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International Journal of Computational Engineering Research (IJCER) Volume 3, Issue 7, July, 2013

Version I
S.No. Article Title Page No. Paper Index PDF
1

Challenges of Wet Briquetting from Locally Available Biomass with Special Reference to Assam

Bichitra Bikash, Rajib Bhowmik, Madhurjya Saikia

Abstract

This study aims at solving energy crisis in rural area via fuel briquettes from locally available biomasses by a well proven technique called wet briquetting. This technique has different operational stages of briquette production. The challenges faced during each operational stage of briquette production are discussed and solutions of the respective problems are tried to be found as well in order to perfect the method. An economic analysis of this method is also done to show profitability margin.

Keywords: Wet briquetting, biomass, briquetting, economic analysis, durability
01-05  
03.3005/03710105
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2

Neuromuscular Activities On Lower Limb's Joint Contact Forces During Normal Human Walking

Biswajit Bera

Abstract

Present study describes neuromuscular activities on lower limb's joint contact forces during normal human walking. First of all, a biomechanical human model has developed to evaluate accurate lower limb's joint contact forces during normal human walking. According to author postulation, lower limb's joint contact forces should not be greater than the ground contact force (ground reaction). It is found that maximum total contact forces of ankle joint, knee joint and hip joint during normal human walking are approximately, 100%, 95% and 85% of body weight of the subject respectively. Total joint contact force is compressive and tensile for respective stance phase and swing phase of human walking gait cycle. Finally, the neuromuscular activities on the joint's contact forces clearly explained on the basis of EMG response of the subject..

Keywords: Biomechanical human model, Joint contact forces, Neuromuscular activities.
06-14


03.3005/037106014
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3

Review Paper: To Reduce The Handover Delay In Wimax When The Mobile Station Moves At Higher Speed

Mrs Sukhpreet Kaur, Jasbir Kaur

Abstract

The real potential of the broadband wireless networks lies with the mobility. WIMAX is a Wireless Interoperability for Microwave Access. It is a telecommunication technology that provides wireless the data over long distances in several ways, from point-to-point links to the full mobile cellular type access. The main consideration of Mobile Wimax is to achieve seamless handover such that there is no loss of data. In this review paper we have compared different techniques which provides no data losses when the mobile station moves at higher speed. In this we discuss the combination of adaptive forward error correction (FEC) with retransmission which provides the extra protection for handover signaling messages to enhance the probability of a successful handover, especially at a higher velocity, Media Independent Handover (MIH) standard which proposes a new neighbor discovery mechanism, considering the hierarchical view of the network information, soft handover to avoid the data losses during handover by using base station selection procedure that will optimize the soft handover such that there is no data loss; handover decision is taken quickly and thus improving overall handover performance.

15-18


03.3005/0371015018
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4

Active Cancellation Algorithm for Radar Cross Section
Reduction

Isam Abdelnabi Osman, Mustafa Osman Ali, Abdelrasoul Jabar Alzebaidi

Abstract

Modern components for signal processing make it possible to achieve radar visibility reduction, that requires reduce the radar cross section (RCS) of an aircraft or a system because it seems to be on the enemy's radar detection capabilities. To achieve this goal, this paper proposed an Active cancellation algorithm for radar cross section reduction using MATLAB, C language program, digital radio-frequency memory (DRFM), and phased array technology to generate the desired signal to cancel the reflected radar returns. The algorithm depends on a pre calculation approach in which an omni direction RCS, clutter, and noise databases generated in advance. Signal processing system function analysis parameter of the measured radar signal. Then find the corresponding echo data (amplitude and phase parameters of the coherent echo) in the target RCS database through real-time amendment. Through the establishment of a target scattering field with the abolition of a coherent signal in the direction of the radar system detection, the radar receiver stays in empty pattern synthesis. The result achieved by the proposed method improves visibility reduction by 25% compared to conventional methods.

Keywords: Active cancellation, coherent, Echo, radar cross section, MATLAB, Phased array antenna, and Stealth.
19-24


03.3005/0371019024
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5.

