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International Journal of Computational EngineeringResearch

(IJCER)

Volume 4, Issue 5,May, 2014

      
 
Version I
S.No. Article Title Page No. Paper Index PDF
1.

Automated Glaucoma Screening using CDR from 2D Fundus Images

Sushma G.Thorat

Abstract

Glaucoma is a chronic eye disease that leads to blindness. This disease cannot be cured but we can detect the disease in time. Current tests using intraocular pressure (IOP)measurement are not sensitive enough for population based glaucoma screening. Optic nerve head assessment in retinal fundus images is more promising and superior than current methods. This paper proposes segmentation of optic disc and optic cup using superpixel classification for glaucoma screening. In optic disc segmentation, clustering algorithms are used to classify each superpixel as disc or non-disc. For optic cup segmentation, in addition to the clustering algorithms, the Gabor filter and thresholding is used. . The segmented optic disc and optic cup are then used to compute the cup to disc ratio for glaucoma screening. The Cup to Disc Ratio (CDR) of retinal fundus camera image is the primary identifier to confirm glaucoma for a given patient.

Keywords:Glaucoma Screening, Gabor Filter, Intraocular pressure, Optic cup segmentation, Optic disc segmentation, Thresholding, CDR.
01-07  
03.3005/045010107
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2.

Model of Quantum Computing in the Cloud: The Relativistic Vision Applied in Corporate Networks

Chau Sen Shia, Mario Mollo Neto, Oduvaldo Vendrametto

Abstract

Cloud computing has is one of the subjects of interest to information technology professionals and to organizations when the subject covers financial economics and return on investment for companies. This work aims to present as a contribution proposing a model of quantum computing in the cloud using the relativistic physics concepts and foundations of quantum mechanics to propose a new vision in the use of virtualization environment in corporate networks. The model was based on simulation and testing of connection with providers in virtualization environments with Datacenters and implementing the basics of relativity and quantum mechanics in communication with networks of companies, to establish alliances and resource sharing between the organizations. The data were collected and then were performed calculations that demonstrate and identify connections and integrations that establish relations of cloud computing with the relativistic vision, in such a way that complement the approaches of physics and computing with the theories of the magnetic field and the propagation of light. The research is characterized as exploratory, because searches check physical connections with cloud computing, the network of companies and the adhesion of the proposed model. Were presented the relationship between the proposal and the practical application that makes it possible to describe the results of the main features, demonstrating the relativistic model integration with new technologies of virtualization of Datacenters, and optimize the resource with the propagation of light, electromagnetic waves, simultaneity, length contraction and time dilation

Keywords:Virtualization, Datacenters, Relativity, Quantum Mechanics, Corporate Networks
08-26  
03.3005/0450108026
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3.

Extended version of Leach and its comparison with Energy aware multi-hop multi-path Hierarchy Protocol

Prof. Greeshma Arya, Prof. D.S Chauhan, Ridhi Khanna, Nehal Mittal, Amandeep

Abstract

Wireless sensor networks are generally battery limited deployed in remote and crucial areas where continuous monitoring is essential. One of the main design issues for such a network is conservation of the energy available in each sensor node. Increasing network lifetime is important in wireless sensor networks. The proposed scheme describes a new way to select the Cluster head. Analysis shows that the extended version or enhanced LEACH protocol balances the energy expense, saves the node energy and hence prolongs the lifetime of the sensor network. Also a comparison between LEACH, proposed scheme (extended version) and Energy aware multi-hop multi-path hierarchy protocol (EAMMH) is presented.

Keywords:Cluster head(CH) , Energy conservation, Energy level, Optimum distance, Comparison, LEACH, EAMMH, Energy Efficient, Multi Path, Multi Hop, Lifetime.
27-35  
03.3005/04501027035
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4.

A Review on HADOOP MAPREDUCE-A Job Aware Scheduling Technology

Silky Kalra, Anil lamba

Abstract

Big data technology remodels many business organization perspective on the data. conventionally, a data framework was like a gatekeeper for data access. such frameworks were built as monolithic "scale up", self contained appliances. Any added scale required added resources, which often exponentially multiplies cost. One of the key approaches that have been at the center of the big data technology landscape is Hadoop. This research paper includes detailed view of various important components of Hadoop, job aware scheduling algorithms for mapreduce framework, various DDOS attack and defense methods.

