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International Journal of Computational Engineering Research (IJCER) Volume 3, Issue 8, August, 2013

Version I
S.No. Article Title Page No. Paper Index PDF
1.

Numerical Study of the Capability of Various Turbulence Models to Predict the Heat Transfer Characteristics of Supercritical Water Flow

P J Saji, S Suresh, R Dhanuskodi, P Mallikarjuna Rao, D Santhosh Kumar

Abstract

A two-dimensional model is developed to numerically study the capability of various turbulence models to predict the heat transfer characteristics of supercritical water flowing through a vertical tube. At the tube inlet, mass flux of 1260 kg/m2s is applied. At the tube outlet, normal gradients of velocity, Turbulence Kinetic energy and Turbulence dissipation rate (k and ɛ) are assigned zero and a pressure of 245.2 bar is specified. Uniform heat flux condition ranging from 233 to 698 kW/m2 is applied around the tube wall. After performing a grid independence test, a non-uniform mesh of 200 nodes along the radial direction and 600 uniform nodes along the axial direction was chosen. To capture the large variations of flow field variables near the tube wall, a fine grid is used close to the wall (wall y+ <0.3).A set of standard two equation models (Standard k-ɛ, RNG k-ɛ, k-ω SST)and 5 Low Reynolds Number (Low Re) models are chosen in the present study. The results are compared with the experimental results of Yamagata et al. (1972). The tube wall temperature was plotted as a function of the fluid enthalpy. It is seen that under moderate heat flux conditions, the average difference between the wall temperature prediction by various models and the experimental results are within 3 °C. Standard k-ɛ, RNG k-ɛ and Two Low Re models came closest to the experimental results under the given conditions. Considering the computational time taken, RNG k-ɛ model has been picked as the best choice. The model is also validated for its capability to work at higher heat fluxes.

Keywords: Supercritical water, Turbulence modeling, Tube wall temperature prediction, Heat transfer characteristics
01-07  
03.3005/03810107
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2.

Moments of the Reliability R = P(Y<X) As A Random Variable

Mohammed A. Shayib , Aliakbar Montazer Haghighi

Abstract

The estimation of the reliability when X and Y are independent and identically distributed random variables, has been extensively studied in the literature. Distribution functions such as Normal, Burr Type X, Exponential, Gamma, Weibull, Logistic, and Extreme Value have been considered. The expressions to estimate R have been expressed as function of positive parameters from the assumed distributions. No article yet has considered the expression for R as a random variable by itself. In this paper we will do so and consider some distributions that have been introduced in the literature to estimate it. The objective of this paper is to derive the probability density function (pdf) of R, under the assumption that the parameter of the distribution under investigation is itself a random variable with some specified pdf. Once the pdf of R is derived, its moments and other properties are investigated. Several distributions including the Exponential, Chi- Square, Gamma, and Burr Type X are assumed for this research and are investigated. Furthermore, two cases are considered for each distribution. It has been found that the moment generating function techniques for finding the moments do not work.

Keywords: Reliability, Probability Density Function, Moments of Random Variables
08-17  
03.3005/038108017
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3.

The Integrated Locomotive Assignment and Crew Scheduling Problem

Aslı Aksoy, Alper Altan

Abstract

Crew scheduling is an important part of the railway optimization process, but it is also a difficult problem to solve, due to the size of the problem and the complexity of the real life constraints. In this paper, an overview of the crew scheduling problem is given and crew scheduling problem is integrated to locomotive assignment problem and solved by using mixed integer linear programming model.

Keywords: Crew scheduling, integer programming, locomotive assignment, mathematical modeling.

18-24  
03.3005/0381018024
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4.

Search Engine Using Spatial Data

P.Sreedevi, G.Sridevi, B.Padmaja

Abstract

Spatial search engines are specialized search engines primarily dedicated to retrieve geographical information through web technology. They provide capabilities to query metadata records for related spatial data, and link directly to the online content of spatial data themselves. OpenSearch-Geo extensions are developed to facilitate basic geographical data search using Open-search method. OpenSearch-Geo extensions add new parameters of geographic filtering for querying spatial data and recommended set of simple standards responses in geographic format, such as KML, Atom and GeoRSS though spatial search engines. The communication method used in spatial search engines is based on standardized- Service-Oriented –Architecture. In this catalogue service plays a significant role. It provides a common mechanism to classify, register, describe, search, maintain and access information about resources available on a network. In the contemporary search engine there is no mechanism to find out which of the available resources are best fit for use to users. We propose search functionality for current spatial data search engines to consider user quality requirements in addition to the geographical extent and keyword matching

Keywords: Spatial, KML, Atom and GeoRSS

25-37  
03.3005/038125037
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5.