Absorption of Light in Silicon Nanowire Solar Cells: Designing Of Solar Cells

Prof. R.L. Sharma, Juhi Narain

Abstract

In the proposed study, an investigation has been carried out in order to find a material efficient structure, capable of harnessing maximum solar spectrum. A material efficient structure designed using a thin film and Si nanowire. Silicon material is used as it leads to environmental friendly design. The principal objective of this study is to maximize the photon absorption, keeping reflection to a minimum. Such reflection are caused due to the regular surface of the thin film. As a thumb rule, the performance of the solar cell can be elevated by increasing the photon absorption phenomenon in the Si material. The proposed approach may yield an efficient hybrid structures (involving the combination of nanowire and thin film). Using such geometry, it is expected to achieve a higher efficiency (increased EHP generation), compared to nanowires or thin film alone. It is expected to achieve a higher Electron Hole Pair (EHP) generation or higher performance efficiency because of the two following reasons. First, Si nanowire exhibits low reflection due to low reflection area and the other being that such hybrid structure offers more active surface area for the EHP generation. Using this structure an internal quantum efficiency (IQE) upto 21% can be achieved which is quite good for commercially used solar cells.


Keywords: Solar spectrum, Silicon nanowire, Electron Hole Pair (EHP) Generation, Internal Quantum Efficiency (IQE).

25-28
03.3005/0371025028
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6.

A Novel Approach for High Performance Slew Rate

Lalit Mishra,Nitin Meena

Abstract

In this paper a research is proposed to enhance the slew rate using current mirror circuit and cascaded folded amplifier. Most slew rate enhancement circuits can either be used in current-mirror amplifier or folded-cascade amplifier, but not in both amplifiers. This circuit is implemented on AMS .65μm cmos process using a current mirror circuit with cascaded folded amplifier has very improved slew rate.

KEYWORD- Amplifier, Load Capacitance, Slew rate Enhancement circuit, Transient Response

29-32


03.3005/0371029032
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7.

Outage Analysis of Cooperation over Wireless Network

Sohrab Alam, Sindhu Hak Gupta

Abstract

In this paper, we analyze the performance of cooperative communication system for independent and flat Nakagami-m fading channel parameters by using amplify and forward cooperative protocol. We have estimated the outage probability, channel capacity and ergodic capacity of the system. We further simulate the equations of these parameters by plotting them for verification

Keywords: Diversity technique; cooperative communication; cooperative communication protocols; Nakagami-m fading; ergodic capacity; channel capacity; outage probability.

33-37
03.3005/0371033037
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8.

Design and Implementation of a Distributed Database System for the Central Bank of Iraq Using Oracle

 Mayson Mohammad Talab, Dr. Bassam Ali Mustafa

Abstract

This paper is concerned with design and implementation of a distributed database system for Central Bank of Iraq purposes. Two-tier client/server model has been used to implement the proposed systems architecture which consists of twelve clients spread over office which are connected together through a local area network (LAN) by using three hubs which spread one hub at each floor of office see figure2. Partially replicated databases technique has been used to distribute database. The designed distributed system is homogenous and uses Windows XP operating system and Oracle10g software to implement, connect, and manage the database, whereas user screens and reports have been designed using "Oracle Forms Builder 6i" and "Oracle Reports Builder 6i" respectively. The system has achieved data protection against unauthorized access using combination of passwords and user roles, in addition to providing mechanisms for data loss protection through import and export mechanism. The system has applied in achieving some of the distributed systems goals like transparency, connecting users, and sharing resources.

38-45


03.3005/0371038045
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Version II
S.No. Article Title Page No. Paper Index PDF
1.

Quantitative Treatment of Hiv/Aids Inthe Human Micro- Vascular Circulating Blood System