Keywords:Distributed Denial-of-Service (DDOS), Hadoop, Job aware scheduling, Mapreduce
36-40  
03.3005/04501036040
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5.

Harmonic Reduction by Using Shunt Hybrid Power Filter

Kavita Dewangan, Prof. Pawan C. Tapre

Abstract

This project report presents design, simulation and development of passive shunt filter and shunt hybrid power filter (SHPF) for mitigation of the power quality problem at ac mains in ac-dc power supply feeding to a nonlinear load. The power filter is consisting of a shunt passive filter connected in series with an active power filter. At first passive filter has been designed to compensate harmonics. The drawback associated with the passive filter like fixed compensation characteristics and resonance problem is tried to solve by SHPF. Simulations for a typical distribution system with a shunt hybrid power filter have been carried out to validate the presented analysis. Harmonic contents of the source current has been calculated and compared for the different cases to demonstrate the influence of harmonic extraction circuit on the harmonic compensation characteristic of the shunt hybrid power filter.

Keywords:active power filter, alternating current, direct curren, harmonic compensation, modeling, Shunt passive filter, shunt hybrid power filter,
41-49  
03.3005/04501041049
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6.

Determination of Optimal Account and Location of Series Compensation and Svs for an Ac Transmission System

B.Suresh Kumar

Abstract

The paper mainly concentrates on the latest development of compensation using Series Capacitor and SVS (Static VAR System). The above concept to full extent in terms of advantages of the above mentioned compensation and to express the disadvantages of the concept along with the remedies. The paper involves universal software (C Language) programming developed for finding the optimal amount and location of compensation and SVS for an AC transmission system for any length of AC transmission line of any extra high tension voltages. In this work optimal location of the series compensation and SVS has been determined for a given transmission system. We derived the generalized expressions for Maximum receiving end power, Compensation efficiency and Optimal value of series compensation have been developed in terms of the line constants and capacitive reactance used for different schemes of series compensation. Based upon steady state performance analysis, it is determined that the compensation scheme in which series compensation and SVS are located at the mid point of the transmission line yields Maximum receiving end power and Maximum Compensation Efficiency. Comparison criteria based upon the Maximum Power Transfer PR(max) over the line has been developed. The generalized expressions for the optimum value of series compensation has been derived and hence the optimum value of series compensation has been determined for various cases of Series Compensation the criteria of PR(max) and compensation efficiency ηc. have been utilized for assessing the optimal location of series and shunt compensation. Based upon the studies performed in case 5, mid point location of Series Compensation and SVS which yields the Maximum Receiving end Power PR(max) and Compensation Efficiency ηc.

50-57  
03.3005/04501050057
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Version II
S.No. Article Title Page No. Paper Index PDF
1.

Strength and Durability of Fly Ash, Cement and Gypsum Bricks

Nitin S. Naik, B.M.Bahadure, C.L.Jejurkar

Abstract

Burnt clay brick is an age old building material which is used for housing in urban area as well as rural part of India. These bricks are manufactured from good plastic clay, which is obtained from agricultural land. Excess use of agricultural land for this clay results in loss of good fertile soil and diversion of agricultural land for brick manufacturing. Manufacturing of bricks involved burning of bricks using coal. Burning of bricks using coal produces green house gases leading to environmental pollution. Fly Ash bricks are an alternative for the conventional bricks which can be used effectively to replace the conventional bricks. Various properties of these bricks were studied by different researchers and they found that these bricks can be used for construction of low cost houses in the area in the vicinity of thermal power plant. This paper is an attempt to study the strength and durability aspect of bricks prepared using Fly Ash, Cement and Phosphogypsum

Keywords:Bricks, Fly Ash, Cement, Gypsum, Durability, Sulphate resistance.
01-04  
03.3005/04502001004
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2.