Second Derivative Free Modification with a Parameter For Chebyshev's Method

J. Jayakumar, P. Jayasilan

Abstract

Chebyshev's method has not got much attention in recent years compared to Newton's method. Some of the papers which appeared recently discuss modification of Chebyshev's method free from second order derivative. In this paper, we have modified Chebyshev's method by suitably approximating second order derivative using Taylor's Series. The proposed method requires evaluation of only three functions and still maintains cubic convergence. For a particular choice of a parameter in the method, we get fourth order convergence. Examples are provided to show the efficiency of the method with classical Chebyshev's method and few other cubic convergent methods.

Keywords: Chebyshev's Method, Iterative Method, Non-linear equation, Second derivative free method, Cubic convergence.

38-42  
03.3005/0381038042
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6.

Protecting Frequent Item sets Disclosure in Data Sets and Preserving Item Sets Mining

Shaik Mahammad Rafi., M.Suman , Majjari Sudhakar, P.Ramesh , P.Venkata Ramanaiah

Abstract

Based on the network and data mining techniques, the protection of the confidentiality of sensitive information in a database becomes a critical issue to be resolved. Association analysis is a powerful and popular tool for discovering relationships hidden in large data sets. The relationships can be represented in a form of frequent itemsets or association rules. One rule is categorized as sensitive if its disclosure risk is above some given threshold. Privacy-preserving data mining is an important issue which can be applied to various domains, such as Web commerce, crime reconnoitering, health care, and customer's consumption analysis. The main approach to hide sensitive frequent itemsets is to reduce the support of each given sensitive itemsets. This is done by modifying transactions or items in the database. However, the modifications will generate side effects, i.e., nonsensitive frequent itemsets falsely hidden (the loss itemsets) and spurious frequent itemsets falsely generated (the new itemsets). There is a trade-off between sensitive frequent itemsets hidden and side effects generated. Furthermore, it should always take huge computing time to solve the problem. In this study, we propose a novel algorithm, FHSFI, for fast hiding sensitive frequent itemsets (SFI). The FHSFI has achieved the following goals: 1) all SFI can be completely hidden while without generating all frequent itemsets; 2) limited side effects are generated; 3) any minimum support thresholds are allowed, and 4) only one database scan is required.


43-50  
03.3005/0381043050
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7.

Effect of Controlling Parameters on Heat Transfer during Jet Array Impingement Cooling of a Hot Steel Plate

Purna C. Mishra, Santosh K. Nayak, Durga P. Ghosh, Manoj Ukamanal, Swarup K. Nayak, Susant K. Sahu

Abstract

This paper describes the experimental results on heat transfer characteristics of array of jet impingement cooling of a steel plate. The experiments were conducted on a stationary electrically heated steel plate. A commercially available shower was used to generate array of jets. The Time dependent temperature profiles were recorded by NI-cRIO DAS at the desired locations of the bottom surface of the plate embedded with K-type thermocouples. The controlling parameters considered in the experiments were water pressure, mass impingement density, mass flow rate, shower exit to surface distance respectively. Effects of these parameters on cooling rate were analysed through plots in the MS-EXCEL environments. The experimental results showed a dramatic improvement of heat transfer rate from the surface and the results established good optimal cooling strategies.

Keywords: Array of Jets, Heat transfer coefficient, Heat transfer enhancement, Jet Impingement Cooling, Optimal cooling, Patternator, Statistics

51-57  
03.3005/0381051057
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8.

Design and Testing Of Prefix Adder for High Speed Application by Using Verilog HDL

Rajitha Chandragiri, P. Venkata Lavanya

Abstract

Parallel prefix adder is the most flexible and widely used for binary addition. Parallel Prefix adders are best suited for VLSI implementation. Numbers of parallel prefix adder structures have been proposed over the past years intended to optimize area, fan-out, and logic depth and inter connect count. This paper presents a new approach to redesign the basic operators used in parallel prefix architectures. The number of multiplexers contained in each Slice of an FPGA is considered here for the redesign of the basic operators used in parallel prefix tree. The experimental results indicate that the new approach of basic operators make some of the parallel prefix adder's architectures faster and area efficient.

Keywords: Ripple Carry Adder, Parallel Prefix, Kogge Stone, ASIC, Sparse Adders

58-62  
03.3005/0381058062
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9.