Enaibe A. Edison , Osafile E. Omosede , John O. A. Idiodi

Abstract

Vibration is the cause ofall that exists.Generally, any form of matterincluding biological systemscould be described by vibration and hence represented by a purely defined wave form. This study presents a model for determining the dynamic mechanical characteristics of HIV/AIDS in the human blood circulating system. Our work assumes that the physical dynamic components of the HIV responsible for their destructive tendency are b , n ,  and k  been influenced by the multiplicative factor whose physical range of interest is 0   13070. We constructed the constitutive carrier wave equation on the basis of the vibratory dynamic components of the human (host) parameters and those of the HIV (parasite). It is established in this study that when the HIV enters the human blood circulating system, it takes between 60 to 240 days before its absolute effects would begin to manifest. This in the literature of clinical disease is referred to as the window period. The negative influence of the HIV in the human system becomes intense and more pronounced when the HIV is about 5 years (60 months) counting from the day it is contacted. This study revealed that AIDS actually results when these destructive dynamic components of the HIV gradually become equal to their corresponding active dynamic components in the human blood circulating system. This is when the range of the multiplicative factor12803 13070. The time it takes the HIV infection to degenerate into AIDS if uncontrolled is about 8 years (96months). The displacement of the carrier wave that describes the biological system of Man finally goes to zero - a phenomenon called death, when the multiplicative factor approaches the critical value of 13070and the time it takes to attain this value is about 11 years (132 months).


Keywords: latent vibration, 'host wave', 'parasitic wave', carrier wave, HIV/AIDS, amplitude, oscillating phase.
01-15  
03.3005/037201015
 
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2.

A Green Capacitated Vehicle Routing Problem with Fuel Consumption Optimization Model

İlker Küçükoğlu , Seval Ene , Aslı Aksoy , Nursel Öztürk

Abstract

In recent years, since environmental issues and regulations impact strategic and operational decisions of companies, green logistics has a critical and gaining value for researchers and companies. In this context green capacitated vehicle routing problem (G-CVRP) under minimizing fuel consumption, which is rarely encountered in real life systems, is studied in this paper. A mixed integer linear programming model is proposed for solving G-CVRP. In the G-CVRP optimization model, fuel consumption is computed considering the vehicle technical specifications, vehicle load and the distance. Fuel consumption equation is integrated to the model through a regression equation proportional to the distance and vehicle load. G-CVRP optimization model is validated by various instances with different number of customers. Achieved results show that G-CVRP model provides important reductions in fuel consumption.


Keywords: Fuel consumption model, green vehicle routing, mixed integer linear programming.
16-23  
03.3005/0372016023
 
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3.

Lattice Points On The Homogeneous Cubic Equation With Four Unknowns

M.A.Gopalan , V.Sangeetha , Manju Somanath

Abstract

The homogeneous cubic equation with four unknowns represented by is analyzed for its patterns of non zero distinct integral solutions.Three different patterns of solutions are presented. A few interesting relations between the solutions and special numbers ,namely, polygonal numbers,pyramidal numbers,centered pyramidal numbers,star numbers, nasty numbers,dodecahedral number,rhombic dodecahedral number and prism numbers are exhibited.


Keywords: Homogeneous cubic,Lattice Points,Integral solutions. MSC2000 Mathmatics Subject Classification Number 11D25.
24-26  
03.3005/0372024026
 
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4.

Research on Cloud Computing

Done VinodKumar , Thudum Venkatesh , Kondabathula Durga charan ,
Chandrasekhar T

Abstract

This paper is an introduction to the terms, characteristics, and services associated with network-based computing, commonly referred to as cloud computing. Cloud Computing is a technology that uses the network and central remote servers to maintain data and applications. Cloud computing allows consumers and businesses to use applications without installation and access their personal files at any computer with network access. This technology allows for much more efficient computing by centralizing data storage, processing and bandwidth. The primary business service models being deployed (such as software, platform, and infrastructure as a service) and common deployment models employed by service providers and users to use and maintain the cloud services (such as the private, public, community, and hybrid clouds) are discussed.


Keywords: Architecture, Shared infrastructure, Network access, managed metering, Service models, Deployment models, Software as a Service (SAAS), Platform as a Service (PAAS), and Infrastructure as a Service (IAAS).
27-32  
03.3005/0372027032
 
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5.