An Extensive Hypothetical Review on Call Handover Process in Cellular Network

Vaibhav V.Kamble, Shubhangi G. Salvi, Bharatratna P. Gaikwad, Rahul B. Gaikwad

Abstract

This paper gives an overview on call handover process in cellular communication network. Mobility is key issue in current and future cellular networks such as GSM, UMTS and LTE. The handover process impacts on Quality of Service for network provider. If this process accomplishes inaccurately handover can result in loss of call. Handover is the process in which active call is transferred from one cell to another cell as the subscriber moves all over the coverage area of cellular network. Received signal level, received signal quality etc. parameters play vital role in handover decision process. MS station detects the signal level of current serving BTS along with surrounding BTS. The type of handover occurrence depends on cellular network structure. In this paper we revised the concept of handover process, different handover schemes and types then we briefly illustrate inter BSC handover sequence process.

Keywords:Cellular network, call handover process, received signal level, received signal quality, Quality of service, GSM, UMTS, LTE.
05-08  
03.3005/04502005008
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3.

Extensions of Enestrom-Kakeya Theorem

M. H. Gulzar

Abstract

In this paper we give an extension of the famous Enestrom-Kakeya Theorem, which generalizes many generalizations of the said theorem as well. Mathematics Subject Classification: 30 C 10, 30 C 15

Keywords:Coefficient, Polynomial, Zero
09-18  
03.3005/04502009018
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4.

Analysis of Vulnerability Assessment in the Coastal Dakshina Kannada District, Mulki to Talapady Area, Karnataka

S. S. Honnanagoudar, D. Venkat Reddy, Mahesha. A

Abstract

The areal extent of the study area is about 40 kms. The wells were located on the map using GPS values obtained after conducting GPS survey in the field. Environmental preservation of the coastal regions constitutes a socioeconomic element of major importance for both the present and the future. The term vulnerability refers to the potential degree of damage that can be expected depending on the characteristics of an element risk with respect to a certain hazard. Seawater intrusion is a global issue, by increasing demand for freshwater in coastal zones. Based on GALDIT Index, the aquifer vulnerability index mapping was carried out. The distributions of vulnerability areas are high, medium and low class are 7.5, 5 and 2.5 respectively. The main purpose of the study is to determine the vulnerability of the groundwater in the south western part of the Dakshina Kannada coast against seawater intrusion to the current sea level. The methodology used in the study consists of assessment of vulnerability to groundwater contamination using GALDIT method, identification of saltwater intruded area using indicators of saltwater intrusion like Cl/(HCO3+CO3) ratio and NA/Cl ratio etc.

Keywords:Coastal aquifer, GALDIT index, saltwater intrusion, vulnerability assessment, GIS, overlay.vel, received signal quality, Quality of service, GSM, UMTS, LTE.
19-24  
03.3005/04502019024
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5.

Robotics Helicopter Control and its Applications in Engineering

Prof.Dr.Eng.PVL Narayana Rao, Mr.Jemal Ahmed Andeta, Mr.Habte Lejebo Leka, Mr.AbrahamAssefa Simmani, Er.Pothireddy Siva Abhilash

Abstract

The Robot assembly comprises of one robot helicopter and two unmanned ground vehicles, they are AT Robots. The AVATAI (Aerial Vehicle Autonomous Tracking andInspection) is based upon the Bergen Industrial RC model helicopter. The following sensors/electronics are onboard all robots; GPS, color CCD camera, wireless video and embedded PC/104 boards running QNX (a realtime OS). Wireless Ethernet provides a 2.0 Mbps multiway communication link between all robots and the operator. The AVATAI also has an Inertial Navigation System and the Pioneers have seven ultrasound sensors for obstacle detection. The helicopter is controlled partly by the onboard control system and in part by a human pilot. The Pioneers are fully autonomous. To date we have demonstrated 1) High-level tasking by a human operator of the robot group to cooperatively patrol a designated area and 2) Automatic retasking of the robots by simulated "alarms" on the area perimeter. The robots navigate to the alarm scene to provide live video while maintaining basic patrolling functionality.

Keywords:GPS, AVATAI, Pioneer, OCU, QNX, Navigation System
25-30  
03.3005/04502025030
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6.

Design And Implementation Of A Microcontroller-Based Keycard

Aneke Chikezie,Ezenkwu Chinedu Pascal,Ozuomba Simeon

Abstract

The advent of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) has improved organizations' approach to achieving security. In this paper, a microcontroller-based security door system is proposed to automate and computerize keycard for access control in both private and public offices in an organisation. The system is designed to serve the purpose of security. To operate this door, a welcome screen is shown on the microcomputer which serves as the visual interface. The user is required to insert a smart card which serves the purpose of a key into the card reader on the door. The controller holds the codes which drives the card reader. On validating the smart card, it loads and shows another screen on the monitor asking for user password. This is used to ensure that the user is actually an authenticated user of the card. A buzzer is also added to the system to alert the security personnel in the security unit if an unauthorized user attempts to gain access to the room three times.

