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International Journal of Computational Engineering Research (IJCER) Volume 3, Issue 4, April, 2013

Version I
S.No. Article Title Page No. Paper Index PDF

Development of Software-Based University Research Tools for Metocean Engineering Applications: A Reflective Case Study

E.S.Lim , M.S.Liew, G.Dinis Jr.


The oil and gas industry has traditionally been one of the most demanding forms of engineering as the lucrative returns form the basis of global development. As such, oil operators have made it a norm to reinvest a significant portion of their profits into research and development (R&D). This stemmed as a result of depleting natural resources which has forced operators to go further and deeper to explore for hydrocarbons. To balance the economics of such ventures, R&D plays a critical role in optimization and defining standards in which to operate safely with economical consideration. As such, various software tools for various disciplines have been developed for this purpose, i.e. SESAM, SACS and etc. However, there has been a lack of R&D tools that have been tailor-made for metocean operations; most of those that are currently in existence are not open to public use/sales. This has created a demand by Malaysian oil operators to have such tools being readily available for in-house use. The paper herein will discuss the framework and development of an integrated and tailor-made metocean software, namely Blue Hive (BH).

Keywords: Statistical analysis, metocean, software development, .NET, Blue Hive


A.Monisha , K.Vijayalakshmi


Frequent link failures are caused in mobile ad-hoc networks due to node's mobility and use of unreliable wireless channels for data transmission. Due to this, multipath routing protocols become an important research issue. In this paper, we propose and implement a reliable node-disjoint multipath routing protocol. The main goal of the proposed method is to determine all available reliable node-disjoint routes from source to destination with minimum routing control overhead. In the route discovery method, the routes with good link quality and route expiration time are selected as the primary and backup routes. If there is any route failure during the data transmission through primary path, the next available backup route with good link quality and route expiration time is selected from the list. The performance of the proposed protocol will be evaluated using NS-2 and will be shown that it reduces the packet drop and delay there by increasing the packet delivery ratio.

Keywords: Average End-to-End Delay, Node-disjoint, Packet drop, Primary and Backup Routes, Routing protocols.


Mining Temporal Patterns for Interval-Based and Point-Based Events

S.Kalaivani , M.Gomathi , R.Sethukkarasi


Previous research on mining sequential patterns mainly focused on discovering patterns from point-based event data and interval–based event data, where a pair of time values is associated with each event. Since many areas of research includes data on a snapshot of time points as well as time intervals, it is necessary to define a new temporal pattern. In this work, based on the existing thirteen temporal relationships, a new variant of temporal pattern is defined for interval-based as well as point–based event data. Then, a hybrid pattern mining technique is proposed. Experimental results show that the completeness and accuracy of the proposed hybrid technique are more efficient than the existing algorithm.

Keywords: Data mining, temporal pattern, sequential pattern, interval-based event, point-based event.

Application of Matrix Iterative-Inversion in Solving Eigenvalue Problems in Structural Engineering

O. M. Ibearugbulem , L. O. Ettu, J. C. Ezeh , U. C. Anya


There are many methods of solving eigenvalue problems, including Jacobi method, polynomial method, iterative methods, and Householder's method. Unfortunately, except the polynomial method, all of these methodsare limited to solving problems that have lump mass matrices. It is difficult to use them when solving problems that have consistent mass or stiffness matrix. The polynomial method also becomes very difficult to use when the size of the matrix exceeds 3 x 3. There is, therefore,a need for a method that can be used in solving all types of eigenvalue problems for allmatrix sizes. This work provides such a method by the application of matrix iterative-inversion, Iteration-Matrix Inversion (I-MI) method,consisting in substituting a trial eigenvalue, λ into (A – λB) = 0, and checking if the determinant of the resultant matrix is zero. If the determinant is zero then the chosen eigenvalue is correct; but if not, another eigenvalue will be chosen and checked, and the procedure continued until a correct eigenvalue is obtained. A QBASIC program was written to simplify the use of the method. Five eigenvalue problems were used to test the efficiency of the method. The results show that the newly developed I-MI method is efficient in convergence to exact solutions of eigenvalues. The new I-MI method is not only efficient in convergence, but also capable of handling eigenvalue problems that use consistent mass or stiffness matrices. It can be used without any limit for problems whose matrices are of n X n order, where 2 ≤ n ≤ ∞. It is therefore recommended for use in solving all the various eigenvalue problems in structural engineering.

Keywords: Eigenvalue, Matrix, Consistent mass, Consistent Stiffness, Determinant



Path Planning Optimization Using Genetic Algorithm – A Literature Review

Er. Waghoo Parvez , Er. Sonal Dhar


This paper presents a review to the path planning optimization problem using genetic algorithm as a tool. Path planning is a term used in robotics for the process of detailing a task into discrete motions. It is aimed at enabling robots with capabilities of automatically deciding and executing a sequence motion in order to achieve a task without collision with other objects in a given environment. Genetic algorithms are considered as a search process used in computing to find exact or an approximate solution for optimization and search problems. There are also termed as global search heuristics. These techniques are inspired by evolutionary biology such as inheritance mutation, selection and cross over.

Keywords: Chromosome, Genetic Algorithm (GA) , Mutation, Optimization, Path Planning.


Low Cost and Simple Management and Security System for Hospitals and Hotels

Adnan Affandi , Mubashshir Husain


In this paper we designed and built an automatic parking lot management system that keeps track of vehicles entering and leaving a parking lot. Another system was designed and built to record (using a camera) activities of cars entering and leaving the parking lot. Secondly we designed and built an automatic service request management system. This system keeps track of all requests from different rooms and keeps a record of them. Thirdly we designed and built an automatic phone call management system that utilizes the existing power lines as the phone call carrier medium. For all systems we developed programs and employ a visual interface design.



Standardization of Systems and Processes for CDR Based Billing System in Telecom Companies

K.V.V.Satyanarayana , Hashmi Vallipalli , A.Shivarama rao


In olden days the telephone system we have used the Meter Based (MB) System for billing process. The Meter Based system having the online recording of metered units in which it is having instant unit conversion according to the charge bands stored in the switch. The meter system is based on the manual process and it is not having the decentralized database. So, it is making that Inflexible billing system and Insufficient call details. So, here there is a new system in proposal that is CDR system (Call Detail Record System) for billing purpose. There is a centralized database for having centralized customer services. The CDR system is having 4-Data Centers all over India. The 4-Data Centers are connected to each other, Exchange Routers, and their respective Backbone Routers. The CDR system consisting of the application software's like Customer Relationship Management, Customer Care & Convergent Billing, Clarity Check, Payment Management System, Enterprise Reports, Integrated Voice Recognition System, Web self-care, Oracle DBMS.The CDR based Billing system in mainly proposed for online services, online query and prompt customer response. It supports for different tariffs, different billing cycles and different discounting schemes for different category of subscribers. It also helps for Accurate and timely invoicing of call details to generate error free bills. It is useful for Pre-paid and Post Paid system integration.

Keywords: Meter Based system, Customer Relationship Management, Convergent Billing, Enterprise Reports, Integrated Voice Recognition System, and CDR based Billing system.


Integral Solutions of the Non Homogeneous Ternary Quintic Equation

 S.Vidhyalakshmi , K.Lakshmi , M,A.Gopalan


We obtain infinitely many non-zero integer triples (x, y, z) satisfying the ternary quintic equation . 2 2 5 ax by  (a b)z ,a,b  0 .Various interesting relations between the solutions and special numbers, namely, polygonal numbers, Pyramidal numbers, Star numbers, Stella Octangular numbers, Pronic numbers, Octahedral numbers, Four Dimensional Figurative numbers and Five Dimensional Figurative numbers are exhibited.

Keywords: Ternary quintic equation, integral solutions, 2-dimentional, 3-dimentional, 4- dimensional and 5- dimensional figurative numbers.


Integral Solutions of Non-Homogeneous Biquadratic Equation With Four Unknowns

 M.A.Gopalan , G.Sumathi , S.Vidhyalakshmi


The non-homogeneous biquadratic equation with four unknowns represented by the diophantine equation x y k z w 3 3 2 n 3   (  3) is analyzed for its patterns of non-zero distinct integral solutions and three different methods of integral solutions are illustrated. Various interesting relations between the solutions and special numbers, namely, polygonal numbers, pyramidal numbers, Jacobsthal numbers, Jacobsthal-Lucas number,Pronic numbers, Stella octangular numbers, Octahedral numbers, Gnomonic numbers, Centered traingular numbers,Generalized Fibonacci and Lucas sequences are exhibited.

Keywords: Integral solutions, Generalized Fibonacci and Lucas sequences, biquadratic nonhomogeneous equation with four unknowns

Prediction of Number of Faults And Time To Remove Errors

Nirvikar Katiyar , Dr. Raghuraj Singh


Advance knowledge of which files in the next release of a large software system are most likely to contain the largest numbers of faults can be a very valuable asset. To accomplish this, a negative binomial regression model has been developed and used to predict the expected number of faults in each file of the next release of a system. The predictions are based on the code of the file in the current release, and fault and modification history of the file from previous releases. The model has been applied two large industrial systems, one with a history of 17 consecutive quarterly releases over 4 years, and the other with nine releases over 2 years. The predictions were quite accurate: for each release of the two systems, the 20 percent of the files with the highest predicted number of faults contained between 71 percent and 92 percent of the faults that were actually detected, with the overall average being 83 percent. The same model was also used to predict which files of the first system were likely to have the highest fault densities (faults per KLOC). In this case, the 20 percent of the files with the highest predicted fault densities contained an average of 62 percent of the system's detected faults. However, the identified files contained a much smaller percentage of the code mass than the files selected to maximize the numbers of faults. The model was also used to make predictions from a much smaller input set that only contained fault data from integration testing and later. The prediction was again very accurate, identifying files that contained from 71 percent to 93 percent of the faults, with the average being 84 percent. Finally, a highly simplified version of the predictor selected files containing, on average, 73 percent and 74 percent of the faults for the two systems. Defect tracking using computational intelligence methods is used to predict software readiness in this study. By comparing predicted number of faults and number of faults discovered in testing, software managers can decide whether the software are ready to be released or not. In this paper the predictive models can predict: (i) the total number of faults (defects), (ii) the number of code lines changes required to correct a fault and (iii) the amount of time calculated (in minutes) to make the changes in respective object classes using software metrics as independent variables. The use of neural network model with a genetic training strategy is introduced to improve prediction results for estimating software readiness in this study. Our prediction model is divided into three parts: (1) prediction model for Presentation Logic Tier software components (2) prediction model for Business Tier software components and (3) prediction model for Data Access Tier software components. Existing object-oriented metrics and complexity software metrics are used in the Business Tier neural network based prediction model. New sets of metrics have been defined for the Presentation Logic Tier and Data Access Logic Tier. These metrics are validated using two sets of real world application data, one set was collected from a warehouse management system and another set was collected from a corporate information system.