Risk Assessment of Bot Projects

Sharmila Mane, Dr. S.S. Pimplikar

Abstract

The growth of the infrastructure sector in India has been relatively slow compared with the industrial and manufacturing sectors. The energy shortage, an inadequate transportation network, and an insufficient water supply system have caused a bottleneck in the country's economic growth. The Build-Operate-Transfer (BOT) scheme is now becoming one of the prevailing ways for infrastructure development in India to meet the needs of India's future economic growth and development. There are tremendous opportunities for foreign investors. However, undertaking infrastructure business in India involves many risks and problems that are due mainly to differences in legal systems, market conditions and culture. It is crucial for foreign investors to identify and manage the critical risks associated with investments in India's BOT infrastructure projects.Based on the survey, the following critical risks are identified: delay in approval, change in law, cost overrun, dispatch constraint, land acquisition and compensation, enforceability of contracts, construction schedule, financial closing, tariff adjustment, and environmental risk. The measures for mitigating each of these risks are also discussed. Finally a risk management framework for India's BOT infrastructure projects is developed. Main purpose of this paper is to investigate critical risks associated with Build Operate Transfer projects in India.

Keywords: Risk management, BOT, Infrastructure projects, Mitigating measures, equity risks

63-69  
03.3005/0381063069
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Version II
S.No. Article Title Page No. Paper Index PDF
1.

Image Fusion For Medical Image Retrieval

Deepali Sale, Dr. Madhuri Joshi, Varsha Patil, Pallavi Sonare ,Chaya Jadhav

Abstract

In medical imaging, various modalities provide different features of the human body because they use different physical principles of imaging. CT and MRI images with high spatial resolution provide the anatomical details, while PET and SPECT show the biochemical and physiological information but their spatial resolutions are not good enough. So it is very useful and important to combine images from multi-modality scanning such that the resulting image can provide both functional and anatomical information with high spatial resolution. In this paper we present a wavelet-based image fusion algorithm. The images to be fused are firstly decomposed into high frequency and low frequency bands. We select four groups of images to simulate, and compare our simulation results with the pixel addition, weighted averaging method and wavelet method based on min-max and subtraction based fusion rule. Then, the low and high frequency components are combined by using different fusion rules. Finally, the fused image is constructed by inverse wavelet transform. The various objective and subjective evaluation metrics and Quality are calculated to compare the results. The wavelet based fusion methods using different fusion rules is compared both subjectively as well as objectively. The experimental results show that the pixel minimum method is giving the better results in respect of MSE, SNR and using edge based quality metrics addition method observed to be better in preserving the edge information. One Image fusion method can be perfect for one particular application but may not for another application. So it depends on which information to extract, enhance, and reconstruct or retrieve to use the particular fusion method.

Keywords:Computed Tomography (CT), DWT (Discrete Wavelet Transform), Image fusion, MRI (Magnetic Resonance imaging), Quality.
01-09  
03.3005/03820109
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2.

Content Based Image Retrieval in Medical Imaging

Prachi.Bhende, Prof.A.N.Cheeran

Abstract

The advancement in the field of medical imaging system has lead industries to conceptualize a complete automated system for the medical procedures, diagnosis, treatment and prediction. The success of such system largely depends upon the robustness, accuracy and speed of the retrieval systems. Content based image retrieval (CBIR) system is valuable in medical systems as it provides retrieval of the images from the large dataset based on similarities. There is acontinuous research going on in the area of CBIR systems typically for medical images, which provides a successive algorithm development for achieving generalized methodologies, which could be widely used. The aim of this paper is to discuss the various techniques, the assumptions and its scope suggested by various researchers and further setup a roadmap for research in the field of CBIR system for medical image database.

Keywords: CBIR, Medical Imaging
10-15  
03.3005/0382010015
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3.

Indian Two Wheeler Auto Industry and Concurrent Engineering

Dr. V.Venkata Ramana , V.Visweswara Reddy, T.Govardhan Reddy

Abstract

In the wake of globalization, concurrent engineering (CE) is a promising connote for design, modification and development of new products for the challenging Indian auto industry. Success of CE demands that key areas of new product design and development of an organization need to be under constant focus. Most of the companies adopt CE procedures to reduce the time for introducing new product in to the market. This paper analyzes the impact of concurrent engineering practices followed by some selected Indian two wheeler automobile industries in the area of new product design and development as they seek to improve their competitive position in global markets.The research survey presents its evaluation based on analysis by application of statistical tools on the primary data which was collected through a well structured and pre-tested questionnaire. The results disclose that the selected two wheeler manufacturing companies in India are realizing maximum advantages with the implementation of the concurrent engineering in design and development of their new products.