A Review Of Laminar Burning Velocity Of Gases And Liquid Fuels

Vaishali Katre , S. K. Bhele

Abstract

The laminar burning velocity is a fundamental property of a fuel that affects many aspects of its combustion behaviour. Experimental values are required to validate kinetic simulations, and also to provide input for models of flashback, minimum ignition energy and turbulent combustion. The laminar burning velocity is one of the most essential parameters for analysis and performance predictions of various combustion engines. It is the velocity, relative to the unburned gas, with which a plane, one-dimensional flame front travels along the normal to its surface. The majority of turbulent combustion models require knowledge of laminar burning velocity of the fuel-air mixture as a function of the mixture strength. Also reliable experimental data are needed in order to test and calibrate thermo-kinetic combustion models which have been quite successful for combustion predictions of simple hydrocarbon fuels. There are different methods to determine the burning velocity such as Heat flux burner method, Flat flame burner method, Bunsen burner method, Slot burner technique, Counter flow diffusion flow, Soap bubble technique, and Tube propagating method.


Keywords: Burning velocity, Bunsen burner, Flame front, Flame speed.
33-38  
03.3005/0372033038
 
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6.

Dynamical Properties of Carrier Wave Propagating In a Viscous Fluid

Edison A. Enaibe , Osafile E. Omosede

Abstract

In this work, we superposed a 'parasitic wave' on a 'host wave' and the behavior of the constituted carrier wave is studied as it flows through an elastic uniform pipe containing a viscous fluid. The dynamical characteristics of the carrier wave as it propagate through the confined space containing the fluid is effectively studied with the use of simple differentiation technique. It is shown in this work that some wave behave parasitically when they interfere with another one, provided they are basically out of phase. The incoherent nature of their source causes the carrier wave to attenuate to zero after a specified time. The phase velocity, the oscillating radial velocity and other basic physical properties of the constituted carrier wave first increases in value before they steadily attenuate to zero. The study provides a means of using the known parameter values of a given wave to determine the basic parameters of another interfering wave which were initially not known. It is established in this study that the process of attenuation of the basic properties that constitute a physical system is not instantaneous but gradual. Since the mechanics of the resident'host wave' would be posing a serious resistance in order to annul the destructive effect of the parasitic interfering wave.The spectrum of the decay process show exemplary behaviour at certain values of the raising multiplier. This behaviour is caused by the high attraction or constructive interference of the combined effects of the 'host wave' and the 'parasitic wave'.


Keywords: constituted carrier wave, 'host wave', 'parasitic wave', raising multiplier, characteristic angular velocity, group angular velocity.
39-55  
03.3005/0372039055
 
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7.

Enhanced Energy Efficient Routing for Self Adapive Geographic Routing In Manet's

Kalpana M.N , Mrs.Sridevi K.N , Dr. Jitendranath Mungara

Abstract

Geographic routing has been widely used as the most important approach to wireless routing. It has been a big challenge to develop a routing protocol that can meet different application needs and optimize routing paths according to the topology changes in mobile ad hoc networks. In existing system searching of neighbors that are close to the destination was taking lager range of hops which was inefficient due to loss of energy. In this work, we propose an enhanced energy efficient self adaptive geographic routing protocol which reduces the hops count and it is energy efficient compare with existing geographic routing solutions. Our simulations results shows better performances than those with previous approaches.


Keywords: self adaptive, beacon, wireless communication, Geographic routing, self adaptive, ad hoc network, Greedy, zones.
56-62  
03.3005/0372056062 
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Version III
S.No. Article Title Page No. Paper Index PDF
1.

Identification of Packet Dropping and Modification in Wireless
Sensor Networks

B.Kishore Kumar, G.K.Venkata Narasimha Reddy

Abstract

The Packet Droppers and Modifiers are common attacks in wireless sensor networks. It is very difficult to identify such attacks and this attack interrupts the communication in wireless multihop sensor networks. We can identify the Packet Droppers and Packet Modifiers using ranking algorithms and packet marks. The Performance is represented using detection rate and false positive probability. The Proposed scheme provides an effective mechanism for catching compromised node.


Keywords: packet droppers and modifiers, intrusion detection, wireless sensor networks
01-06  
03.3005/03730106 
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2.