Keywords: Software Readiness, Predictive model, Defect Tracking, N-tier Application, Prediction of number of faults, software fault analysis and data accumulation.


Enhancement of Error Detection and Correction Capability Using Orthogonal Code Convolution

 Mukesh Gholase , L.P.Thakare, Dr. A.Y. Deshmukh


In this paper, The Orthogonal Codes has been developed and realized by means of Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA). The proposed techniques map a k-bit data block into an n-bit Orthogonal code block (n>k) and transmit the coded block across the channel. Construction of orthogonal coded modulation schemes are realised by means of FPGA. The result shows that the proposed technique enhances both error detection and correction capabilities of Orthogonal Codes Convolution with a detection rate of 99.99%.

Keywords: Error detection and correction, FPGA, Orthogonal Code Antipodal Code.

Improving Features of Media Player

 Mr. Juned A. Khan , Prof . V. S. Gulhane


Media Player Are One Of The Most Used And Important Software Application In Today's World. Maximum Computer Users Switch On To The Media Player As Soon As They Start The Computers And Then Move To Their Respective Woks. Today's Era Is To Do Work With High Efficiency But At The Same Time It Should Consume Very Less Time. And Thus Answer To The Problems Arising In The Use Of Traditional Media Players And The Lack Of Features In Proposed Media Players Is "Versatile Media Player" Versatile Media Player Is A Unique Player Developed To Fulfill Maximum Requirements Of User Regarding Audio And Video Songs. This Player Gives Numerous Facilities Which Differentiate It From The Conventional Media Players. The Various Features Included In The Versatile Media Player Are Shut-Down Facility, Alarm Facility, Lyrics Display, Splitting Windows, Access To More Than One Media File Simultaneously



Analysis Of Metal Cutting Tools Reliability During Processing By Turning In Laboratory Conditions And Exploitation

 Roshan Patel, Urvish Patel


In this paper the possible differences in reliability of the metal cutting tools during in vitro (in laboratory) processing and exploitation conditions has been analyzed. The estimation of reliability of metal cutting tools in volume productions is done on the bases of monitoring failure rates of metal cutting tools in a long period of time in order to obtain a large number of samples possible. Investigations have been realized in theoretical and experimental ways, hereby to get approximately data about failure occurrence of the instrument while metal cutting process from the aspect of consumption, crack and fracture. In laboratory conditions research as the criteria for determining of reliability the flank wear width consumption of instrument is used, while during the research on exploitation conditions the technological criteria of consumption method is explored.

Keywords: cutting, tool, reliability, failure, consumption, turning, laboratory, exploitation.

Numerical Statistic Approach for Expert System in Rainfall Prediction Based On Data Series

 Indrabayu , Nadjamuddin Harun , M. Saleh Pallu, Andani Achmad


The potential of statistical approach in predicting rain fall is discussed in this paper. Two most implemented methods i.e. Auto-Regressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA) and Adaptive Splines Threshold Autoregressive (ASTAR) are compared in term of accuracy in prediction. Both methods are constructed to predict daily rainfall in the area of Makassar, Indonesia. Rain problem in Indonesia increasingly complex due to climate shifts that result in high intensity rainfall in the dry season so it is very influential on the development of many aspect of social-economy sector. A ten years daily data (2001-2010) obtained from BMKG (the Meteorology, Climatology and Geophysics). Several complementary data is also obtained from LAPAN (Government Space Agent). From various meteorological variables, four variables are selected for predicting rainfall- There are temperature, humidity, wind speed, and previous precipitation based on their high correlation to rain event.. These four variables are then input to the ARIMA and ASTAR. The accuracy of prediction is measured based on root mean square error (RMSE). ASTAR outperformed ARIMA with less RMSE which is 0.02 to 0.24.

Keywords: ARIMA, ASTAR, Expert System, Rain Prediction


Study of Two Different Methods for Iris Recognition Support Vector Machine and Phase Based Method

 Gaganpreet kaur , Dilpreet kaur , Dheerendra singh


The iris recognition is a kind of the biometrics technologies based on the physiological characteristics of human body, compared with the feature recognition based on the fingerprint, palm-print, face and sound etc, the iris has some advantages such as uniqueness, stability, high recognition rate, and non-infringing etc. The iris recognition consists of iris localization, normalization, encoding and comparison. In this paper two different methods of iris recognition mechanism are analyzed. One is support vector machine and other is the Phase based method. Experimental results and data sets of both methods are also discussed. This paper also showed the table for the performance result iris methodologies.

Keywords: Biometric recognition system, Phase based method, Support vector machine (SVM).

Study Of Hybrid Genetic Algorithm Using Artificial Neural Network In Data Mining For The Diagnosis Of Stroke Disease

 Mr. Deepak Dhanwani , Prof. Avinash Wadhe


The main purpose of data mining is to extract knowledge from large amount of data. Artificial Neural network (ANN) has already been applied in a variety of domains with remarkable success. This paper presents the application of hybrid model for stroke disease that integrates Genetic algorithm and back propagation algorithm. Selecting a good subset of features, without sacrificing accuracy, is of great importance for neural networks to be successfully applied to the area. In addition the hybrid model that leads to further improvised categorization, accuracy compared to the result produced by genetic algorithm alone. In this study, a new hybrid model of Neural Networks and Genetic Algorithm (GA) to initialize and optimize the connection weights of ANN so as to improve the performance of the ANN and the same has been applied in a medical problem of predicting stroke disease for verification of the results.

Keywords: ANN, Back Propagation algorithm, data mining, Feed Forward Network, Genetic algorithm, Hybrid model, Neuron.


Structural Analysis of a Milling Cutter Using FEA

 Chittibomma. Tirumalaneelam, Tippa Bhimasankara Rao


Milling is a process of producing flat and complex shapes with the use of multi-tooth cutting tool, which is called a milling cutter and the cutting edges are called teeth. The axis of rotation of the cutting tool is perpendicular to the direction of feed, either parallel or perpendicular to the machined surface. The machine tool that traditionally performs this operation is a milling machine. Milling is an interrupted cutting operation: the teeth of the milling cutter enter and exit the work during each revolution. This interrupted cutting action subjects the teeth to a cycle of impact force and thermal shock on every rotation. The tool material and cutter geometry must be designed to withstand these conditions. Cutting fluids are essential for most milling operations.In this Paper the design aspects of milling cutter is analyzed. The objective considered is the design and modeling of milling cutter and to analyse various stress components acting on it. Various designing strategies are considered to design the effective milling cutter like outer diameter, inner diameter, radius, teeth angle etc .The design and analysis is carried out using the softwares like CATIA V5 and ANSYS.

Keywords: ANSYS, CATIA, cutting fluids, cutting edges, High Speed Steel, Milling Speed, machined surfaces, surface milling cutter.

A Review Paper on Various Approaches for Image Mosaicing

Ms. Parul M.Jain , Prof. Vijaya K.Shandliya


Image mosaicing is one of the most important subject of research in computer vision. Image mosaicing requires the integration of direct methods and feature based methods. Direct methods are found to be useful for mosaicing large overlapping regions, small translations and rotations while feature based methods are useful for small overlapping regions. Feature based image mosaicing is combination of corner detection, corner matching, motion parameters estimation and image stitching. In this paper we present a review on different approaches for image mosaicing and the literature over the past in the field of image mosaicing methods. We take an overview on the various methods for image mosaicing.

Keywords: Direct method, feature based method, homography, image registration, image wrapping,image compositing, pixel blending.


The Distance Measurement by Using RSSI of Wireless Sensor Network

Yi-Jen Mon


In this paper, the measurement of received signal strength indication (RSSI) is demonstrated by using wireless sensor network (WSN). This measurement is a basic technology which is varied according to distance of command device and client device. Many algorithms are developed based on this measurement of RSSI such as to develop many useful WSN's applications. The experimental results of WSN are demonstrated in this paper. Good effectiveness of distance measurements by using RSSI is achieved.

Keywords: Wireless sensor network (WSN), ZigBee, RSSI, Distance measurement.

A Distributed Decisive Support Disease Prediction Algorithm for E-Health Care with the Support of JADE

 O.Saravanan , Dr.A.Nagappan


A Distributed decisive support disease prediction system for E-Health Care with the support of JADE (java agent development environment). The proposed solution supports the doctors to access the patient details from anywhere in the world easily. Due to the data diversity, it is not possible to maintain all the patient details in a single location. This solution makes easier to access the patient details independent of location and it produces decisive support information for doctors. Sometimes the doctor may not be sure about any disease that the patient get affected, in such situations the doctor need some assistance about other patient history with similar symptoms. For example cough and cold may be a symptom for fever but those symptoms also supports for other unfamiliar diseases also. So that the doctor can't take any decision by simply seeing few symptoms, on that stage the doctor may need to access patient histories of other hospitals or branches. The Jade framework makes easier to access the data instantly within short time. This framework maintains many containers and different agents to fetch different data from different location. Using those mobile agents all the data from remote locations is fetched and we use modern support and count methods to make decision. For the purpose of decision support, this methodology proposes a new support and count methods. It maintains a different patient database, whenever a new query is made then use database initially and also whenever fetch data from remote location it will be updated to related database also. Using the patterns or symptoms of the patient framework calculates probability value for each disease in order to predict by which the patient has affected. This solution reduces the time of moving agent from and to and increases the efficiency of the system.