Keywords:microcontroller, microcomputer, card reader, keycard, security, security door system, visual interface
31-39  
03.3005/04502031039
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7.

A Review on Parallel Scheduling of Machines and AGV'S in an FMS environment

Prof.Mallikarjuna,Vivekananda, Md.Jaffar, Jadesh, Hanumantaraya

Abstract

This paper focuses on the problem of parallel scheduling of machines and automated guided vehicles(AGV's) in a flexible manufacturing system (FMS) so as to minimize the make span. Here several algorithms were employed to solve this combinatorial optimization problem. In this paper the authors have attempted to schedule both the machines and AGV's parallelly for which Differential Evolution(DE) and Simulated annealing(SA) techniques are applied. The impact of the major contribution is indicated by applying these techniques to a set of standard benchmark problems. For this particular problem coding has been developed, which gives the optimum sequence with make span value and AGV's schedule for number of job sets. Finally a comparison of DE and SA applied to a highly generalized class of job shop scheduling problems is to be done and results to be concluded.

Keywords:AGV's, Benchmark problem, Combinatorial optimization problem, Differential Evolution, Flexible manufacturing system, Job shop scheduling, Simulated Annealing.
40-47  
03.3005/04502040047
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8.

Mapreduce Performance Evaluation through Benchmarking and Stress Testing On Multi-Node Hadoop Cluster

Urvashi Chaudhary ,Harshit Singh

Abstract

Over the past few years, many data based applications have been developed using the powerful tools provided by the World Wide Web. In today's world an organization may generate petabytes of data each second. To gain insights from this vast pool of data, applications based on data-mining and web indexing such as artificial neural networks, decision trees etc., play an important role. Such tools are tremendously helping social networking sites such as Facebook and Twitter to get meaningful information from their data. Hadoop is an open source distributed batch processing infrastructure. It works by distributing the amount of processing required by a task across a number of machines, thereby balancing the load depending on the node. Hadoop, in a very short time has gained huge popularity amongst many IT firms. Infact, many big players such as IBM, Google, Quora and Yahoo are using numerous applications based on Hadoop infrastructure.

Keywords:TestDFSIO performance benchmark,MapReduce, Apache Hadoop
48-51  
03.3005/04502048051
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Version III
S.No. Article Title Page No. Paper Index PDF
1.

Characteristics of soils for underground pipeline laying in the southwest Niger Delta

Uko, E. D., Benjamin, F. S. and Tamunobereton-ari, I.

Abstract

Geoelectric investigation of the geophysical characteristics of the soil with depth carried out to guide against the adverse impacts that result due to soil-pipeline interaction over a long period after the burial of a pipeline. Thirty (30) stations along the proposed pipeline route were geoelectrically sounded with ABEM Terrameter SAS-300 model instrument. A maximum current electrode separation (AB) of 100m at each station was used. Resist software computer iterative procedure was used to obtain interpreted depths and resistivities from the field data. The findings revealed that the burial depth zone of the pipeline (i.e. surface 0m to a depth of about 15m) is made up of clayey and silty clay materials and highly conductive as shown by the low resistivity values ranging from 17m to 700m thereby making the soil materials of this depth domain highly corrosive. The results suggest that the best depth region for the laying of the pipeline based on the lithologic and resistivity distribution should be ≥ 25m. These information will equip the pipeline engineers and corrosion specialist (cathodic protection engineers) with relevant data in the planning, design and proper execution of the pipeline project along the said route, by properly coating the pipes to be used, appropriate design and installation of cathodic protection kits and routine pipeline monitoring that will safeguard the environment, prevent equipment failure, preserve national assets, reduce maintenance cost and minimize or eliminate citizens/companies confrontations to create conducive operational atmosphere for mutual benefit of citizens and companies during and after the actual execution of the project.

Keywords:Pipeline, corrosion, cathodic protection, lithology, electrical resistivity, Niger Delta
01-18  
03.3005/04503001018
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2.