Biomedical Image Processing With Nonlinear Filters

Himadri Nath Moulick , Moumita Ghosh

Abstract

Nonlinear filtering techniques are becoming increasingly important in image processing applications, and are often better than linear filters at removing noise without distorting image features. However, design and analysis of nonlinear filters are much more difficult than for linear filters. One structure for designing nonlinear filters is mathematical morphology, which creates filters based on shape and size characteristics. Morphological filters are limited to minimum and maximum operations that introduce bias into images. This precludes the use of morphological filters in applications where accurate estimation of the true gray level is necessary. This work develops two new filtering structures based on mathematical morphology that overcome the limitations of morphological filters while retaining their emphasis on shape....r>

Keywords: MLV filter , LOCO filter , pseudomedian , Erosion and the Midrange Filter Averaging Filter , Midrange Filter, (MSE) of filtered noisy signals.
07-015  
03.3005/037307015 
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3.

Design of 132/33KV Substation

Sudipta Sen , Arindam Chatterjee ,Debanjan Sarkar

Abstract

The project work assigned to us was to design a 132/33 KV EHV sub-station. We considered incoming power at 132 KV and the power was transferred to main bus through isolator-circuit breaker-isolator combination. The power from main bus was fed into a 20MVA transformer which stepped the voltage down to 33KV. The power is then fed into a 33KV bus from which different loads were tapped. In the process, the surge impedance loading of 132 KV and 33 KV lines were calculated and they were used to estimate the maximum power that can be transferred by one transmission line. The design of the entire substation was made keeping in mind the most basic requirements of a proper substation including the civil and domestic requirements. The design is then submitted to our mentor for verification


Keywords: 1) Bus bar 2) Control Cable 3) Earthing 4) Insulation-Coordination 5) Insulator 6) Isolator 7) Lightning Arrester 8) Power Transformer 9) Sub-Station 10) Switchgear
 
16-28  
03.3005/0373016028 
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4.

Noise Supression with Triple Phase Sllep Signal Slew Rate Modulation in Mtcmos Circuits with Power Gating Methods

T.Suhasini , G.Nagajyothi

Abstract

As low power circuits are most popular now a days as the scaling increase the leakage power in the circuit also increases rapidly so for removing these kind of leakages and to provide a better power efficiency we are using many types of power gating techniques. In this paper we are going to analyse the different types of flip-flops using different types of power gated circuits using low power VLSI design techniques and we are going to display the comparison results between different nanometer technologies. The NMOS simulations were done using Microwind Layout Editor & DSCH software and the results were given below.


29-35  
03.3005/0373029035 
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5.

Power Quality Improvement Using Ac To Ac PWM Converter for Distribution Line

 Shalini Bajpai

Abstract

In this paper, a new voltage sag compensator for critical loads in electrical distribution system discussed. The proposed scheme employs a Pulsewidth modulation ac-ac convertor along with an auto transformer. During a disturbance such as voltage sag, the proposed scheme supplies the missing voltage and helps in maintaining rated voltage at the terminals of the critical load. Under normal condition the approach works in bypass mode and delivering utility power directly to load. A four step switching technique ti drive the ac-ac convertor is employed to realize snubberless operation. A design is presented for 440v, 50 hz, system.


Keywords: Power Quality, Voltage Sag, PWM Ac-Ac Converter
36-41  
03.3005/0373036041 
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6.

Introspection, Updates and Belief Revision as Agent Processes

Fernando Zacarias Flores, Rosalba Cuapa Canto, Erick Madrid

Abstract

A novel way of building intelligent agents is deployed. This proposal considers two aspects: In the first instance, our agents have a novel mechanism for updates, simple and easy of calculating and that guarantee our agents to stay always consistent. This mechanism was introduced and formalized in [13] and it is supported by the paradigm Answer Set Programming (ASP). ASP programs are written in the language of AnsProlog and its extensions [5, 11, 12, 14]. And, in a second plane, we generalize our kind of programs accepted in [13] and we accept general clauses, disjunctive clauses and augmented clauses. Considering these two aspects, we can develop systems to approach in a direct way to intelligent behavior


Keywords: Agents, ASP, Belief revision, Introspection, Updates, AnsProlog, Consistent.
42-48  
03.3005/0373042048 
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7.