Keywords: Mobile Agents, Agent Creation, E-Health Care, Agent Management, Decisive Support algorithm, FIPA, JADE


DC Motor Control by ARM-Based Developer Suite

 Yi-Jen Mon


In this paper, the Advanced RISC Machine 9 (ARM9) based software of ARM developer suite (ADS) is utilized to control speed of DC motor. The educational kit of DMA 2440 is used to demonstrate the theoretical and experimental performances. The development procedure of ADS will be illustrated at first then an example of DC motor speed control is verified. The experimental result reveals that good DC motor speed control performance is possessed in this paper.

Keywords: ARM, DC motor, Speed control, ARM developer suite (ADS)

Analysis of Lossless Data Compression Techniques

 Dalvir Kaur , Kamaljeet Kaur


Compression is useful to reduce the size of data .There are different compression algorithms which are available in different formats.Data compressions are generally lossless and lossy data compression. In this paper, we study different methods of lossless data compression algorithms like-Shanon-Fano coding, Huffman Encoding, Run-Length Encoding (RLE), Lempel-Ziv-Welch (LZW).

Keywords: Data compression, Huffman Coding, Lempel-Ziv, Lossless Compression, Lossy Compression, Shanon-fano coding.


Removal of Fluoride Ion from Aqueous Solution

Neelo Razbe1, Rajesh Kumar, Pratima, Rajat Kumar


High concentrations of fluoride in drinking water had caused widespread fluorosis. A simple, precise, rapid and reliable technique has been developed for removal of fluoride in drinking water. The innovative technique employs activated alumina for defluoridation of drinking water. Alumina is inert in nature, hence it is safe to use and handle. The innovation in regeneration of alumina makes the technique cost effective. The reliability of the newly developed technique has been established by analyzing spiked water samples of high concentrations of fluoride (upto 50 ppm) and levels of fluoride has been brought down to less than 1 ppm. The method is superior to currently employed techniques and is recommended to the laboratories where a huge volume of water is to be defluoridated.

Keywords: Fluoride, Fluorosis, Water pollution, Activated alumina, Regenerative technique.

Physio- Chemical Properties of the Water of River Ganga at Kanpur

Anjum Praveen , Rajesh Kumar , Pratima, Rajat Kumar


We present an extensive investigation of physico-chemical parameters of water samples of Ganga River at Kanpur. Water samples under investigations were collected from Jalsansthan Benajhawar Kanpur sampling station during pre monsoon (April - May), monsoon (July - August) and post monsoon (October - November) seasons in the year 2012. Correlation coefficients were calculated between different pairs of parameters to identify the highly correlated and interrelated water quality parameters and t-test was applied for checking significance. The observed values of different physico-chemical parameters like pH, temperature, turbidity , total hardness(TH) , Iron , Chloride , total dissolved solids(TDS) , Ca2+, Mg+2 , SO4-2 , NO3-, F-1, total alkalinity (TA) , Oxygen consumption (OC), Suspended solids (SS) of samples were compared with standard values recommended by world health organization (WHO). It is found that significant positive correlation holds for TA with Cl-, Mg+2, Ca+2, TH, TDS, fluoride and OC. A significant negative correlation was found between SS with chloride, Mg+2, TDS, fluoride and OC. All the physico - chemical parameters for pre monsoon, monsoon and post monsoon seasons are within the highest desirable or maximum permissible limit set by WHO except turbidity which was high while NO3- , Cl-1 and F- are less than the values prescribed by WHO.

Keywords: Physico-chemical parameters, correlation, t-test.


Efficient Method of Detecting Data Leakage Using Misusability Weight Measure

K.Sundaramoorthy, Dr.S.Srinivasa Rao Madhane


Users within the organization's perimeter perform various actions on this data and may be exposed to sensitive information embodied within the data they access. In an effort to determine the extent of damage to an organization that a user can cause using the information she has obtained, we introduce the concept of misuseability Weight. To calculate the M-Score, A misuseability weight measure, this calculates a score that represents the sensitivity level of the data exposed to the user and by that predicts the ability of the user to maliciously exploit the data. By assigning a score that represents the sensitivity level of the data that a user is exposed to, the misuseability weight can determine the extent of damage to the organization if the data is misused. Using this information, the organization can then take appropriate steps to prevent or minimize the damage.

Keywords: Data leakage, data misuse, security measures, misuseability weight.

Design of Contact Stress Analysis in Straight Bevel Gear

N.Mohan Raj , M.Jayaraj


Our present work concentrates on the three dimensional fillet stress analysis of bevel gear tooth using finite element method using APDL (Ansys Parametric Design Language). The stress distribution of bevel gear at the root of the tooth is evaluated under various load conditions such as uniformly varying load and a concentrated load at pitch point load. This paper also discusses load distribution on the pitch line and the stress distributions at the root fillet.

Keywords: bevel gear; root fillet; finite element method.


Web Miining: Summary

Sonia Gupta , Neha Singh


World Wide Web is a very fertile area for data mining research, with huge amount of information available on it. From its very beginning, the potential of extracting valuable knowledge from the Web has been quite evident. The term Web mining has been used in two different ways. The first, called Web content mining and the second, called Web usage mining. The web content mining is the process of information discovery from sources across the World Wide Web. Web usage mining is the process of mining for user browsing and access patterns. Interest in Web mining has grown rapidly in its short existence, both in the research and practitioner communities.

Keywords: Web mining, information retrieval, information extraction

A Study on User Future Request Prediction Methods Using Web Usage Mining

Dilpreet kaur, Sukhpreet Kaur


Web usage mining is an important type of web mining which deals with log files for extracting the information about users how to use website. It is the process of finding out what users are looking for on internet. Some users are looking at only textual data, where others might be interested multimedia data. Web log file is a log file automatically created and manipulated by the web server. The lots of research has done in this field but this paper deals with user future request prediction using web log record or user information. The main aim of this paper is to provide an overview of past and current evaluation in user future request prediction using web usage mining.

Keywords: Future request prediction, log file, Web usage mining


A Study on Image Indexing and Its Features

Rajni Rani, Kamaljeet Kaur


The visual information available in the form of images, effective management of image archives and storage systems is of great significance and an extremely challenging task indeed. Indexing such a huge amount of data by its contents, is a very challenging task.data representation and feature based content modeling are two basic components required by the management of any multimedia database. As far as the image database is concerned, the former is concerned with image storage while the latter is related to image indexing. And it is also used to the different features like color, shape and textures of images. The color and texture features are obtained by computing the mean and standard deviation on each color band of image and sub-band of different wavelets.

Keywords: Feature Of Image Indexing, Image Indexing , Texture Extraction Of Image.


Reactive Power Reserve Management by Using Improved Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm

 S. Sakthivel , A. Subramanian ,S. Gajendran ,P. Viduthalai Selvan


A power system needs to be with sufficient reactive power capability to maintain system voltage stability and system reliability. Reactive power reserve can be ensured by installing var sources or optimizing the reactive power generation from the existing var sources. This work aims to optimize the total reactive power generation by adjusting the power flow pattern in a system. Generator bus voltage magnitudes, transformer tap positions and static var conpensator(SVC) settings are taken as control parameters. Total reactive power generation is taken as the objective function value. An enhanced version of PSO algorithm, the improved PSO (IPSO) is suggested for the optimization task. The likelyhood for trapping into local minima by PSO is overcome in this enhanced version. The effectiveness of the proposed algorithm is tested on the standard IEEE-30 bus system. The performance is compared with the basic version of PSO and improved results are seen.

Keywords: Reactive power reserve, PSO, IPSO, Voltage stability, SVC, var sources.

On The Zeros of Polynomials and Analytic Functions

M. H. Gulzar


In this paper we obtain some results on the zeros of polynomials and related analytic functions, which generalize and improve upon the earlier well-known results.

Keywords: Polynomial, Analytic Function , Zero.


Using Novel, Flexible Benchmarking Tool for Robustness Evaluation of Image Watermarking Techniques

Sweta .S. Palewar , Ranjana Shende


The main idea of this paper is to propose an innovative ,benchmarking tool based on genetic algorithm to evaluate robustness of visible and invisible watermarking techniques. Image fidelity metrics such as mean square error(MSE), signal to noise ratio(SNR),peak signal to noise ratio(PSNR), weighted peak signal to noise ratio(WPSNR) are being used. However, when large quantities of data are to be assessed, subjective metrics such as mean opinion score(MOS),signal to noise ratio(SNR),peak signal to noise ratio(PSNR) are not pragmatic since it needs experts and inordinate amount of time.PSNR and WPSNR are independent of human visual system(HVS) parameters and hence they are inappropriate scales to measure potential research results. This brings out a new image fidelity metric called Enhanced Weighted peak signal to noise ratio(EWPSNR) which is experimentally proven to be better than PSNR and WPSNR.

Keywords: Genetic algorithm, perceptual quality, digital image watermarking, robustness ,benchmark,image fidelity metric.


Performance Comparison of Uncoded & Coded Adaptive OFDM System over AWGN Channel

Swati M. Kshirsagar , A. N. Jadhav 


Adaptive OFDM (AOFDM) is the important approach to fourth generation of mobile communication. Adaptive modulating scheme is employed according to channel fading condition for improving the performance of OFDM. This gives improved data rate, spectral efficiency & throughput. OFDM is flexible to adapt modulation schemes on subcarriers according instantaneous signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). In this paper, we compare Bit Error Rate (BER),Mean Square Error(MSE), Spectral Efficiency, Throughput performance of uncoded & coded adaptive OFDM with BPSK,QPSK & QAM modulation over AWGN channel.

Keywords: AOFDM,BER , FFT,MSE, OFDM,SNR, Spectral Efficiency, Throughput

Mathematical Model By Using Mixture Weibull Distribution For Finding The Combination Of Gad65 And Gaba For Modulation Of Spasticity

 S.Lakshmi , P.Gomathi Sundari


Loss of GABA-mediated pre-synaptic inhibition after spinal injury plays a key role in the progressive increase in spinal reflexes and the appearance of spasticity. Clinical studies show that the use of baclofen (GABAB receptor agonist), while effective in modulating spasticity is associated with major side effects such as general sedation and progressive tolerance development. The present study was to assess if a combined therapy composed of spinal segmentspecific upregulation of GAD65 (glutamate decarboxylase) gene once combined with systemic treatment with tiagabine (GABA uptake inhibitor) will lead to an antispasticity effect and whether such an effect will only be present in GAD65 gene over-expressing spinal segments. Here we use the mixture distribution produced from the combination of two or more Weibull distributions which has a number of parameters. A mixture distribution is even more useful because multiple causes of failure can be simultaneously modeled. Also these functions were represented by graphs that showed this variation. The estimation of parameters were effected by the different values of the mixing parameter and the results have been discussed from the corresponding mathematical figures.