Efficient Ranking and Suggesting Popular Itemsets In Mobile Stores Using Fp Tree Approach

B.Sujatha Asst prof,Shaista Nousheen Asst.prof, Tasneem rahath Asst prof, Nikhath Fatima Asst.prof

Abstract

We considered the problem of ranking the popularity of items and suggesting popular items based on user feedback. User feedback is obtained by iteratively presenting a set of suggested items, and users selecting items based on their own preferences either the true popularity ranking of items, and suggest true popular items. We consider FP tree approach with some modifications overcoming the complexity that has been seen in other randomized algorithms. The most effective feature of this approach is that it reduces the number of database scans and complexity.

 
19-30  
03.3005/04503019030
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3.

Elaboration of stochastic mathematical models for the prediction of parameters indicative of groundwater quality Case of Souss Massa – Morocco

 Manssouri T. , Sahbi H. , Manssouri I.

Abstract

Groundwater is a real wealth which requires rational management, monitoring and control achievable by the various methods that can classify them according to their degree of water mineralization lasting quality. Indeed, to assess the quality of groundwater, the knowledge of a certain number of indicators, such as the Electrical Conductivity EC, Organic material OM and the amount of Fecal Coliforms FC is paramount. This work seeks to analyze the prediction indicators of quality of groundwater Souss-Massa Morocco. Initially, methods based on neural models MLP (Multi Layer Perceptron) are applied for the prediction of quality indicators of groundwater. The choice of the architecture of the artificial neural network ANN MLP type is determined by the use of different statistical tests of robustness, i.e. the AIC criterion (Akaike Information Criteria), the test RMSE (Root-Mean-Squarre error) and the criterion MAPE (Maximum Average Percentage Error). Levenberg Marquardt algorithms are used to determine the weights and biases existing between the different layers of neural network. In a second step, a comparative study was launched between the neural prediction model MLP type and conventional statistical models, including total multiple linear regression. The results showed that the performance of neural prediction model ANN - MLP is clearly superior than those established by the total multiple linear regression TMLR.

Keywords:Prediction, Neural Network MLP type, robustness tests, Multiple Linear Regression, indicators of quality of groundwater
31-40  
03.3005/04503031040
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4.

Experimental Studies of the Statistical Properties of Network
Traffic Based on the BDS-Statistics

Alexey Smirnov , Dmitriy Danilenko 

Abstract

Experiments, which outcome in the results of correlation analysis of network traffic based on the BDStest, which may be used as part of an analytical component of modern anti-virus systems, have been conducted. In addition, the correlation analysis of network traffic may be used for organizing of one of the main elements of the system for monitoring a network activity as a touch subsystem (sensors to collect traffic information), as well as an analytical part (decision-making module component). A unit to assess the significance differences of two or more samples (series)of independent observations of network traffic (Wilcoxon criterion) is used to solve the problem of detection of individual services of a telecommunications system following the observed network traffic. It allows to set different data streams belonging to the same general totality with a given accuracy and reliability.

Keywords:telecommunication systems and networks, system of intrusion detection and prevention, BDS-statistics
41-51  
03.3005/04503041051
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5.

Area-Delay Efficient Binary Adders in QCA

D.Thirupathi Reddy M.Tech, Soma Prneeth Reddy , Katasani Sandeep Kumar Reddy, Suddamalla Nagadastagiri Reddy, S.K. khasid  

Abstract

As transistors decrease in size more and more of them can be accommodated in a single die, thus increasing chip computational capabilities. However, transistors cannot get much smaller than their current size. The quantum-dot cellular automata (QCA) approach represents one of the possible solutions in overcoming this physical limit, even though the design of logic modules in QCA is not always straightforward. In this brief, we propose a new adder that outperforms all state-of-the art competitors and achieves the best area-delay tradeoff. The above advantages are obtained by using an overall area similar to the cheaper designs known in literature. The 64-bit version of the novel adder spans over 18.72 μm2 of active area and shows a delay of only nine clock cycles, that is just 36 clock phases.

Keywords:-Verilog HDL, Xilinx 14.3.
52-56  
03.3005/04503052056
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6.

