

Mr.P.Ramesh, Mrs.R.Prema latha


Globalization has led to a new class of service apart from the services that are offered offline and semionline (in which case part of the service transactions are online and part of it offline) as a result of collaboration of static entities resulting in static service supply chains. The advent of enablers like Service Oriented Architecture and development of web service applications has enabled online / dynamic service supply chain networks (SSCNs) formed by dynamic collaboration of many serving entities. The entities in web SSCNs are interdependent and the performance of one entity impacts the performance of other entities as well as overall performance of service network. It is important to study the relationship and dependency between each entity of web SSCNs. Once the relationship is identified, it will help in devising some composite performance indicator for the entire service supply chain considering the interests of service providers and clients. We take a scenario based illustration of such online service supply chains to show the feasibility of the concept.

Keywords: service supply chains, service quality, Web Service http://www8.org/w8-papers/4a-search-mining/kps/kps.html -- KPS Algorithm.
145-149 PDF

Shared Secret Key Agreement to increase in bandwidth and computation

R.Rampriya M.E., K.S.Giriprasath Asst Prof


A robust group key agreement protocol (GKA) allows a set of players to establish a shared secret key, regardless of network/node failures. Current constant-round GKA protocols are either efficient and nonrobust or robust but not efficient; assuming a reliable broadcast communication medium, the standard encryption-based group key agreement protocol can be robust against arbitrary number of node faults, but the size of the messages broadcast by every player is proportional to the number of players. In contrast, nonrobust group key agreement can be achieved with each player broadcasting just constant-sized messages. We propose a novel 2-round group key agreement protocol, which tolerates up to T node failures, using O(T)sized messages for any T. We show that the new protocol implies a fully-robust group key agreement with logarithmic-sized messages and expected round complexity close to 2, assuming random node faults. The protocol can be extended to withstand malicious insiders at small constant factor increases in bandwidth and computation. The proposed protocol is secure under the (standard) Decisional Square Diffie-Hellman assumption.

Keywords: Group key agreement, fault- tolerance, algorithms, and security.
150-152 PDF

Enterprise Planning Process Based On Etl Technology Using Mesh Algorithm for Magna Energy and Hydro Systems

Mrs.S.SUDHA, V.S.Saranya


Active data warehouses have emerged as a new business intelligence paradigm where data is refreshed in real-time. The changes required in the implementation of Extract Transform Load (ETL) operations which now need to be executed in an online fashion. ETL Transformations includes the join between incoming stream of updates and a disk resident table of historical data. In this context, a Mesh Join algorithm can be mainly proposed for two objectives: i) Maximizing throughput under a specific memory budget and ii) Minimizing memory consumption. The existing ETL transformation uses Semi-Stream Index Join (SSIJ) algorithm for implementing join operations. This algorithm can be very useful for dynamically changing memory space and it contain two objectives such as increasing the streaming arrival rate and data distribution. The problem in the SSIJ algorithm is, it doesn't work well in the arrival of even faster stream of input. The solution for the problem is, to use the Mesh Join algorithm for the implementation of ETL transformation.

153-155 PDF

Limitations of Function Point Analysis in E-Learning System Estimation

T.S.Shiny Angel, Dr. Paul Rodrigues , John T. Mesiah Dhas, S. SelvaKumara Samy


Function Point Analysis (FPA) is a widely accepted size estimation technique in the world. FPA is good for estimating the size of application software. In software system development process, estimation is playing very important role. The success of any software project largely depends on effective estimation of project size, effort, time and cost. Estimation helps in setting realistic targets for completing the project. E-Learning system is one of the application software packages that supports for teaching the subject. It includes assessment, testing, simulation, discussion and other significant aspects. Estimating the size of E-Learning system using FPA leads some problems. The characteristics and specifications of subject oriented software like E-learning systems not fully come under the limit of FPA specifications. So it provides wrong estimates and lead customer dissatisfaction due to incompleteness, loss and delay. This research paper focuses the limitations of FPA based on deeper analysis.

Keywords: FPA- Function point analysis, UFP- Unadjusted function points, CAF –Complexity adjustment factor, External Input(EI), External output(EO), External Inquiry(EQ), Internal logical files(ILF), External logical files(ELF).
156-161 PDF

Reconfiguration of Wireless Sensor Node In Fpga

S.K. Amudhavalli, Dr.K.Rathnakannan


Sensor networks are usually deployed in dynamic environments where each node must adapt itself to changes. The objective of this paper is to design reconfigurable wireless sensor node in FPGA. The idea behind node reconfigurability is that the network can adapt its functionality to the current situation, in order to lessen the use of the scarce energy and memory resources, while maintaining the integrity of its operation. The reconfiguration has been done using Mobiroute protocol and data is transferred between two nodes using OFDM transceiver. The node has been tested using Xilinx ISE Design tools. The modules of Mobiroute protocol and OFDM transceiver have been done in VHDL.