Waypoint Navigation System Implementation via a Mobile Robot Using Global Positioning System (GPS) and Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) Modems

Ulaiman Khan , Kashif Ahmad, Mohsin Murad, Imran Khan

Abstract

This paper presents the use of Global Positioning Systems (GPS) as geographic information and navigational system for a ground based mobile robot. The proposed mobile robot contains a GPS system for navigation and sensors (LV-MaxSonar–EZ4) for obstacle avoidance system, and GSM Modem for communicating with user. The Mobile robot navigates to the waypoint specified by the user through the GSM Modem and avoids the obstacles in its way to destination. The experiments are carried out in the university lawn with a test bed mobile robot for point-to-point motion using a GPS


Keywords: Navigation System; GPS; GSM; Mobile Robot, Waypoints
49-54  
03.3005/0373049054 
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Version IV
S.No. Article Title Page No. Paper Index PDF
1.

Light Weight, Low Cost, Wearable Ecg Monitoring

Shraddha Parag Deopujari, Dr. Ashok Gaikwad

Abstract

This paper describes the proposed signal processing scheme for wearable monitoring of Electrocardiogram. This includes the acquisition, amplification and filtering of the on body ECG signal. ECG signal is very sensitive in nature and if a small noise get mixed with the original signal, various characteristics of the signal changes. Hence filtering is an important issue. Remote monitoring of ECG and other Physiological signals is becoming important as it can significantly reduce the cost and risks involved in personal healthcare. Digital signal processing and data analysis are very commonly used methods, in biomedical engineering research. Microcontroller based ECG monitoring is also described in this paper. PIC16F877A microcontroller with inbuilt ADC is used for the purpose of R-peak detection and Heart rate monitoring. Wearable ECG monitoring is the need of ageing society now a days. Our device is low cost monitor and easily wearable ECG monitor, so that it can help in home monitoring of ECG data. The basic aim behind this project is detection of abnormality or emergency condition, before they prove dangerous


Keywords: Electrocardiogram (ECG), Electrodes, Filters, Graphical User Interface, Heart rate monitoring, Noise, Signal Processing
01-06  
03.3005/03740106 
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2.

Survey on Energy-Efficient Secure Routing In Wireless Sensor Networks

Venkatesh Shankar , Dr Rajashree V Biradar

Abstract

Data security and energy aware communication are key aspects in design of modern ad-hoc networks. In this paper we investigate issues associated with the development of secure IEEE 802.15.4 based wireless sensor networks (WSNs) – a special type of ad hoc networks. We focus on energy aware security architectures and protocols for use in WSNs. To give the motivation behind energy efficient secure networks, first, the security requirements of wireless sensor networks are presented and the relationships between network security and network lifetime limited by often in-sufficient resources of network nodes are explained. Second, a short literature survey of energy aware security solutions for use in WSNs is presented.


Keywords: energy aware security architectures, routing protocols, security protocols, wireless sensor networks, WSN.
 
07-11  
03.3005/037407011 
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3.

Flood Frequency Analysis of River Subernarekha, India, Using Gumbel's Extreme Value Distribution

Dr. Manas Kumar Mukherjee

Abstract

Estimation of Peak Flood Discharge for a desired return period is a pre-requisite for planning, design and management of hydraulic structures like barrages, dams, spillways, bridges etc. In this paper, a mathematical model has been developed between Peak Flood Discharge and Return Period using Gumbel's Extreme Value Distribution. The model will give reasonable estimate of Peak Flood discharge for any desired value of T, without any instrumentation and expensive and time consuming field work. Peak Discharge is a potential tool for designing important hydraulic structures like Concrete Gravity Dam, Weir, Barrage, and Bridge across the river, Guide bank etc. Moreover, the Stage corresponding to any given value of Peak Discharge can readily be ascertained by developing Rating Curves following the procedure given by the Author as referenced below. This Stage will be helpful in maintaining Danger Level Flood of the river Subernarekha. Emergency evacuation may be adopted by propagating well advanced 'Flood Warning' that may save thousands of lives from the fury of flood, may be put in place.


Keywords:River Subernarekha, Peak Flood Discharge, Return Period, Gumbel's Extreme Value Distribution, Confidence Limit, Stage. Chi-Square test
12-19  
03.3005/0374012019 
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4.