Keywords: Weibull distribution, Mixture Weibull distribution, Mixing parameter, GABA, GAD65, Tiagabine AMS Classification: 60 Gxx, 62 Hxx, 62Pxx

Mobile Phone Radiation Effects on Human Health

Bhargavi K , KE Balachandrudu , Nageswar P


A boon for better communication, cell phone usage nonetheless has many health hazards. Various studies indicate that the emissions from a cell phone can be extremely harmful, causing genetic damage, tumors, memory loss, increased blood pressure and weakening of the immune system. The fact that this radiation is invisible, intangible, and enters and leaves our bodies without our knowledge makes it even more intimidating. Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) and Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) are the two most prevalent second generation (2G) mobile communication technologies. This paper discusses on the analysis conducted to study the effect of electromagnetic radiation of two mobile phone technologies with different frequencies and power level via experimental works. The experiment was conducted in a laboratory using 10 human volunteers. The period of operation is 10 minutes as the talking time on the phone. Electroencephalogram is used to monitor and capture the brain signals during the experimental analysis for 10 minutes interval. The result shows that mobile phone serving GSM has the larger effect on brain compared to mobile phone serving CDMA. The effect of mobile phone radiation on human health is the subject of recent interest and study, as a result of the enormous increase in mobile phone usage throughout the world (as of June 2009, there were more than 4.3 billion users worldwide). Mobile phones use electromagnetic in the microwave range. Other digital wireless systems, such as data communication networks, The WHO have classified mobile phone radiation on the IARC scale into Group 2B - possibly carcinogenic. That means that there "could be some risk" of carcinogenicity, so additional research into the long-term, heavy use of mobile phones needs to be conducted. Some national radiation advisory authorities have recommended measures to minimize exposure to their citizens as a precautionary approach. The rapidly evolving mobile phone technology raised public concern about the possibility of associated adverse health effects. The current body of evidence is summarized addressing epidemiological studies, studies investigating adverse biological effects, other biological effects, basic mechanisms and indirect effects. Currently, the balance of evidence from epidemiological studies suggests that there is no association between mobile phone radiation and cancer. This finding is consistent with experimental results. There is some evidence for biological effects, which, however, are not necessarily hazardous for humans. No basic mechanisms of biological effects have been consistently identified yet. Using a mobile phone while driving a car is significantly associated with a higher risk of vehicle collisions, independently of the use of hands-free kits. Medical equipment or implanted pacemakers may be affected by mobile phone radiation under very specific conditions. Current studies, however are affected by several limitations and do not generally exclude any increased health risk. Further high-quality research is therefore necessary. Furthermore, it is important that the results of scientific research are communicated to the public in a transparent and differentiated way..

Keywords: GSM, CDMA, 2G, Electromagnetic Radiation, EEG, Mobile phone, hand-held Cellular telephone, Microwaves, non-ionizing radiation, radiation risk.

Gsm Based Controlled Switching Circuit Between Supply Mains and Captive Power Plant

 Mr.S.Vimalraj , Gausalya.R.B , Samyuktha.V, Shanmuga Priya , M,Minuramya.B


In the present scenario, the requirement of surplus electrical energy in case of power failure is met by generators. In this paper, the remote management of the generator done by a specific SMS with an authenticated mobile phone is elucidated. This system is extremely handy at places where we have to control the switching of the machine but no wired connection to that place is available. To implement this, a GSM modem is connected to a programmed microcontroller. Commands were used for controlling the functionality of GSM modem in both transmitter and receiver design, operating at 900 or 1800MHZ band. The GSM technology also enables the user to know about the various parameters like temperature of the coolant, pressure of lubricant, fuel level, speed of the generator and to control the machine. This system is low cost, secure, ubiquitously accessible, remotely controlled solution for automation of power plant. The extensive capabilities of this system are what make it so interesting.

Keywords: Short Message Service (SMS), Global Systems for Mobile Communication (GSM), Radio frequency (RF), Cranking, diesel plant.

Review: Soft Computing Techniques (Data-Mining) On Intrusion Detection

Shilpa Batra ,Pankaj Kumar, Sapna Sinha


With the tremendous growth of various web applications and network based services, network security has become an alarming issue in the vicinity of IT engineers. As the numerous amazing services come to the clients, so does the extensive growth of hackers on the backend. Intrusion poses a serious security risk in the networking environment. Too often, intrusion arises havoc in LANs and heavy loss of time and cost of repairing them. It is said that "prevention is better than cure", so intrusion prevention systems (IPS) and the intrusion detection system (IDS) are used. In addition to the well established intrusion prevention schemes like encryption, client authorization and authentication, IDS can be viewed as a safety belt or fence for network framework. As, the use of interconnected networks have become common, so to have world-wide reports of vulnerabilities and intrusive attacks on systems have increased. CERT noted that between 2000 and 2006 over 26,000 distinct vulnerabilities were reported. An intrusion, which is the set of actions that compromise the integrity, confidentiality, or availability of any resource, and generally exploits one or more bottlenecks of the network. In this paper, we describe various data mining approaches applied on IDS that can be used to handle various network attacks and their comparative analysis.

Keywords: IDS (intrusion detection system), DOS (denial of service), U2R (user to root), R2L (remote to local), ANN (artificial neural network), MLP (multi-layer perception), GA (genetic

Dielectric Properties of Irradiated and Non Irradiated Muga (Antheraea Assama) Silk Fibre in Presence of Oxygen at Elevated Temperature

 Manoranjan Talukdar


In presence of oxygen the dielectric properties such as dielectric constant (), dielectric loss factor and dielectric loss tangent of Muga fibre are studied in audio frequency range at different temperature. The range of the temperature is 303K to 573K.It has been seen that in presence of oxygen an additional peak is arises for the curve of dielectric constant and temperature, which is not seen when the experiment is carried out in vacuum and in air medium.The values of dielectric constant, dielectric loss factor and dielectric loss tangent at 323K & at 473K for irradiated Muga fibre in presence of oxygen are 2.31, 0.231, 0.1 & 5.03, 2.012, 0.4 accordingly. These values for non irradiated sample are 4.96, 0.496, 0.1 & 67.49,128.23,1.9 respectively.

Keywords: Audio frequency, dielectric constant, dielectric loss factor, Dielectric loss tangent, irradiation, Oxygen, Silk fibre.

Dynamic Topology Control In Manet's To Mitigate Spam Attacks Using Secure Communication Protocols

N.Nimitha ,V.Nirmala


Security is the main concern and bottleneck for widely deployed wireless applications due to the fact that wireless channels are vulnerable to attacks and that wireless bandwidth is a constrained resource. In this sense, it is desirable to adaptively achieve security according to the available resource. In particular, mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) based on cooperative communication (CC) present significant challenges to security issues, as well as issues of network performance and management. This paper presents a secure decentralized clustering algorithm for mobile ad-hoc networks (SADTCA). The algorithm operates without a centralized controller, operates asynchronously, and does not require that the location of the modes be known a priori. Based on the cluster-based topology, secure hierarchical communication protocols and dynamic quarantine strategies are introduced to defend against spam attacks, since this type of attacks can exhaust the energy of mobile nodes and will shorten the lifetime of a mobile network drastically. By adjusting the threshold of infected percentage of the cluster coverage, our scheme can dynamically coordinate the proportion of the quarantine region and adaptively achieve the cluster control and the neighborhood control of attacks. Elliptic Curve Digital Signature Algorithm (ECDSA) which is one of the variants of Elliptic Curve Cryptography (ECC) proposed as an alternative to established public key systems such as Digital Signature Algorithm (DSA) has recently gained a lot of attention in industry and academia. The key generated by the implementation is highly secured and it consumes lesser bandwidth because of small key size used by the elliptic curves. In existing system, Joint topology control and authentication design in MANET's with cooperative communication scheme the spam attacks are not avoided, hence the throughput is minized. Simulation results show that the proposed approach is feasible and cost effective for mobile ad-hoc networks.

Keywords: Secure communication protocols; adaptive topology control, MANETs, Cooperative communication, JATC topology control, quarantine region.

Graphical Password Authentication System with Integrated Sound Signature

Anu Singh , Kiran Kshirsagar, Lipti Pradhan


We are proposing a system for graphical password authentication with the integration of sound signature. In this work, Cued Click Point scheme is used. Here a password is formed by a sequence of some images in which user can select one click-point per image. Also for further security user selects a sound signature corresponding to each click point, this sound signature will help the user in recalling the click points. The system showed better performance in terms of usability, accuracy and speed. Many users preferred this system over other authentication systems saying that selecting and remembering only one point per image was aided by sound signature recall.

Keywords: Sound signature, Authentication, Cued Click points

Fault Management in Wireless Sensor Networks

 S.Irfan , K.Sravani, K.Manohar


Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) are resource-constrained self-organizing systems that are often deployed in inaccessible and inhospitable environments in order to collect data about some outside world phenomenon. For most sensor network applications, point to- point reliability is not the main objective; instead, reliable event-of-interest delivery to the server needs to be guaranteed (possibly with a certain probability). The nature of communication in sensor networks is unpredictable and failure-prone, even more so than in regular wireless ad hoc networks. Therefore, it is essential to provide fault tolerant techniques for distributed sensor applications. In this work we propose and evaluate a failure detection scheme using management architecture for WSNs, called MANNA. We take a deep look at its fault management capabilities supposing the existence of an event-driven WSN. This is a challenging and attractive kind of WSN and we show how the use of automatic management services defined by MANNA can provide self- configuration, self-diagnostic, and self-healing (some of the self-managing capabilities). We also show that the management solution promote the resources productivity without incurring a high cost to the network.

