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Frequency: 12 issues per year
ISSN: 2250–3005 (online version)
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International Journal of Computational Engineering Research

(IJCER)

 

Articles

 

Research Article  open access
The Aerial Wetted Path of Geostationary Transmission
Luis G. Hidalgo|| Jesús A. Hidalgo|| Antonio Vidal
Estado Miranda
Paper Indexed : :03.3005/04120104
International Journal of Computational Engineering Resaerch , Volume 4 ~ Issue 12 (December 2014)

Abstract

The aerial effective wetted path of geostationary satellite transmission focused to the Earth´s surface was both defined taking into account the warm sector of rainy cloud and estimated as a function of signal strength. A standard path of 4.88 km was obtained for Caracas with a 60 cm dish parabolic receptor pointing with a 55° elevation angle to an associated direct TV satellite in Ku band. Such function helps to estimate rainfall intensity with ±3 mm/h bulk error for stormy weather. Myriad of users of direct TV and other satellite applications with theirs receptors providing signal strength may apply the present issue to estimate paths and rain rates but doing verifications and adjusts by new coordinates and new dish sizes.

Keywords:Wetted, path, satellite, rainfall, geostationary, signal, strength

 

Research Article  open access
The Impact of Interstitial Carbon on Dislocation Motion in the alpha-Fe Lattice
K. D. Njoroge|| G. O. Rading || J. M. Kihiu || M. J. Witcomb|| L. A. Cornish
South Africa
Paper Indexed : : 03.3005/04120509
International Journal of Computational Engineering Resaerch, Volume 4 ~ Issue 12 (December 2014)

Abstract

The effect of the introduction of interstitial carbon into the -Fe lattice on the behavior of dislocation cores is presented. The simulations carried out were based on an EAM formulation that generated stress cycles resulting from the movement of dislocations, caused by the rigid displacement of rows of atoms on one side of a slip plane. The "path of least resistance" (POLR) mechanism accounting for stress evolution at the dislocation core was applied to predict the Peierls stress. This paper presents the behavior of the edge and screw dislocations in the Fe-C lattice.

Keywords:Embedded atom method; Body centered cubic; Dislocation cores; Peierls stress; Path of least resistance (POLR).

 

Research Article  open access
An Efficient approach of Integrated file Replication and Consistency Maintenance In peer-to-peer systems
R.Sakunthala jenni|| Dr.T.Pandikumar||G.S.Aiswarya
India
Paper Indexed : : 03.3005/0412010014
International Journal of Computational Engineering Resaerch , Volume 4 ~ Issue 12 (December 2014)

Abstract

Peer-to-Peer is a decentralized system which is well known for its high scalability and reliability. So applications on a P2P system are used widely now days. For high system performance of this peer-to-peer file sharing systems, file replication and consistency maintenance are widely used techniques. These two techniques are intimately connected to each other. File replication needs consistency maintenance to keep the consistency between a file and its replicas, and on the other hand, the overhead of consistency maintenance is determined by the number of replicas. Connecting the two important components will greatly enhance system performance. Traditional file replication and consistency maintenance methods either are not sufficiently effective or incur prohibitively high overhead. To overcome these, IRM (Integrated file Replication and Consistency Maintenance inP2P systems) can be used which will achieve high efficiency at a significantly lower cost. Instead of passively accepting replicas and updates, nodes autonomously determine the need for file replication and validation based on file query rate and update rate. It guarantees the high utilization of replicas, high query efficiency and fidelity of consistency. IRM reduces redundant file replicas, consistency maintenance overhead, and unnecessary file updates.

Keywords:Consistency Maintenance, File Replication, Replica Node, Peer-to-Peer.

 

Research Article  open access
Detecting of NH3, CO2 polluted gases by using ZnO- In2O3 thin films
Dr. Shatha Shammon Batros|| Dr. Ghada Sabah Karam
Iraq
Paper Indexed : :03.3005/0412015021
International Journal of Computational Engineering Resaerch , Volume 4 ~ Issue 12 (December 2014)

Abstract

Polycrystalline ZnO-In2O3 thin films for gas sensor were prepared on to glass substrates by using spray pyrolysis method from solution of 0.1 M ZnCl2 and 0.1M InCl3 at 300oC temperature and 100 course of spray. A number of techniques including X-ray diffraction (XRD), atomic force microscope (AFM) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) are used to study the morphology of ZnO-In2O3 thin films. Polycrystalline structured of as-obtained films was confirmed by using these techniques. Optical properties, and sensitivity of thin film to NH3, CO2 gases was also studied.