Keywords: Concurrent Engineering, New Product Development, Product and Process development, Statistical Tools.
16-19  
03.3005/0382016019
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4.

Intrusion Detection In Manets Using Secure Leader Election

Yasmeen Shaikh, V. K. Parvati

Abstract

In this paper, we study leader election in the presence of selfish nodes for intrusion detection in mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs). To balance the resource consumption among all nodes and prolong the lifetime of a MANET, nodes with the most remaining resources should be elected as the leaders. However, there are two main obstacles in achieving this goal. First, without incentives for serving others, a node might behave selfishly by lying about its remaining resources and avoiding being elected. Second, electing an optimal collection of leaders to minimize the overall resource consumption may incur a prohibitive performance overhead, if such an election requires flooding the network. To address the issue of selfish nodes, we present a solution based on mechanism design theory. More specifically, the solution provides nodes with incentives in the form of reputations to encourage nodes in honestly participating in the election process. The amount of incentives is based on the Vickrey, Clarke, and Groves (VCG) model to ensure truth-telling to be the dominant strategy for any node. To address the optimal election issue, we propose a election algorithm that can lead to globally optimal election results with a low cost. We address these issues by assuming cluster of nodes. Finally, we justify the effectiveness of the proposed scheme through extensive experiments

Keywords:Leader election, intrusion detection systems, mechanism design and MANET security.
20-29  
03.3005/0382020029
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5.

Involute Gear Tooth Contact And Bending Stress Analysis

Vishwjeet V.Ambade,Prof. Dr. A.V.Vanalkar, Prof.P.R.Gajbhiye

Abstract

This paper presented analysis of Bending stress and Contact stress of Involute spur gear teeth in meshing. There are several kinds of stresses present in loaded and rotating gear teeth. Bending stress and contact stress (Hertz stress) calculation is the basic of stress analysis. It is difficult to get correct answer on gear tooth stress by implying fundamental stress equation, such as Lewis formula for bending stress and Hertz equation for contact stress. Various research methods such as Theoretical, Numerical and Experimental have been done throughout the years. This paper shows the theoratical and numeriacal approach to calculate bending and contact stress. The results where further compared with ANSYS result to validate.

Keywords:Spur Gear, Bending Stress, Contact Stress, ANSYS
30-36  
03.3005/0382030036
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6.

Model based numerical state feedback control of jet impingement cooling of a steel plate by pole placement technique

Purna Chandra Mishra, Swarup Kumar Nayak, Santosh K. Nayak, Premananda Pradhan, Durga P. Ghosh

Abstract

This article presents the application of a state feedback, Pole-Placement temperature-tracking control formulation leading to a comprehensive Single-input, multiple-output (SIMO) structure for cooling of a steel plate by an impinging air jet. . Following a semi-discrete control volume formulation of the 1-D transient heat conduction; the state space model of nodal variation of metal temperature with time has been arrived. Stable temperature track with respect to the reference temperature track was obtained by using the state feedback control algorithm. To solve this prescribed state feedback problem, an efficient pole placement technique was implemented in two ways i.e., initially, the fixed poles and then variable poles in the complex plane. The control models were simulated in the MATLAB and SIMULINK environments. The state feedback pole placement technique was found efficient in controlling the parameters in the given application. It was observed that the response of the non-linear system is sensitive to linearization time interval. Better control is implemented by increasing the frequency of adjustment of the closed-loop poles.

Keywords: Feedback Control, Jet Impingement Cooling, Pole Placement Technique, State Space Method, Single Input Multiple Output Problem, Fixed Poles, Variable Poles, Temperature Control
37-44  
03.3005/0382037044
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7.

Remote Control System through Mobile and DTMF

Abdiweli Abdillahi Soufi, Abdirasoul Jabar Alzubaidi

Abstract

This paper proposes a control system which enables controlling remotely through mobile phone and DTMF decoder. The system will control a cutter machine in foam processing factory. The proposed system will take remote control process over mobile network. In this system a mobile phone sends controlling signal from remote location. 3.75G internet modem is used to receive the signal from the mobile and transmits the signal to DTMF decoder through computer headphone, DTMF 8870 decoder is used to decode the tone generated by the buttons of the mobile keypad. PC computer hosts software for controlling cutter machine, latching IC in the system is for signal buffering and Darlington IC for signal amplifying. The proposed system provides solution for industrial sector to access and control devices and machines remotely.

Keywords: Controlling signal, Cutter Machine, DTMF Decoder, Internet Modem, Latching IC, Mobile Phone, PC computer, and Signal tone.
45-52  
03.3005/0382045052
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8.