Keywords: Mobiroute protocol, Node reconfiguration, OFDM transceiver, WSN
162-166 PDF

Comparative and Efficient Analysis of Gradient Based Edge Detection Technique in Medical Images

Sree Sharmila T, Ramar K


Boundary detection is the process of identifying two dissimilar regions in an image. In recent years, there have been several new methods to solve the problem of boundary detection like active contour model, geodesic active contour model, active contours without edges, etc. But still the difficulty exists in processing images with concave boundary and noisy regions. The proposed Gradient Edge Detection (GED) technique can detect the boundaries of images in noisy images using the intensity and texture gradient features. The performance and robustness of the method have been tested in synthetic noisy images and medical images including knee joints in MR images and aortas in cardiovascular MR images. The efficiency and the effectiveness of the GED technique can be analyzed by comparing the result with the existing active contour models. The results show that the proposed GED technique performs very well and yields better performance than the classical contour models.

Keywords: boundary detection, gradient edge detection, MR images.
167-170 PDF

Characterization of Noise removal based on Hypergraph model of Images

D. Sudha, Dr.T.T. Mirnalinee


The quality of the image plays a vital role in image processing technique. It can be determined by the removal of the noisy pixels in the images. In this paper, we designed the hypergraph model for the representation of images. We use noise removal algorithm for digital images.This algorithm is based on the hypergraph model of images. This is used to detect the noisy pixels and thus can be removed by using Root Mean Square (RMS) approximation. The identified noisy pixels are denoised and improved the quality of images. The PSNR and MAE are used to measure the performance of the model.Then this system is used to compare the different noisy images and also we characterize the hypergraph parameters.

Keywords: Hypergraph, Image Neighborhood Hypergraph, Impulse noise, Intesity level, Neighborhood relation, Root Mean Square.
171-178 PDF

Performance Metrics of MANET in Multi-Hop Wireless Ad-Hoc Network Routing Protocols

 R.Devi, B.Sumathi, T.Gandhimathi, G.Alaiyarasi


MANET is a wireless network that transmits from computer to computer. Instead of using a central base station (access point) to which all computers must communicate, this peer-to-peer mode of operation can greatly extend the distance of the wireless network. To gain access to the Internet, one of the computers can be connected via wire or wireless.A routing protocol is a protocol that specifies how routers communicate with each other, disseminating information that enables them to select routes between any two nodes on a computer network, the choice of the route being done by routing algorithms. Each router has a priori knowledge only of networks attached to it directly. A routing protocol shares this information first among immediate neighbors, and then throughout the network Protocols are divided into three categories: Proactive, Reactive and Hybrid. A number of routing protocols have been proposed for this purpose like Ad Hoc On Demand Distance Vector (AODV), Dynamic Source Routing (DSR), Destination- Sequenced Distance Vector (DSDV). In this paper, the simulation results were analyzed by graphical manner and trace file based on Quality of Service (QoS) metrics: such as throughput, drop, delay and jitter. Finally, the performance differentials based on Packet Delivery Ratio to evaluate and analyze the performance of various routing protocols. we study and compare the performance of the following three routing protocols AODV, DSR and DSDV.

Keywords: On-demand, Table driven, DSR, AODV, DSDV, Adhoc, MANET.
179-184  PDF

Social Network Services for Families Having Children with Learning Disabilities

M.Synthiya, T.Niranjani


As Internet technologies evolve, their applications have changed various aspects of human life. Here, we attempt to examine their potential impact on services for families with developmentally delayed children. Our research is thus designed to utilize wireless mobile communication technologies, location services, and search technology in an effort to match families of specific needs with potential care providers. Based on the investigation conducted by our counsellors, this paper describes a platform for smooth communication between professional communities and families with children with learning disabilities (CLD). This research also looks into the impact of management of mobile social network services and training on the operation of these services. Interaction opportunities, care, and support to families with CLD are introduced.

Keywords: CLD (Child with Learning Disability), AHFSWF (Angel Heart Family Social Welfare Foundation), SNSM (Social Network Service Management), HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol), AAA (Authentication, Authorization, And Accounting)
185-188 PDF

Security issues and vulnerabilities in Mobile Ad hoc Networks (MANET)-A Survey

P.Visalakshi, S.Anjugam


The MANET is a collection of mobile nodes such as laptop, palmtop, cellphones, walkie-talkie etc., form a network. It does not have definite topology. The nodes which comprise MANET will always having moving nature. That is why it could not maintain a permanent topology such as ring, star, bus, and mesh in wired network. In MANET nodes can directly communicate to all other nodes within the radio communication range. If a node could not have direct communication then they can use intermediate nodes to communicate with other nodes. Though each node in MANET will act as host as well as router, the security is a major issue and the chances of having the vulnerabilities are also more. This survey paper includes various issues, prevention techniques and vulnerabilities of MANET nodes during data communication.