Keywords:Thin films, crystalline structure, ZnO-IN2O3 thin films, sensors.

 

Research Article  open access
Implementation of Elliptic Curve Digital Signature Algorithm Using Variable Text Based Message Encryption with Message Digest
Rajasekhar Bandapalle Mulinti|| Dr.G.A.Ramachandra
INDIA
Paper Indexed : : 03.3005/0412022030
International Journal of Computational Engineering Resaerch , Volume 4 ~ Issue 12 (December 2014)

Abstract

Digital Signatures are considered as digital counterparts to handwritten signatures, and they are the basis for validating the authenticity of a connection. It is well known that with the help of digital signature, forgery of digital information can be identified and it is widely used in e-commerce and banking applications. Elliptic curve digital signatures (ECDSA) are stronger and ideal for constrained environments like smart cards due to smaller bit size, thereby reducing processing overhead. We have implemented ECDSA over Elliptic Curve (EC) P-192 and P-256 using various Text Message encryptions which are Variable Size Text Message(VTM), Fixed Size Text Message(FTM) and Text Based Message(TBM) encryption methods and compared their performance. In the existing Variable Text Based Message used the plain message for generating digital signature but in the new approach, we have converted plain message to digested message using SHA algorithm and then created digital signature which is more faster than existing approach.

Keywords:Digital Signature, Elliptic Curve Digital Signature Algorithm, Elliptic Curve Cryptography, ECDLP.

 

Research Article  open access
A Study on Partial Replacement of Natural Granite Aggregate with Pelletized Fly Ash Aggregate
Dr. V.Bhaskar Desai || A.Sathyam
INDIA
Paper Indexed : : 03.3005/041201031040
International Journal of Computational Engineering Resaerch , Volume 4 ~ Issue 12 (December 2014)

Abstract

In this paper the use of pelletized fly ash aggregate in concrete as a partial replacement of granite aggregate has been examined. The concrete so produced is light weight in nature and the development of such concrete with cold bonded pelletized fly ash aggregate is to minimize the conventional aggregate, which results in protection of the natural environment. With the partial replacement (0%, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100%) of natural granite aggregate by pelletized fly ash aggregate, the strength properties of concrete such as compressive strength, split tensile strength, flexural strength and young's modulus of elasticity are studied.

Keywords:Pelletization, cold bond, fly ash, light weight aggregate.

 

Research Article  open access
An Experimental Investigation to Optimize the Process Parameters of Surface Finish in Turning AISI 202 Stainless Steel Using Taguchi Approach
Anoop Pandey|| Sandeep Garg|| Payal Damle|| Mahindra Rautela|| Mohit Choudhary|| Harshit Bhalla
INDIA
Paper Indexed : : 03.3005/041201041045
International Journal of Computational Engineering Resaerch , Volume 4 ~ Issue 12 (December 2014)

Abstract

This paper aims at optimization of process parameters of surface finish for turning AISI 202 austenitic stainless steel using Taguchi approach. Nine cylindrical bars of AISI 202 of diameter 20mm are turned to a length of 20 mm in each experiment for a constant spindle speed of 73.5 rpm on conventional lathe machine. Coolant concentration, Feed rate, Depth of cut and rake angle of tool are taken as the process parameters. A Taguchi orthogonal array is designed with three levels of machining parameters and analysis of S/N ratios, response table and regression equations were made with the help of Minitab 16 software.

Keywords:AISI 202, DOE, taguchi method, turning, S/N ratio.

 

Research Article  open access
New Hybrid Intrusion Detection System Based On Data Mining Technique to Enhance Performance
LUCKY SHARMA
INDIA
Paper Indexed : : 03.3005/041201046053
International Journal of Computational Engineering Resaerch , Volume 4 ~ Issue 12 (December 2014)

Abstract

Intrusion Detection Systems (IDSs) is an efficient defense technique against network attacks as well host attacks since they allow network/host administrator to detect any type policy violations. However, traditional IDS are vulnerable and they are not reliable to novel and original malicious attacks. Also, it is very inefficient to analyze from a big amount of data such as possibility logs. Moreover, there are high false positives and false negatives for the common OSs. There are many other techniques which can help to improve the quality and results of IDS in which data mining one of them where it has been popularly recognized/identify as an important way to mine useful information from big amount of data which is noisy, and random. Integration of various data mining techniques with IDS to improve efficiency is the motive of proposed research. Proposed research is combining three data mining technique to reduce over head and improve execution efficiency in intrusion detection system (IDS). The Proposed research that ensembles clustering (Hierarchical) and two classifications (C5.0, CHAID) approaches. Proposed IDS execute on the standard KDD'99 (knowledge Discovery and Data Mining) Data set; this data set is used for measuring the performance of intrusion detection systems. Proposed system can detect the intrusions and classify them into four categories: Probe, Denial of Service (DoS), U2R (User to Root), and R2L (Remote to Local). A presented experiment results is carried out to the performance of the proposed IDS using KDD 99' dataset. Its shows that the proposed IDS performed better in term of accuracy, and efficiency.