Efficient Multicast Algorithms for Wireless Mesh Networks

Dr.Sivaagorasakthivelmurugan, P.Ravi Shankar

Abstract

Wireless Mesh Networks (WMN) are promising and emerging technology for providing low cost and high quality internet service to the end user. The Lookupalgorithm (LU) in wireless infrastructure enables the possibility of ID assignment of peers and 1-hop broadcast between peers through cross-layering technique. Thus message overhead reduces and increase information retrieval performance. Channel assignment (CA) algorithm builds efficient multilevel trees and reduces the number of relay nodes and hop distances of the trees. The algorithms use dedicated channel assignment strategies to reduce the interference to improve the network capacity. The result of our study enables efficient resource sharing and best throughput is performed in wireless mesh network

Keywords:Wireless Mesh Network, Cross-layeringtechnique, Channel Assignment
57-62  
03.3005/04503057062
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7.

Subaltern Voice in Shakespeare: A Study in the Tempest

Tribeni Mandal

Abstract

The term "subaltern" is an allusion to the work of Antonio Gramsci (1891-1973), an Italian Marxist. It means a person or group of persons belonging to an inferior rank and station, may be for race, class, gender, sexual orientation, ethnicity or religion. In 1980s, there arose a group named Subaltern Studies Group (SSG). It was influenced by the scholarship of Eric Stokes and Ranajit Guha. They tried to formulate a new narrative of the history of India and South Asia. They focused on the subalterns or the non-elites as agents of social and political change. This paper in its present form is the result of a study on Shakespeare and the subaltern where an analysis will be made on some of the works of Shakespeare and his treatment of the marginalized section of the society in them with a special reference to the subaltern characters in The Tempest.This paper uses Gramsci‟s conception of hegemony where it is "a condition in which the supremacy of a social group is achieved not only by physical force" but also throughconsensual submission of the very people who were dominated (Litowitz 2000,p.518).According to Gramsci there are two levels of hegemony. "These two levels correspond on one hand to the function of "hegemony‟ which the dominant group exercises throughout society and on the other hand to that of "direct domination‟ or command exercised through the state and the "juridical‟ government"(Gramsci 1971,p.12). in The Tempest one can find a reflection of England‟s colonial expansion. The play has been undoubtedly interpreted as a play about colonialism. It is simply for Prospero‟s coming to Sycorax‟s island, subduing her, ruling and imposing his own culture on the natives. Prospero tries to civilize and educate Caliban but with the accompaniment of politics of dominization over the colonized.

Keywords:Subaltern, Antonio Gramsci, Italian Marxist, Subaltern Studies Group (SSG), Eric Stokes, Ranajit Guha, Shakespeare, Marginalised.
63-67  
03.3005/04503063067
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8.

Modeling of Sokoto Cement Production Process Using A Finite Automata Scheme: An Analysis Of The Detailed Model

Z. Ibrahim, A.A. Ibrahim ,I. A. Garba

Abstract

This researchintends to establish the detailed model and study the models as established in the compact scheme earlier on presented. In this case, the research focuses on the study of the algebraic theoretic properties and relationship between the processes of production viewed as sub-states of a designed automata scheme. The transitionswere then linked up in an algorithm that also specifies the movement from one state to another.A transition matrix was then generated from the resulting transition tableleading up to a construction of an optimal production model for the Sokoto Cement production system.

Keywords:Limestone, Cement, States, Finite Automata Scheme andTransitions matrix
68-74  
03.3005/04503068074
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9.

Clustering Techniques to Analyze Communication Overhead in Wireless Sensor Network

Prof. Arivanantham Thangavelu, Prof. Abha Pathak

Abstract

Wireless Sensor network is a tiny sensor device about a cubic size having sensors and small battery, which enables applications that connect the physical world with pervasive networks. These sensor devices do not only have the ability to communicate information across the sensor network, but also to cooperate in performing more complex tasks, like signal processing, data aggregation and compression in the network rather than out of the network. The major problem with wireless sensor network is their limited source of energy, the courage constraint and high traffic load. In this paper we introduce various clustering techniques which are to be used to reduce communication overhead and increase network's lifetime. In the present work, the comparative evaluation of communication overhead for the wireless sensor network based on clustering technique is carried out.

Keywords:Wireless sensor network (WSN), Clustering, K-means algorithm, Fuzzy clustering algorithm.
75-78  
03.3005/04503075078
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