Keywords: Wireless Sensor Networks, Fault Management, Self-management, Network Monitoring.

Managing Order Batching Issue of Supply Chain Management with Multi-Agent System

 Manoj Kumar , Dr. S Srinivasan , Dr. Gundeep Tanwar


Recently, agent-based technology has been taken as a promising approach for developing advanced manufacturing systems. Such an approach provides rapid responsive and dynamic reconfigurable structures to facilitate flexible and efficient use of manufacturing resources in a rapidly changing environment. A multi-agent system (MAS) is a loosely coupled network of software agents that interact to solve problems that are beyond the individual capacities or knowledge of each problem solver. In this paper we will apply the concept of Multi-agent system for handing the order batching issue faced in the supply chain management. The order batching is major cause of generating the bullwhip effect. The bullwhip effect produces the worst impact on the performance of the supply chain system. With this aim, we have used the JADE for developing the supply chain management system in which the intelligent agents maintain the information related the order batching issues and the decisions regarding managing the order batching.

Keywords: Weibull Supply chain management, Bullwhip effect, Multi-agent system, Ordering Batching, Coordination, JADE.

Study of the Effect of Substrate Materials on the Performance of UWB Antenna

 D.Ujwala , D.S.Ramkiran , N.Brahmani , D.Sandhyarani , K.Nagendrababu


In this paper, a compact Ultra Wide Band antenna prototyped on FR4 Substrate is proposed and analyzed. The antenna is fed by linearly tapered Co-planar waveguide (CPW) transmission line. The parametric study is first performed on the feed of different substrate materials. The simulated results of proposed antenna has an advantages of low power consumptions, security systems, tracking applications, low data rate and low complexity. The simulation results for the voltage standing wave ratio (VSWR), Return loss, Radiation pattern and Impedance matching are in good agreement with the measurements. Moreover the Ultra wide band antennas enable the user to achieve a lower visual profile, lower radar cross sections (RCS) and a lower space. The model is analyzed for different substrate thicknesses using Finite Element Method based Ansoft High Frequency Structure Simulator v.13.

Keywords: CPW, FCC, VSWR, UWB.

A Phased Approach to Solve the University Course Scheduling System

 Rohini V,


Scheduling is an important activity of our life. Course scheduling is a complicated task faced by every university. This paper presents a phased approach to solve the constraint satisfaction problem of scheduling the resources. Here the idea is to use a genetic algorithm which is a good solution for the NP hard problems like scheduling. The paper starts by defining the problem of scheduling the courses in Christ University, Department of computer science and defining the various complicated constraints available. Then the problem model is explained with the set of resources like professors, rooms, labs, student etc. Finally the paper describes the different phases used to get the final well defined schedule[1].

Keywords: Constraints, Course scheduling, Genetic algorithm, NP hard problem, Phased, Hard constraints, Soft constraints

Dynamic Neighbor Positioning In Manet with Protection against Adversarial Attacks

K. Priyadharshini , V. Kathiravan , S.Karthiga , A.Christopher Paul


In Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks, Routes May Be Disconnected Due To Dynamic Movement Of Nodes. Such Networks Are More Vulnerable To Both Internal And External Attacks Due To Presence Of Adversarial Nodes. These Nodes Affect The Performance Of Routing Protocol In Ad-Hoc Networks. So, It Is Essential To Identify The Neighbours In A MANET. The Proposed Scheme Identifies A Neighbour And Verifies Its Position Effectively.


Solving Optimal Linear Time-Variant Systems via Chebyshev Wavelet

1,Hatem Elaydi , Atya A. Abu Haya


ixture distribution is even more useful becausOver the last four decades, optimal control problem are solved using direct and indirect methods. Direct methods are based on using polynomials to represent the optimal problem. Direct methods can be implemented using either discretization or parameterization. The proposed method here is considered as a direct method in which the optimal control problem is directly converted into a mathematical programming problem. A wavelet-based method is presented to solve the linear quadratic optimal control problem. The Chebyshev wavelets functions are used as the basis functions. Numerical examples are presented to show the effectiveness of the method, several optimal control problems were solved, and the simulation results show that the proposed method gives good and comparable results with some other methods.

Keywords: Chebyshev wavelet, optimal control problem, time-variant systems

Effect of Process Parameters on Performance Measures of Wire EDM for AISI A2 Tool Steel

S. B. Prajapati , N. S. Patel


Wire EDM is most progressive non-conventional machining process in mechanical industries. There are so many parameter affect the performance of Wire EDM. Few of them are investigated in this research paper. The effect of process parameter like Pulse ON time, Pulse OFF time, Voltage, Wire Feed and Wire Tension on MRR, SR, Kerf and Gap current is studied by conducting an experiment. Response surface methodology is used to analyze the data for optimization and performance. The AISI A2 tool steel is used as work piece material in the form of square bar.

Keywords: Wire Electrical Discharge Machining (WEDM), Taguchi Method, RSM and AISI A2.

Design Evaluation of a Two Wheeler Suspension System for Variable Load Conditions

Kommalapati. Rameshbabu , Tippa Bhimasankara Rao


Asuspension system or shock absorber is a mechanical device designed to smooth out or damp shock impulse, and dissipate kinetic energy. The shock absorbers duty is to absorb or dissipate energy. In a vehicle, it reduces the effect of travelling over rough ground, leading to improved ride quality, and increase in comfort due to substantially reduced amplitude of disturbances. The design of spring in suspension system is very important. In this project a shock absorber is designed and a 3D model is created using Pro/Engineer. The model is also changed by changing the thickness of the spring. Structural analysis and modal analysis are done on the shock absorber by varying material for spring, Spring Steel and Beryllium Copper. The analysis is done by considering loads, bike weight, single person and 2 persons. Structural analysis is done to validate the strength and modal analysis is done to determine the displacements for different frequencies for number of modes. Comparison is done for two materials to verify best material for spring in Shock absorber.

Keywords: ANSYS, Damp Stock, Kinetic Energy, Ride Quality, Pro-E.

Analysis of Image Registration Using RANSAC Method

Riddhi J Ramani , Kanan P Patel


Image registration is a prerequisite step prior to image fusion or image mosaic. It is a fundamental image processing technique and is very useful in integrating information from different sensors, finding changes in images taken at different times, inferring three- dimensional information from stereo images, and recognizing model-based objects. RANSAC is applied for removal the wrong matching points.

Keywords: Image Registration, RANSAC

ANFIS Based Terminal Sliding Mode Control Design for Nonlinear Systems

 Yi-Jen Mon


In this paper, an adaptive network based fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) terminal sliding (TS) mode (ANFISTS) controller is developed to deal with the disturbed nonlinear system. This ANFISTS control system is composed of an ANFIS controller and a TS controller. The ANFIS controller is designed to do as a main controller and the TS controller is designed to cope with disturbances and uncertainties. In simulations, the nonlinear inverted pendulum system is illustrated to verify this proposed ANFISTS control methodology. The results possess better performances and robustness by comparisons with fuzzy control.

Keywords: Nonlinear system; adaptive network based fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) control; terminal sliding mode control

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Energy Conservation in Wireless Sensor Networks Using Data Reduction Approaches: A Survey

Ms.Pallavi R , Shreya Animesh , Preetesh Shivam , Raghunandana Alse Airody Niraj Kumar Jha


Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) which are battery powered, present a challenge of long term sustainability. So power management is an import concern which can be done at two levels such as sensor subsystems and network subsystem. This paper mainly concentrates on the network subsystem aspect of the power management touching the energy conservation schemes like duty cycling, data driven approaches and mobility. This in turn deals with the data driven approaches such as data reduction and energy efficient data acquisition. An in depth study of data reduction techniques is done in this paper which includes in network processing, data compression and data prediction. A proper comparison has been tabulated between the fore mentioned techniques based on certain parameters.

Keywords: Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN's), Power Management, Data Driven approaches, Data Reduction, In Network processing, Data Compression, Data Prediction

Ethnomedicinal Investigation of Medicinal Plants Used By the Tribes of Pedabayalu Mandalam, Visakhapatnam District, Andhra Pradesh, India

 S. B. Padal , Chandrasekhar P. , K. Satyavathi


The present study documents the traditional knowledge of medicinal plants that are in use in Pedabayalu Mandalam, Visakhapatnam District, Andhra Pradesh, India. Ethnomedicinal uses of 80 plant species along with botanical name, vernacular name, family, plant parts, life forms and disease are presented. They belong to 70 genera and 21 families. These plants used to cure 30 types of ailments. Most remedies were taken orally, accounting for 60% of medicinal use. Most of the remedies were reported to have been from trees and herb species. High number of medicinal plant species available for the treatment of dysentery, skin disease and fever.

Keywords:Ethnomedicinal plants, Investigation, Tribal people, Pedabayalu Mandalam, Visakhapatnam District,

Enhancing Productivity by Using Adjustable Multi-Spindle Attachment

 M. Narasimha , M. Hailu Shimels , R. Reji Kumar , Achamyeleh Aemro Kassie


Productivity improvement has become an important almost in all mass manufacturing industries, who really implement various methods in the manufacturing process. Productivity improvement techniques can be applied effectively in enterprises of any size, from one-person companies to corporations with thousands of staff. The majority of the techniques were first seen in mass – production operations but the benefits they can yield in SME are not to be underestimated. Indeed, the absence in SME of many of the rigidities commonly found in large companies make it easier for them to reap the benefits of productivity improvement techniques. Lean thinking and enterprise resource planning systems, it zooms in on productivity improvement techniques. Productivity also applies to service sector and many organizations of these sectors are also implementing various methods to improve their productivity. Manufacturing is becoming the provision of complete service over the whole product life cycle. This new service provision requires manufacturers to get closer to their customer and to operate far more responsively than past. Many mass manufacturing industries like machine building, automobile and electronics industries are serious about their productivity improvements. The time study, method study engineers of production engineering in collaboration with process planning engineering staff trying to reduce the time of manufacturing process, by clubbing more operations at a time or going for an accessories which can reduce the cycle time of operation. This paper is related to one of time reducing operation process by using the adjustable multi spindle attachment, for machining the three T-slots at a time to increase the output rate. By using this attachment three T- slots can be machined at a time reducing the operation time of the component to1/3 of original time. That means the time saving is 2/3 of total machining time. The output of component from the operation is three instead of one by conventional machining process. Hence it enhances the productivity time saving of the operation and the quality remains the same.