Keywords:Internet; intrusion detection; data mining; Clustering, Classification, data

 

Research Article  open access
Implementation of a plus shaped fractal antennas for multi-band applications
Maisarla.Chinnayya|| Valluri.Dhana Raj|| Dr.A.Mallikarjuna Prasad||Dr.M.Satyanarayana|| Dr.G.M.V.Prasad
INDIA
Paper Indexed : : 003.3005/041201054062
International Journal of Computational Engineering Resaerch , Volume 4 ~ Issue 12 (December 2014)

Abstract

Radical changes are taking position in wireless communications technology at a rapid pace to satisfy the current day requirements. Nevertheless the demand for lavishness and mitigated tautness is very much active. An antenna with broader bandwidth, multiband operations, and low profile characteristics are the underlying root of all the modern day demands. Fractal antenna fills this rareness with its unusual attributes of self-similarity and multi-band behavior besides possessing the qualities the features of an ideal antenna. A multi-band antenna can remain applied for operating in more than a single set of frequencies. This singular feature is reinforced using plus shape fractal antenna. This is engaged to supply the needs of the world with its bankable features. Since of its savory properties, it is felt that this report should deal with this fractal type and its cornucopia applications. The main ascendancy of fractal antennas over conventional antennas is shortened the size then multi-band nature. In this paper, the claims and advantages of plus shaped slotted fractal antenna were presented along with their design and radiation properties. It gets its applications in the areas of medicine, military, geology and nevertheless wireless communication. The simulation results are presented using HFSS 13 and verified with a network analyzer.

Keywords:Fractal, HFSS, self-similarity

 

Articles

 

Research Article  open access
Facial Expression Recognition System: A Digital Printing Application
Mahasweta Mandal|| Somnath Banerjee
India
Paper Indexed : : 03.3005/0412201012
International Journal of Computational Engineering Resaerch , Volume 4 ~ Issue 12 (December 2014)

Abstract

Human Computer Interaction (HCI), an emerging field of research in science and engineering, is aimed at providing natural ways for humans to use computers as aids. Humans prefer to interact with each other mainly through speech, but also through facial expressions and body gestures, to emphasize a certain part of that speech and display of emotions. The identity, age, gender, as well as the emotional state of a human being can be acquired from his/her faces. The impression that we receive from a reflected expression on face affects our interpretation of the spoken word and even our attitude towards the speaker himself. Although emotion recognition is seemingly an easy task for humans, it still proves to be a tough task for computers to recognize the user's state of emotion. Progress in this field promises to equip our technical environment with means for more effective interaction with humans and hopefully, in the days ahead, the influence of facial expression on emotion recognition will grow rapidly. The application of digital printing has rapidly grown over the past few years with substantial developments in quality. Digital printing has brought about fast turnaround times and printing on demand in terms of cost. In this paper, we describe the empirical study of the state-of-the-art classifier combination approaches, namely ensemble, stacking and voting. Each of these three approaches was tested with Naïve Bayes (NB), Kernel Naïve Bayes (k-NB), Neural Network (NN), auto Multi-Layer Perceptron (auto MLP) and Decision Tree (DT).The main contributions of this paper is the enhancement of classification accuracy of the emotion recognition task on facial expressions. Our person-dependent and person-independent experiments show that using these classifier combination methodologies provide significantly better results than using individual classifiers. It has been observed from the experiments that overall voting technique with majority voting achieved best classification accuracy.