Measures To Improve the Declining Usage and Operation of School Farm in Secondary Schools in Ekiti State, Nigeria

FAMIWOLE

Abstract

It has been observed that only few secondary schools have operational standard school farms, where practical agriculture can be learnt to complement classroom instructions in secondary schools. The main focus of this paper was to evolve the measures that can be adopted to improve the declining usage and operation of standard school farm in all secondary schools in Ekiti state. The study was a descriptive survey research. The population used comprised all the 602 teachers of agricultural science in both public and private secondary schools in the States. A combination of purposive, stratified and simple random sampling techniques were uesed to select the 160 teachers of agriculture who responded to the 4 sets of questionnaires used. The constructed questionnaires were face and content validated. A test retest method was used and a reliability co-efficient of 0.86 was obtained using Pearson Product Moment Co-relation Co-efficient formula. Frequency counts, percentages, ranking order, mean, standard deviation and t value were used to analyze the data used for the study, and test the formulated hypothesis respectively. The findings of the study revealed, among others, the major causes of the decline and the measures that can be adopted to improve the usage and operation of school farms. The study recommended that the Ministry of Education should give specifications for standard school farms; the Ministry in collaboration with relevant agencies should supervise and assist in funding supply of tools and implements for managing school farm in Ekiti State.


Keywords: Learning experience, skill development, learning by doing, practical agriculture, crop rotation.
 
20-27  
03.3005/037402027 
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5.

Anomaly Detection Using Hidden Markov Model

Sonali N.Jadhav, Kiran Bhandari

Abstract

This paper proposes an empirical method of Anomaly detection by analyzing the spending habit of vendee. Proposed system models the sequence of operations in credit card transaction processing using a Hidden Markov Model (HMM) and shows how it can be used for the detection of frauds. In the existing credit card fraud detection business processing system, fraudulent transaction will be detected after transaction is done. It is difficult to find out fraudulent and regarding loses will be barred by issuing authorities. Hidden Markov Model is the statistical tools for engineer and scientists to solve various problems. It is shown that credit card fraud can be detected using Hidden Markov Model during transactions. Hidden Markov Model helps to obtain a high fraud coverage combined with a low false alarm rate. Does not require fraud signatures and yet is able to detect frauds by considering a cardholder's spending habit. Card transaction processing sequence by the stochastic process of an HMM. The details of items purchased in Individual transactions are usually not known to an FDS running at the bank that issues credit cards to the cardholders. Hence HMM is an ideal choice for addressing this problem. The objective of the system is to detect the Anomaly during the transaction only and confirm the fraud by asking some security code. Hidden Markov Model helps to obtain a high fraud coverage combined with a low false alarm rate.


Keywords:Anomaly detection, Hidden Markov Model, Online Transactions, Data Mining, Clustering,Probability,Security.
28-35  
03.3005/0374028035 
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6.

Survey Of Currency Recognition System Using Image Processing

Amol A. Shirsath, S. D. Bharkad

Abstract

Image processing based currency recognition technique consists of few basic steps like image acquisition, its pre-processing and finally recognition of the currency. Normally camera or scanner is used for image acquisition. Then these images are processed by using various techniques of image processing and various features are extracted from the images which are the key concept behind currency classification. Application area of currency recognition includes foreign exchange, automatic selling of things and in banks. Recognition ability depends on the currency note characteristics of particular country and extraction of features.


Keywords: Classifier, Feature extraction, Foreign exchange, Markov chain , LBP, Neural Network, Pre-processing,
 
36-40  
03.3005/0374036040 
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7.

Optical Sensor System for Hemoglobin Measurement

Rajashree Doshi , Anagha Panditrao 

Abstract

For complete blood count Hemoglobin (Hb) is an essential parameter. This paper presents non invasive optical technique for Hb measurement. At different wavelengths absorption coefficient of blood differs this fact is used to measure the optical characteristics of blood. In this newly developed system, principle of pulse oximetry is used. Oxygenated and deoxygenated hemoglobin absorbs different amount of light at two wavelength 660nm and 940nm. Red and IR LED are used for these particular wavelengths. Transmitted light through an area of skin on finger was detected by a transimpedance amplifier photodiode. Ratio of pulsating to non pulsating component of both red and IR signal after normalization is calculated for determination of Hb. Signal acquisition by this method is totally noninvasive. The sensors assembled in this investigation are fully integrated into wearable finger clips.