Keywords: Machining time, Side and Face Cutter carbide inserted type, T-slot cutter, Table, Bolster and Accessory

Analysis of Rivets Using Finite Element Analysis

 Arumulla. Suresh, Tippa Bhimasankara Rao


A rivet is a cylindrical body called a shank with a head. A hot rivet is inserted into a whole passing through two clamped plates to be attached and the heads supported whilst a head is formed on the other end of the shank using a hammer or a special shaped tool. The plates are thus permanently attached. Cold rivets can be used for smaller sizes the - forming processes being dependent on the ductility of the rivet material. When a hot rivet cools it contracts imposing a compressive (clamping) stress on the plates. The rivet itself is then in tension the tensile stress is approximately equal to the yield stress of the rivet material. Design of joints is as important as that of machine components because a weak joint may spoil the utility of a carefully designed machine part. Here in this project we are modeling the rivet using proe and analysing the rivet forces by Ansys which will give results by using finite element analysis.

Keywords:ANSYS, Cold rivet, Hot rivet, Pro-E.

Modeling and Analysis of Hydrant Clutch

 Gudavalli. Baby Theresa ,Tippa Bhimasankara Rao


Underground hydrant is a component used in underground piping's for an australian based company.This hydrant is used in outdoor firefighting system, which enables firefighters to tap into the municipal water supply assist in extinguishing a fire.This is also used in many conventional daily user like fertilizer pumps , gas pipelines etc…, where the pressure is to be released or outlet is to be provided without any leak.The actual use is that it acts as a stopper at the outlet provided , and the two hooks on the top help in locking the device tapped into it.As this hydrant is subjected to huge pressure , the chances of failure are more on this , if not designed properly.This hydrant is subjected to strength analysis using 2Tr of loads with two different materials , one is the conventional material ,ie ductile cast iron , and other is Kevlar - 29In this project we are modeling the hydrant by using Pro-e and analysis is done by using Ansys while doing the analysis we are comparing the results with the actual cast iron material with the kevlar material wich is used mostly in clutch plates as a friction material.

Keywords: ANSYS, Clutch, Hydrant, Pressure, Pro-E.

Comparative Study of Image Enhancement and Analysis of Thermal Images Using Image Processing and Wavelet Techniques

 Ms. Shweta Tyagi , Mr. Hemant Amhia. Mr Shivdutt Tyagi


Principle objective of Image enhancement is to process an image so that result is more suitable than original image for specific application. Thermal image enhancement used in Quality Control ,Problem Diagnostics,Research and Development,Risk Management Programme,Digital infrared thermal imaging in health care, Surveillance in security, law enforcement and defence. Various enhancement schemes are used for enhancing an image which includes gray scale manipulation, Histogram Equalization (HE), fast Fourier transform, Image fusion and denoising.Image enhancement is the process of making images more useful. The reasons for doing this include, Highlighting interesting detail in images, removing noise from images, making images more visually appealing, edge enhancement and increase the contrast of the image.

Keywords: Adaptive filtering, Denoising, fast Fourier transform, histogram equalisation, Image enhancement, Image fusion, linear filtering, morphology, opening and closing.

Survey Paper Based On Hand Gesture Hex Color Matrix Vector

 Sukrit Mehra, Prashant Verma , Harshit Bung , Deepak Bairagee


In order to enable a more natural communication with reality systems, automatic hand gesture recognition appears as a suitable means. Hand gesture recognition making use of digital images has been a research topic for many years. The aim of this paper is the proposal of real time vision system for its application within visual interaction environments through hand gesture recognition, using general purpose low cost software, so any user could make use of it in his office or home. The basis of our approach is a fast segmentation process to obtain the moving hand from the whole image, which is able to deal with a large number of hand shapes against different background and lighting conditions. The most important part of the recognition process is robust shape comparison carried out through Hidden Markov Model approach, which operates on edge maps. The visual memory use allows the system to handle variation within the gestures.

Keywords: Man-Machine Interaction, Image Processing, Segmentation, Hand gesture recognition, Hidden Markov Model, Visual Memory, Range camera.

Token Based Contract Signing Protocol using OTPK

 Bhagyashree Bodkhe , Ms. Pallavi Jain


In the Information Security field there are many of the techniques that make the application secure by exchanging data between two parties. A fair exchange is required for increasing the chances of attack. Hence a new contract signing protocol is proposed based on the OTPK (one time private key) scheme. This protocol will allow two parties to exchange their digital signature between them by signing contract. The proposed protocol ensures fairness such that either both parties receive each other's signatures or neither of them. The proposed protocol uses offline Trusted Third Party (TTP) that will be brought into play only if one party is cheating in other case, the TTP remains inactive. The idea is to use a better authentication between two parties in which a token is send to the TTP in response to that one private key is generated that is used for the authentication between two parties and after a certain amount of time that key has be destroyed. Thus with OTPK scheme the key is not stored at any place so the storage cost will be reduced.

Keywords: asymmetric, digital signature, fairness, OTPK, private key, TTP, security.

State of Art on Yarn Manufacturing Process & its defects in Textile Industry

 Neha Gupta, Prof. Dr. P. K. Bharti


This paper is related to textile industry especially to Yarn manufacturing process. Textile is one of the biggest manufacturing industries in India. Defects rate of product plays a very important role for the improvement of yield and financial conditions of any company. Actually defects rate causes a direct effect on the profit margin of the product and decrease the quality cost during the manufacturing of product. Companies strive to decrease the defects rate of the product during the manufacturing process as much as possible. By checking and inspection of defects of product at different point in a production cycle and management implement some changes specifically at those points in production where more defects are likely to happen. The paper of defects rate of textile product in the yarn manufacturing process is so important in industry point of view. This process has large departments where the cotton passes in different process and may be effects the quality of yarn when it reaches the package form. A thousand defects opportunities create in the final package of yarn. In winding department where the final package of yarn is make. Final package of yarn is the end product and from it is direct send to the customers and if any final product passes with some defects and may chance the customer complaint.

Keywords: NDefects, Yarn Manufacturing Departments, Textile Industry.

Analyzing Stability of a Dam using MATLAB

Manikanta Kotti , J K Chaitanya , Bh Vamsi Varma , K Bharat Venkat


Today we are living in the world of technology. Various massive constructions were being carried out every day to ensure certain purposes. Dams were one among such constructions. They were used for the purpose of irrigation, power generation or sometimes simply to store water. Number of forces act on these dams like water force, own weight etc. Considering all these forces and analyzing them manually is tedious process. In this paper, we were using MATLAB software to analyze various forces acting on the dams. The code written doesn't exist before and reduces manual calculations. The code written also offers flexibility in selecting the number of forces acting on the dams in both X and Y directions and gives final result concluding whether the structure is safe or not.

Keywords:Arch Dam, Barrages, Dam, Embankments, Stability, MATLAB, Moment

Design and Analysis of Microstrib-Fed Band Notch Uwb Antennas

 G.Karthikeyan, C.Nandagopal.M.E


A compact printed microstrip-fed monopole ultra wideband antenna with multi notched bands is presented. The UWB slot antenna, covering 3.1–11 GHz A straight, open-ended quarter-wavelength slot is etched in the radiating patch to create the first notched band in 3.3–3.7 GHz for the WiMAX system. In addition, three semicircular half-wavelength slots are cut in the radiating patch to generate the second and third notched bands in 5.15–5.825 GHz for WLAN and 7.25–7.75 GHz for downlink of X -band satellite communication systems. Surface current distributions and transmission line models are used to analyze the effect of these slots.it produced broadband matched impedance and good omnidirectional radiation pattern. The designed antenna has a compact size of 25 x29 mm^2.


Strength of Binary Blended Cement Composites Containing Afikpo Rice Husk Ash

 L. O. Ettu, I. O. Onyeyili, U. C. Anya, C. T. G. Awodiji, A. P. C. Amanze


This work investigated the strength characteristics of binary blended cement composites made with Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) and Afikpo Rice Husk Ash (RHA). 105 concrete cubes and 105 sandcrete cubes of 150mm x 150mm x 150mm were produced at percentage OPC replacement with Afikpo RHA of 5%, 10%, 15%, 20%, and 25% and crushed to obtain their compressive strengths at 3, 7, 14, 21, 28, 50, and 90 days of curing. The 3-14 day compressive strength values of OPC-Afikpo RHA binary blended cement concrete were found to be much lower than the control values; the 21-28 day strengths were comparable to the control values; while the 50-90 day strengths were higher than the control valuesespecially at 5-10% replacements of OPC with Afikpo RHA, ranging from 26.80N/mm2 for 10% replacement of OPC to 29.30N/mm2 for 5% replacement of OPC compared with the control value of 23.60N/mm2. This same trend was observed for OPC-Afikpo RHA binary blended cement sandcrete. The variation in density was not significant. Mathematical models were developed for predicting compressive strengths of OPC-Afikpo RHA binary blended cement composites using polynomial regression analysis. The model values of compressive strengths obtained from the various model equations were found to be either exactly the same as those of the equivalent laboratory values or very close to them, especially at ages 28-90 days, with percentage differences ranging from 0 to 0.05. Thus, OPC-Afikpo RHA binary blended cement composites would be good for civil engineering works and the developed model equations can be easily used to estimate their strengths for various curing ages and percentage OPC replacement with Afikpo RHA.

Keywords: Binary blended cement, composites, concrete, pozzolan, rice husk ash, sandcrete.

Advanced Tracking System with Automated Toll

Pritam Mhatre , Parag Ippar , Vinod Hingane , Yuvraj Sase , Sukhadev Kamble


This paper presents a novel approach to integrate RFID (Radio Frequency IDentification) in WSN (Wireless sensor network). The WSN is used to support RFID identification process by extending the reading range of an RFID system. Besides, with the WSN the environment of an object and optimize RFID reader's performance and energy can be monitored. Subsequently, methodology to integrate RFID technology, with wireless sensor network that form an intelligent vehicle tracking application is implemented. The proposed system can monitor vehicle from monitoring stations as well as toll booth stations, and can inform police whether the vehicle is arriving on particular rout with directed map also the system provides a precise way to repetitively track vehicles using SMS service. The acquired information is displayed via SMS as well as detailed report is generated of tollbooth collection and submitted to its owner via e-mail service displays inside and outside the toll booth and toll will be deducted as per type of vehicle.