Keywords:Human Computer Interaction, facial emotion recognition, facial expressions, facial action coding system, classifier combination, facial features, AU-Coded facial expression, CK+ database, digital printing

 

Research Article  open access
A Survey on Rendezvous Based Techniques for Power Conservation in Wireless Sensor Networks
Ruthvic S D || Ravi B|| Dr. Uday Kumar Shenoy
India
Paper Indexed : : 03.3005/04122013016
International Journal of Computational Engineering Resaerch , Volume 4 ~ Issue 12 (December 2014)

Abstract

Power conservation is a vibrant research area in wireless sensor networks. Several research works have demonstrated that energy can be conserved significantly using mobile sink in the sensor field, which will collect the data from the sensor nodes via single or multi hop communication. But, the mobility speed of the sink is low, due to which latency will be increased in sensor network especially in delay sensitive applications. To address this issue, various rendezvous based techniques have been described according to which a subset of sensor nodes from the field will be selected as rendezvous points (RPs). Remaining nodes will forward the sensed data to its nearest RP where data will be buffered. A path is then constructed using the RPs through which mobile sink will make a tour and collects the buffered data. This paper explains different rendezvous based techniques and analysis of their advantages and deficiencies with respect to power conservation

Keywords:Data sensing, Mobile Sink, Power conservation, Rendezvous points, Sensor nodes, Steiner Minimum Tree (SMT), Wireless sensor networks.

 

Research Article  open access
Factors Affecting the Discharge Capacity of Shahi Katta Drain, Peshawar City Pakistan
Navid Ahmad ||Syed Salman A Shah ||Gulfam Shahzad
Pakistan
Paper Indexed : : 03.3005/04122017021
International Journal of Computational Engineering Resaerch , Volume 4 ~ Issue 12 (December 2014)

Abstract

The research aim to study the hydrologic and hydraulic conditions of Shahi Katta, a case study for major drains in the Peshawar City. It is a major drain with a length of 4.1 Mile or 6.56 Km approximately. The growth pattern observed along the drain is complex and so the exact study of Shahi Katta becomes much more complicated. This study was performed for a section of Shahi Katta with using uniform flow technique for calculation of Peak Discharges in different months of the year for 30 years of data. A section for the study was selected which was flooded in the 2010 major storm event. It was found from analysis that even after hundreds of years, Shahi Katha still has the capacity to carry the present discharge including both sanitary and storm water, however, the presence utility lines, encroachment and solid dumps inside the drains offer resistance to the flow. The maximum capacity shown by the drain section was 57 cumecs. Shahi Katta has still the capacity to accommodate the present discharge, if maintained properly.

Keywords:Hydrologic and Hydraulic, Shahi Katta, Peak Discharge, 30 years data, 2010 Storm event, Sanitary, Storm, Maximum capacity

 

Research Article  open access
Study Of Strenth Charataristic Of Black Cotton Stablizing With Fly Ash And Rice Husk Ash
Anil Kumar Singhai|| Sudhanshu Shekhar Singh
India
Paper Indexed : : 03.3005/04122022027
International Journal of Computational Engineering Resaerch , Volume 4 ~ Issue 12 (December 2014)

Abstract

Expansive soils also known as swelling soils or shrink-swell soils are the terms applied to those soils, which have a tendency to swell and shrink with the variation in moisture content. As a result of which significant distress in the soil occurs, causing severe damage to the overlying structure. During monsoons, these soils imbibe water, swell, become soft and their capacity to bear water is reduced, while in drier seasons, these soils shrinks and become harder due to evaporation of water. These types of soils are generally found in arid and semi-arid regions of the world and are considered as a potential natural hazard, which if not treated well can cause extensive damages to not only to the structures built upon them but also can cause loss of human life. Soils containing the clay minerals montomorillonite generally exhibit these properties. The annual cost of damage to the civil engineering structures caused by these soils are estimated to be ₤ 150 million in the U.K., $ 1,000 million in the U.S. and many billions of dollars worldwide. In this paper soil is treatd with different proportion of FA(5%,10%,15%,20%,25%) and RHA (,10%,15%,20%,25%,30%) and Optimum moisture content, Maximum dry dencity and california bearing capacity is evaluated. Test was conducted on BC soil and soil, Fly Ash, Rice husk ash mixtures prepared at optimum water content. Addition of Fly ash and Rice husk ash resulted in appreciable increases in CBR of soil. CBR value is used to reduce the thickness of pavement and increasing the bearing capacity of soil.

Keywords:CBR, OMC, MDD, Expansive soil, Fly ash, Rice husk ash, Stabilization

 

Research Article  open access
Study of Velocity and Pressure Distribution Characteristics Inside Of Catalytic Converter Geometry With Fluent 2D –Modeling & Simulation
D. K. Sakhare || S.L.Sinha || S.P.Singh
India
Paper Indexed : : 03.3005/04122028033
International Journal of Computational Engineering Resaerch , Volume 4 ~ Issue 12 (December 2014)

Abstract

Catalytic Converters used in modern days Automobiles play a very important role towards reducing the harmful pollutants entering into our local environment. The efficiency of Catalytic converter solely depends upon the Geometry & Catalyst elements used. This paper reports the investigation made on two designs of Catalytic converter geometry namely Cylindrical & Convergent–Divergent shape. The Velocity & Pressure drop characteristics inside the converter have been described by using FLUENT 2D-Modeling flow through Porous media. GAMBIT was use as pre-processing tool for geometry creation & meshing.The detail study shows that the Cylindrical Catalytic converter creates more pressure drop as compared to the Convergent-Divergent shape and the NOx conversion efficiency is also high in the Cylindrical Catalytic converter. The simulation results of Velocity variation & Pressure drop characteristics in these two geometries are validated with the laboratory results.