Seismic Response of Multi-Story Structure With Semi-Active Multiple Tuned Mass Friction Damper

Alka Y. Pisal, R. S. Jangid

Abstract

A passive tuned mass friction damper (P-TMFD) has a pre-determined and fixed slip force at which it controls the response of the structure effectively and at any other values it loses its efficiency. To overcome this disadvantage, semi-active multiple tuned mass friction dampers (SA-MTMFDs) are proposed. The predictive control law is used for the semi-active system, so that it can produce continuous and smooth slip forces and eliminates the high frequency response of the structure which usually occurs in case of passive multiple tuned mass friction dampers (P-MTMFDs). Also, the effectiveness of SA-MTMFDs over P-MTMFDs is investigated. The governing differential equations of motion are solved numerically using the state-space method. The response of a five story shear type structure is investigated for four considered earthquake ground motions. The number of tuned mass friction damper (TMFD) units of SA-MTMFDs and P-MTMFDs are varied and the responses of the five story structure with SA-MTMFDs are compared with the responses of the same structure with the P-MTMFDs. For a fare comparison the displacement and acceleration response time histories of the structure with SA-MTMFDs and P-MTMFDs are compared with respect to their optimum controlling parameters. The result of numerical studies indicated that the SA-MTMFDs are more effective and has better performance level than the P-MTMFDs for same input seismic excitations.

Keywords: P-MTMFDs, SA-MTMFDs, predictive control, numerical analysis, seismic excitation, optimum parameters and response reduction
53-72  
03.3005/0382053072
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9.

Overview Applications of Data Mining In Health Care: The Case Study of Arusha Region

Salim Diwani, ,Suzan Mishol ,Daniel S.Kayange ,Dina Machuve ,Anael Sam

Abstract

Data mining as one of many constituents of health care has been used intensively and extensively in many organizations around the globe as an efficient technique of finding correlations or patterns among dozens of fields in large relational databases to results into more useful health information. In healthcare, data mining is becoming increasingly popular and essential. Data mining applications can greatly benefits all parties involved in health care industry. The huge amounts of data generated by healthcare transactions are too complex and voluminous to be processed and analyzed by traditional methods. Data mining provides the methodology and technology to transform huge amount of data into useful information for decision making. This paper explores data mining applications in healthcare in Arusha region of Tanzania more particularly; it discusses data mining and its applications in major areas such as evaluation of treatment effectiveness, management of healthcare itself and lowering medical costs.

Keywords: Data mining, Healthcare application, Knowledge discovery, Data warehousing.
73-77  
03.3005/0382073077
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10.

FPGA Implementation of DA Algritm for Fir Filter

Putta.Solman Raju , Garigipati.Vijay Kumar , Yrk Paramahamsa

Abstract

MAC is composed of an adder, multiplier and an accumulator. Usually adders implemented are Carry- Select or Carry-Save adders, as speed is of utmost importance in DSP. One implementation of the multiplier could be as a parallel array multiplier. The inputs for the MAC are to be fetched from memory location and fed to the multiplier block of the MAC, which will perform multiplication and give the result to adder which will accumulate the result and then will store the result into a memory location. This entire process is to be achieved in a single clock cycle. The architecture of the MAC unit which had been designed in this work consists of one 16 bit register, one 16-bit Modified Booth Multiplier, 32-bit accumulator. To multiply the values of A and B, Modified Booth multiplier is used instead of conventional multiplier because Modified Booth multiplier can increase the MAC unit design speed and reduce multiplication complexity. SPST Adder is used for the addition of partial products and a register is used for accumulation. The product of Ai X Bi is always fed back into the 32- bit accumulator and then added again with the next product Ai x Bi. This MAC unit is capable of multiplying and adding with previous product consecutively up to as many as times.

78-83  
03.3005/0382078083
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11.

A REVIEW ON REPLICA NODE DETECTION LGORITHMS IN WSNS

C. Geetha

Abstract

A wireless sensor network is a collection of nodes organized in to a cooperative network. This network is prone to various attacks due to poor security. One of the attacks is clone attack in which an adversary captures some nodes and replicates them including the cryptographic in formation and deploys them in the network. Several algorithms are developed to detect clone attacks, in static WSNs and mobile WSNs. Each one has its own advantages and disadvantages. This paper surveys these algorithms and compares their performance based on parameters like communication cost and memory.

Keywords: Attacks, base station, clone attack, communication cost, location, sensor network, witness node.
84-89  
03.3005/0382084089
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