Keywords: RFID, WSN, Integration, Tracking, Toll plaza, Tollbooth, Automated ,Lost.

Association Rule Mining by Using New Approach of Propositional Logic

 Prof. M.N.Galphade, Pratik P. Raut, Sagar D. Savairam,Pravin S. Lokhande Varsha B. Khese


In Data mining we collecting, searching, and analyzing a large amount of data in a database, as to discover rules and patterns. In data mining field association rules are discovered according to minimum support threshold. The accuracy in setting up this threshold directly influences the number and the quality of association rules. The algorithms which are already exist required domain experts to set up the minimum support threshold but if single lower minimum threshold is set too many association rule is generated and if threshold set high then those association rules involving rare items will not be discovered. The risks associated with incomplete rules are reduced because in proposed algorithm association rules are created without the user having to identify a minimum support threshold. . The proposed algorithm discovers the natural threshold based on observation of data set .We propose a framework to discover domain knowledge report as coherent rules. Based on the properties of propositional logic, and therefore the coherent rules are discovered.

Keywords: data mining, association rules, support, confidence a minimum support threshold, material implication, patterns.


On a Probabilistic Approach to Rate Control for Optimal Color Image Compression and Video Transmission

Evgeny Gershikov 


Based on a recently introduced Rate-Distortion model for color image compression, optimal color coding and bit allocation are derived. We show that this Rate-Distortion model in conjunction with the probability distribution of subband coefficients can be used to develop an efficient algorithm for coding color images and video sequences. We demonstrate this approach for subband coding using the Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) and a Laplacian distribution as the probability model. We show how the model can be used for rate-control, applicable to still images and to controlling the bit-rate or bandwidth of video transmission. Visual and quantitative results are presented and discussed to support the efficiency of our algorithms, which outperform other available compression systems.

Keywords:color image coding, subband transforms, rate-distortion model, discrete cosine transform, Laplacian distribution, rate-control, video coding

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Fault Impact Assessment on Indirect Field Oriented Control for Induction Motor

R.Senthil kumar, R.M.Sekar, L.Hubert Tony Raj, I.Gerald Christopher Raj 


This paper presents an induction motor drives operating under indirect field-oriented control in which rotor flux DQ axis model is used. In this model, various faults are analyzed such as voltage, current, speed and torque, stator flux. To develop the model, faults are first identified, and then, a simulation model of the setup is developed. Faults are injected into the model in sequential levels and the system performance is assessed after each fault. Here rotor flux DQ model of induction motor is developed and it's controlled by using indirect field oriented control is studied.Here IFOC with DQ model was simulated using MATLAB/ SIMULINK software. Also the waveforms of voltage, current, speed, torque, Q axis and D axis stator flux are obtained. The above faults are analyzed and rectified which results in the increase of efficiency. This analysis is shown to be simple and useful for assessing the reliability of motor drives.

Keywords:Fault impact assessment, Induction motor drive, Rotor flux DQ axis model,openloop and closedloop IFOC

Brain Tumor Detection Using Clustering Method

1Suchita Yadav, Sachin Meshram


The segmentation of magnetic resonance images plays a very important role in medical field because it extracts the required area from the image. Generally there is no unique approach for the segmentation of image. Tumor segmentation from MRI data is an important but time consuming manual task performed by medical experts. The research which addresses the diseases of the brain in the field of the vision by computer is one of the challenge in recent times in medicine. This paper focuses on a new and very famous algorithm for brain tumor segmentation of MRI images by k means algorithm to diag-nose accurately the region of cancer because of its simplicity and computational efficiency. In this an image is divided into a number of various groups or clusters. By experimental analysis various parame-ters such as global consistency error ,variation of information, area, elapsed time and rand index have been measured

Keywords:area (A), global consistency error, K means, rand index, segmentation accuracy (SA), and variation of information.

Evaluation of Routing Protocols based on Performance

 Ms. Pallavi R , TanviAggarwal, Ullas Gupta


In a network, various routing protocols are used to forward packets. Each router maintains a routing table which stores the information of its neighbors. The extent of information stored about the network depends on the routing it follows. This information is regularly sent on the network to find the efficient path between the source and destination. Thus every protocolconsumes a part of the network resources forthis transmission. This paper tries to find themost efficient protocol that is best suited for anetwork based on its performance parameterslike latency, throughput, convergence time andother factors.

Keywords:High Performance, Routing, RIP, OSPF, EIGRP, BGP

Invention of the plane geometrical formulae - Part II

 Mr. Satish M. Kaple


In this paper, I have invented the formulae for finding the area of an Isosceles triangle. My finding is based on pythagoras theorem.


Modeling and Simulation of Different Gas Flows Velocity and Pressure in Catalytic Converter with Porous

K.Mohan Laxmi , V.Ranjith Kumar , Y.V.Hanumantha Rao


Stringent emission regulations around the world necessitate the use of high-efficiency catalytic converters in vehicle exhaust systems. Experimental studies are more expensive than computational studies. Also using computational techniques allows one to obtain all the required data for the Catalytic Converter, some of which could not be measured. In the present work, Geometric modeling ceramic monolith substrate with square shaped channel type of Catalytic converter and coated platinum and palladium using fluent software. In this software we are using crate inlet-outlet flanges and housing of the catalytic converter. After design of modeling us done different parameters in Fluent Pre-process like Analysis Type, Domain Type etc. This project studies the different porosity of porous medium how to affect to flow pressure and velocity field under the conditions of different inlet velocity and same ceramic diameter by CFD method. Geometric model of the catalytic converter has been establish and meshed by the pre-processing tool of FLUENT. The flow pressure simulation filled contours and curve of center line static pressure distribution of the ceramic porous material show that in the case of other conditions remain unchanged, the less the porosity of the ceramic porous material, the higher the inlet pressure and the more the pressure loss of the porous material. The more Porosity of ceramic is beneficial to exhaust catalytic converter.

Keywords:Catalytic Converter, Ceramic material, Velocity, Pressure, FLUENT, Porous.

Heat transfer enhancement in domestic refrigerator using R600a/mineral oil/nano-Al2O3 as working fluid

R. Reji Kumar , K. Sridhar , M.Narasimha


The experimental apparatus was build according to the national standards of India.. The performance of the refrigeration system depends upon the heat transfer capacity of the refrigerant. Normally R12, R22, R600, R600a and 134a are used as a refrigerant. This refrigerant heat transfer capacity is not so good and increase power consumption. Due to these limitation nanofluids are enhanced with the normal lubricant and increases the heat transfer capacity and reduces the power consumption. Aluminium oxide nanofluid is used for enhancing the heat transfer capacity of the refrigerant in the refrigeration System. In this experiment heat transfer enhancement was investigated numerically on the surface of a refrigerator by using Al2O3 nano-refrigerants, where nanofluids could be a significant factor in maintaining the surface temperature within a required range. The addition of nanoparticles to the refrigerant results in improvements in the thermophysical properties and heat transfer characteristics of the refrigerant, thereby improving the performance of the refrigeration system. Stable nanolubricant has been prepared for the study. The experimental studies indicate that the refrigeration system with nano-refrigerant works normally. It is found that the freezing capacity is higher and the power consumption reduces by 11.5 % when POE oil is replaced by a mixture of mineral oil and Aluminium oxide nanoparticles. Thus using Aluminium oxide nanolubricant in refrigeration system is feasible.

Keywords:Aluminium oxide nanoparticle, nano-refrigerant, Thermal conductivity, freezing capacity COP, Energy consumption.

Geoidal Map and Three Dimension Surface Model Part of Port Harcourt Metropolis from "Satlevel" Collocation Model

 Olaleye J. B. , J. O. Olusina , O. T. Badejo1and K. F. Aleem


Geoidal map depicts the geoid configuration of the area under study. Data acquisition for the production of such maps has been very tedious, time consuming and expensive with the use of conventional methods. "Satlevel" Collocation is a new method of geoid determination in which the ellipsoidal height from any satellite based system is combined with orthometric height from geodetic levelling to model the geoid. The method enables the geoid to be determined in patches. Geoid so determined can be applied with ellipsoidal height to get orthometric height which height users always prefer . In this work, "Satlevel" Collocation model along with the user's interactive computer program "Orthometric Height on Fly", were used to generate geoidal values in part of Port Harcourt metropolis. The generated data was used to produce the Contour map of the study area using SURFER software. The map was overlaid on the Local government map of Rivers State of Nigeria. The production of Geoidal map from "Satlevel" Collocation is easier than the conventional methods, when the initial geoidal coefficients have been determined. This method can be extended to other parts of Nigeria and the world at large.

Keywords:Collocation, Geoid, Geoidal Map, Modelling "Satlevel‟, Three Dimension and SURFER

Server Based Dora in Vanets and Its Applications

 R.Thenamuthan , A.Manikandan


In this paper, we study Vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) and Vehicle-to-roadside (V2R) communications for vehicles that aims to upload a file when it is within the APs' coverage ranges, where both the channel contention level and transmission data rate vary over time. Dynamic optimal random access (DORA) algorithm scheme achieves an upload ratio 130% and 207% better than the heuristic schemes at low and high traffic densities, respectively. The problem with this DORA is that it provides communication to all nodes when one node request the service, this problem can be avoided by the same vehicle based algorithm with server based manner. We evaluate the performance of our system using the ns2 simulation platform and compare our scheme to existing solutions. The result shows the efficiency and feasibility of our scheme.

Keywords:medium access control, vehicular ad hoc networks, dynamic programming, Markov decision processes, Vehicle-2-Vehicle (V2V), Road Side Unit (RSU).