Keywords:Catalytic Converter, DeNOx catalyst, Modeling & Simulation, Porous media, GAMBIT, FLUENT-CFD

 

Research Article  open access
Audio Noise Removal – The State of the Art
Srinidhi S Shetty, Reeja S R
India
Paper Indexed : : 03.3005/04122034037
International Journal of Computational Engineering Resaerch , Volume 4 ~ Issue 12 (December 2014)

Abstract

In this paper different audio denoising techniques are discussed. Most of the audio denoising techniques reduce Gaussian white noise from audio signals. Diagonal estimation techniques and non diagonal estimation techniques are discussed. Different audio denoising techniques and noises are shown through the taxonomy.

Keywords:audio denoising, diagonal estimation, Gaussian noise, musical noise, non diagonal estimation, thresholding, White noise

 

Research Article  open access
Efficient Load Balancing Routing in Wireless Mesh Networks
S.Irfan
Ethiopia
Paper Indexed : : 03.3005/04122038042
International Journal of Computational Engineering Resaerch , Volume 4 ~ Issue 12 (December 2014)

Abstract

In a Wireless Mesh Network (WMN), the traffic load is disseminated unevenly over the network. A load aware routing scheme is introduced to balance the load in the network, and accordingly improve the overall capacity of network. The load aware routing scheme is designed to maximize the utility by using dual decomposition technique. In the proposed scheme, a WMN is divided into multiple clusters to control the load in the network. Cluster has number of nodes, i.e., routers. One node acts as a cluster head. Cluster head estimates the traffic load in its cluster. As the estimated load gets higher, the cluster head increases the routing metrics of the routes passing through the cluster. Based on the routing metrics, user traffic takes a detour to avoid overloaded areas and, as a result , the WMN achieves global load balancing.

Keywords:Wireless mesh network, load-aware routing, utility, dual decomposition.

 

Research Article  open access
Multimode Vector Modalities of HMM-GMM in Augmented Categorization of Bioacoustics' Signals
Mayorga P.|| Ibarra D.||Druzgalski C.
Mexicali
Paper Indexed : : 03.3005/04122043052
International Journal of Computational Engineering Resaerch , Volume 4 ~ Issue 12 (December 2014)

Abstract

A Merged Hidden Markov Model and Gaussian Mixed Models (HMM-GMM) can serve as a very usefultool in classification of dominant characteristics in biological data. In particular, the aimof this approach was to enhance classifications of lung sounds (LS) and heart sounds (HS). In order to achieve these objectives, the LS and HS signals were expressed in terms of Mel-frequency cepstral coefficients (MFCCs) and Quantile acoustic vectors. Once the signals were vectorized, a clusters' quantity analysis for the LS and HS signals was executed for both classes, representing normal abnormal sounds, in such a way that a criterion for the model's size was obtained. The clusters' quantity analysis was carried out applying dendrograms, silhouettes and the Bayesian Information Criterion (BIC). Starting from these computations, the HMM-GMM model architecture for the normal and abnormal classes were conceptualized.The models for the LS signals using Quantile vectors, specifically Quartile, yielded excellent results, while for HS signals, the best results for the HMM-GMM models were obtained with MFCC vectors. In both cases, i.e., LS and HS signals, a close to 100% classification efficiency was achieved for studied cases. Furthermore, the evaluations were assessed in terms of sensitivity and specificity defined as a true positive rate and a true negative rate respectively; LS signals achieved a 100% in sensitivity and specificity, while HS signals also reached a 100%,excludingthe normal vs stenosis case, which obtained a 85% in specificity. The importance of this approach lies is the possibility of implementing automated assessment diagnostics for patients with respiratory and cardiac disorders, and essentially the ability to bring this diagnostic capability to remote and limited medical resource areas utilizing low cost technologies.

Keywords:Cluster, Stethoscope, Quantile, MFCC, HMM, Dendrogram, Silhouette, BIC.