Keywords: Mobile Ad hoc Network (MANET), Authentication, topology.
189-194 PDF

Energy-Efficient Node Selection in Multihop Wirelessntworks



In a single-hop network with multiple relays, selecting a single node to aid in the transmission between a source and a destination outperforms both traditional orthogonal transmissions and distributed space-time codes. The usage of multiple hops will further improve the wireless communication. This paper presents an energy efficient selection of cooperative nodes with respect to their geographical location and the number of nodes participating in cooperative communications in wireless networks. Here, we first give a simple localized routing algorithm, called Localized Energy-Aware Restricted Neighborhood routing (LEARN), which can guarantee the energy efficiency of its route if it can find the route successfully. We then theoretically study its critical transmission radius in random networks which can guarantee that LEARN routing finds a route for any source and destination pairs asymptotically almost surely. We also extend the proposed routing into three-dimensional (3D) networks and derive its critical transmission radius in 3D random networks. The simulation result shows that the proposed node selection scheme will results in better selection of nodes for large scale random networks. Index Terms—Localized routing, energy efficient, critical transmission radius.
195-198 PDF

Biological target discovery from data mining approaches

 Kalavathy.R, Swaytha R, Jayabalan2 Remya M


Data mining of available biomedical data and information has greatly boosted target discovery in the'omics' era. Target discovery is the key step in the biomarker and drug discovery pipeline to diagnose and fight human diseases. In biomedical science, the 'target' is a broad concept ranging from molecularentities (such as genes, proteins and miRNAs) to biological phenomena (such as molecular functions,pathways and phenotypes). Within the context of biomedical science, data mining refers to abioinformatics approach that combines biological concepts with computer tools or statistical methods that are mainly used to discover, select and prioritize targets. In response to the huge demand of datamining for target discovery in the 'omics' era, this review explicates various data mining approaches and their applications to target discovery with emphasis on text and microarray data analysis. Two emerging data mining approaches, chemogenomic data mining and proteomic data mining, are briefly introduced. Also discussed are the limitations of various data mining approaches found in the level of database integration, the quality of data annotation, sample heterogeneity and the performance of analytical and mining tools. Tentative strategies of integrating different data sources for target discovery, such as integrated text mining with high-throughput data analysis and integrated mining with pathway databases, are introduced.
199-205 PDF

Intelligence in Elearning for Differently abled learner

 R. Senthamarai Dr.V.Khanna


In order to support a more self-motivated and stretchy communication between the learner and the system or and the tutor, two category of agents are integrated. In this paper, the type of physically challenged learner has taken for consideration is a sightless learner. Since emotions play an important role in cognitive processes and specially in learning tasks adaptive agent is integrated with emotional framework for a learner. For this type of learner screen reader software like JAWS is more helpful to convert text to sound, but there is no such useful software to convert picture to sound. In this situation, sound agent will be more useful to convert picture to sound. Emotional agent can recognize six basic emotions (happiness, sadness, surprise, fear, anger and disgust) of a tutor. Digital audio watermarking techniques are practically useful to guard the rights of digital audio media.

Keywords: E-Learning, emotion agent, sound agent, audio e-leaning contents, common attacks, Digital audio watermarking.
206-209 PDF

Automated Negotiation System in E-Commerce Using Economic Psycho Knowledge

 T.Vijila, P.Vijayaragavan


We now present our approach to automating one-to-many negotiations. The scenario we are tackling is one in which one agent (buyer or seller) wants to negotiate a deal with a number of opponents, in order to find the best possible deal in the market e-commerce applications as well as supporting automating e-commerce business processes. Despite this fact, up to now, the most successful e-commerce systems are still based on human input to make the most important decisions in various activities along the lifecycle of an e-business transaction. Our work aims at bridging the gap between these two scenarios (the possible and the real), by proposing a conceptual architecture of a multi-agent e-commerce system.

Keywords: Electronic Data Interchange, Multi-agent systems, E-commerce, Socio Psycho Knowledge.
210-216 PDF

Wireless Sensor Networks' emergence and Growth- A survey



Wireless Technology based smart sensor networks are becoming predominant from research point of view, since these smart sensors possess the exclusive features like mobility, ad-hoc nature of topology, heterogeneity of nodes, and deployment in huge scales along with the hardship of energy harvesting and routing. In this paper the concern is about the survey of emergence, modification, deployment of sensors in various real time applications where human intervention is risky.

Keywords: Reliability, Wireless Networks, Energy harvesting.
217-224 PDF