Design and development of Optical flow based Moving Object Detection and Tracking (OMODT) System

 Ms. Shamshad Shirgeri , Ms. Pallavi Umesh Naik, Dr.G.R.Udupi , Prof.G.A.Bidkar


Moving object detection and tracking is often the first step which has attracted a great interest from computer vision researchers due to its applications in areas, like video surveillance, traffic monitoring and image recognition. Moving object detection involves identification of an object in consecutive frames where as object tracking is used to monitor the movements with respect to the region of interest. We propose, Optical Flow Based Lucas - Kanade algorithm using different smoothing techniques for a single and multiple object detection and tracking have been developed. Lukas – Kanade algorithm with Sobel, Sobel and Gaussian smoothing techniques is used in this paper to compute Optical Flow vectors. Single object and multiple object movements in an frame with respect to the computed vectors are segmented with the help of Threshold which is specified depending on the value mentaioned. The extracted movements are tracked using Sobel edge and Centroid information. This paper describes an smoothing algorithm to estimate Moving object detection using image processing technique using Matlab Software.

Keywords:Image Pyramid Segmentation, Optical Flow Method, Sobel edge detection, Thresholding value, tracking.

Design and Development of Medium Access Control Scheduler in LTE eNodeB

 Ms. Pallavi Umesh Naik , Ms. Shamshad Shirgeri , Dr.G.R.Udupi , Prof. Plasin Francis Dias


Long Term Evolution (LTE) is a major step in mobile radio communications, and is beyond 3G systems and is the next generation cellular system of 3GPP .3GPP's Long Term Evolution is defined by the standardization body's Release 8. LTE uses OFDMA and SC-FDMA as its radio access technology with advanced antenna technologies such as Multi-Input Multi-Output (MIMO), for both downlink and uplink. LTE is a system with complex hardware and software. In case of Long Term Evolution (LTE), the scheduler in the Medium Access Control (MAC) layer of the eNodeB allocates the available radio resources among different UEs in a cell through proper handling. LTE schedulers are part of layer 2 protocol stack and are one such module which can dramatically increase or decrease the performance of the system. In this paper, we are presenting various types of scheduling schemes of LTE and their advantages. The output conditions such as memory usage and execution time for varying number of users are investigated for three of the scheduling methods: Proportional Fair (PF), Modified-Largest Weighted Delay First (MLWDF) and EXP-Proportional Fair (EXP-PF) scheduling algorithm. Developed algorithms are tested for single-cell/multi-cell with multiple-user scenarios in both TDD/FDD frame structure.

Keywords:Evolved Packet Core (EPC), Evolved UMTS (Universal Mobile Telecommunication System) Terrestrial Radio Access Network (EUTRAN),Long Term Evolution (LTE), and Medium Access Control ( MAC) layer Scheduling.

Development, Carbonation and Characterization of Local Millet Beverage (Kunu)

Otaru, A.J., Ameh, C.U., Okafor, J.O., Odigure, J.O., Abdulkareem, A.S ,Ibrahim, S


The need to improve on the quality of local millet beverage (kunu) and the widespread effort in developing countries like Nigeria to develop carbonated drink from locally source materials gave birth to this research work. The aim of this research is to analyze the shelf-life of the product to see if carbonation could extended the shelf-life of the product giving the drink a more refreshing sensation without interfering with the properties of the drink. Because the production of local millet beverage is not standardized, the local traditional technology was used in preparing the drink and carbonation was done using a pure CO2 extinguisher. Four (4) samples of the drink were made; sample 1 contained CO2 and citric acid, sample 2 contained CO2, sample 3 contained citric acid and sample 4 contained nothing (still sample). The products were analyzed for total solid, pH, protein, ash, acidity, moisture content and trace elements. Sensory evaluation and microbiological analysis were also carried out for each sample. In analyzing the product shelf-life which started fermenting after 72 hours, followed by the sample containing CO2 only (sample 2). The samples analyzed were not refrigerated during the period of storage. It was found that the sample with the highest gas volume has the best shelf-life and the non-carbonated sample yielded easily to microbial growth. Therefore, this research work clearly shows that the development of a carbonated millet drink is practically possible, cost effective and has numerous advantages with other available carbonated drinks.

Keywords:Kunu, Carbonation, Shelf life, Nigeria.

Study on the Effectiveness of Phytoremediation in the Removal of Heavy Metals from Soil Using Corn

1Otaru, A.J., Ameh, C.U., Okafor, J.O.,Odigure, J.O., Abdulkareem , A.S ,Ibrahim, S.


The research study aimed at determining the effectiveness of phytoremediation in the removal of heavy metals using corn. Soil sample collected at a depth of 20 cm were taken from Gidan Kwanu area of Niger state, Nigeria. The experiment consists of 12 treatments each containing 4 kg of soil including soil without concentrations of Zn, Fe and Pb to serve as the control. 3 pots each were contaminated with 2.5 g/dm3 concentration of Zn, Fe and Pb. The initial analysis of the soil indicates that the uncontaminated soil sample contained 1.55 mg/kg of Zn, 31 mg/kg of Fe and 0.13 mg/kg of Pb while the contaminated soil sample contained 15.33 mg/kg of Zn, 45.7 mg/kg of Fe and 4.16 mg/kg of Pb. 4 corn seeds were planted on each of the soil sample at a depth of 4cm and the setup was monitored properly in an isolated place. Samples were taken for analysis at 2 weeks interval in a period of 8 weeks. Results show that at the end of the 8 weeks, there was reduction in the concentration of the heavy metals in the soil and there was an increase in the level of heavy metals in the plant leaves and stems. The plants were tolerant of the heavy metals as they had a fast growth, therefore it was concluded that corn is a hyper accumulator and it is effective in the removal and detoxification of soil contaminated with heavy metals.

Keywords:Phytoremediation, Heavy metals, Corn, Soil, Nigeria.

Design of Vibration Isolator for Machine-tool

Komma.Hemamaheshbabu , Tippa Bhimasankara Rao ,D.Muralidhar yadav


Our project work mainly deals with design of vibration isolator for milling machine, which is being vibrated due to transmission of vibration from its neighbouring machine tool through ground. The vibration signature of the vibrating machine and its attenuation during transmission through ground is considered and the resultant exciting force amplitude is determined. The vibration isolator is designed to isolate the milling machine from that exciting for considering maximum allowable amplitude for cutter of milling machine. The result is also analysed and verified using Ansys.

Keywords:ANSYS, Amplitude, Milling machine, Pro-E, Vibration isolator.



Power Systems Generation Scheduling and Optimization Using Fuzzy Logic Techniques

 Yogesh Sharma , Kuldeep Kumar Swarnkar


In this, paper solving the unit commitment problem is usual in a generation scheduling such that the overall generating cost can be at least while satisfying a variety of constraints. The four-generating units are using for the thermal power plant as a case study. The dynamic programming, dynamic graphical programming and fuzzy logic algorithm apply a solution to the unit commitment problem that is logical, possible and with affordable cost of operation which is the main goal of unit commitment. The results procured by the fuzzy logic algorithm are tabular, graphed and compared with that obtained by the dynamic programming and dynamic graphical programming. The result shows that the implementation of fuzzy logic provides a possible solution with significant savings order to obtain preferable unit combinations of particular load demand of at each time period. the commitment is such that the total cost is minimizing. The total cost includes both the production cost and the costs associated with start-up and shutdown of units. Dynamic programming, dynamic graphical programming is an optimization technique which gives the optimal solution.

Keywords:Generation scheduling, Unit commitment, fuzzy-logic, dynamic programming, dynamic graphical programming and optimization

Static and Modal Analysis of Leaf Spring using FEA

 Meghavath. Peerunaik , Tippa Bhimasankara Rao , K.N.D.Malleswara Rao


The objective of this present work is to estimate the deflection, stress and mode frequency induced in the leaf spring of an army jeep design by the ordinance factory. The emphasis in this project is on the application of computer aided analysis using finite element concept. The component chosen for analysis is a leaf spring which is an automotive component used to absorb vibrations induced during the motion of vehicle. It also acts as a structure to support vertical loading due to the weight of the vehicle and payload. Under operating conditions, the behaviour of the leaf spring s complicated due to its clamping effects and interleaf contact, hence its analysis s essential to predict the displacement, mode frequency and stresses. The leaf spring, which we are analyzing, is a specially designed leaf spring used in military jeeps. This spring is intended to bare heavy jerks and vibrations reduced during military operations. A model of such jeep has been shown in this project report. In analysis part the finite element of leaf spring is created using solid tetrahedron elements, appropriate boundary conditions are applied, material properties are given and loads are applied as per its design, the resultant deformation, mode frequencies and stresses obtained are reported and discussed.

Keywords:ANSYS, bending moment, leaf spring, torsional moment, Pro-E.

Facial Emotion Recognition in Videos Using Hmm

 Rani R. Pagariya , Mahip M. Bartere


Human computer interaction is an emerging field in computer science. It is said that for a computer to be intelligent it must interact with human the way human and human interact. Human mainly interact through speech along with that it interact through physical gestures and postures which mainly include facial expressions. This paper discusses what the facial expressions are, the needs of recognizing the facial expression, and how to recognize the facial expression? Two such methods of recognizing the facial expressions using HMM are provided. One is Emotion Recognition from Facial Expressions using Multilevel HMM and another one compute a derivative of features with histogram differencing and derivative of Gaussians and model the changes with a hidden Markov model.

Keywords:Derivatives, Emotion, Facial expression, Features, Hidden Markov Models, State sequence, ML classifier

Unique and Low Cost Airport Multi-Application Control System

Adnan Affandi , Mubashshir Husain


This paper presents the design and implementation of an integrated computer based multi-purpose control system for airports. The system provides three main functions for the airport uthorities. The first function is the Airport Paging System which is an automatic paging system that will automatically announce user specified messages at specified times relating to the departure and arrival times of flights. This function will also allow for manual use of the paging system.The second function is the Airport Gate Monitor which is an automatic system that will monitor the airport gate and take photos of each person entering the gate. These photos are then are archived with date and time tag for security needs.The third function is the Passport Line Control which allows the airport authorities to monitor and activate the passport lines according to their needs. This paper consist of the software part which is developed using MATLAB and the hardware witch is developed using a personal computer, electronic circuits, and USB camera.