Keywords: absorption of light, blood, hemoglobin, infra red, LED, noninvasive, optical method
41-45  
03.3005/0374041045 
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8.

Dynamic Search Algorithm In Unstructured Peer-To-Peer Networks

S.Vengalakshmi ,R.Dhivya 

Abstract

Designing efficient search algorithms is a key challenge in unstructured peer-to-peer networks. Flooding and random walk (RW) are two typical search algorithms. Flooding searches aggressively and covers the most nodes. However, it generates a large amount of query messages and, thus, does not scale. On the contrary, RW searches conservatively. It only generates a fixed amount of query messages at each hop but would take longer search time. We propose the dynamic search (DS) algorithm, which is a generalization of flooding and RW. DS takes advantage of various contexts under which each previous search algorithm performs well. It resembles flooding for short-term search and RW for long-term search. Moreover, DS could be further combined with knowledge-based search mechanisms to improve the search performance. We analyze the performance of DS based on some performance metrics including the success rate, search time, query hits, query messages, query efficiency, and search efficiency. Numerical results show that DS provides a good tradeoff between search performance and cost. On average, DS performs about 25 times better than flooding and 58 times better than RW in power-law graphs, and about 186 times better than flooding and 120 times better than RW in bimodal topologies.


Keywords: Peer-to-peer, performance analysis, search algorithm.
46-64  
03.3005/0374046064 
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9.

An Integrated Approach for Plagiarism Detection System

Shilpa, Mr. Manoj Challa

Abstract

Nowadays as Internet is becoming the primary media for information access and nearly every information is available in the Internet. Therefore, it becomes easier to use another author's contents from the Internet without giving proper reference. Others ideas, solutions or expressions are representing as one's own original work is known as plagiarism. In this paper, we propose a framework which works by integrating several analytical procedures. Scholarly documents under investigation are segmented into logical tree-structured representation using a procedure called DSEGMENT. Statistical methods are utilized to assign numerical weights to structural components under a technique called C-WEIGHT. The top weighted components from the structural components are fed into plagiarism detection technique called Optimized Semantic Role Labeler (OSRL).This technique analyses and compares text based on the semantic allocation for each term inside the sentence. The absolute hash function method is used to map large data sets of variable length to smaller data of fixed length by generating hash key .In terms of Recall and Precision, this method outperforms the results with the existing plagiarism detection methods.


Keywords:Plagiarism detection, Scientific Publication, Semantic Argument, Semantic Role, Semantic Similarity, Natural language processing, hash map.
65-72  
03.3005/0374065072 
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10.

Emergence of Hop Integrity in Computer Networks with Algorithms and Description of Protocols

Ashis Saklani

Abstract

A computer network is said to provide hop integrity iff when any router p in the network receives a message msupposedly from an adjacent router q, then p can check that m was indeed sent by q, was not modified after it wassent, and was not a replay of an old message sent from q to p. In this paper, we describe three protocols that canbe added to the routers in a computer network so that the network can provide hop integrity. These three protocolsare a secret exchange protocol, a weak integrity protocol, and a strong integrity protocol. All three protocols are stateless, require small overhead, and do not constrain the network protocol in the routers in any way.


Keywords:Security,Hop Integrity,Secret Exchange Protocol,Hop Integrity Protocol,Weak Integrity Protocol.
73-82  
03.3005/0374073082 
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Version V
S.No. Article Title Page No. Paper Index PDF
1.

Effect of Silica Fume On Engineering Properties Of Black Cotton Soil

Chhaya Negi , R.K.Yadav , A.K. Singhai

Abstract

Due to rapid growth of urbanization and industrialization, minimization of industrial waste is serious problem in present days. To encounter this ennovative and nontraditional research on waste utilization is gaining importances now a days. Soil improvement using the waste material like Slags,Rice husk ash,Silica fume etc.,in geotechnical engineering has been recommanded from environmental point of view. The main objective of this study is to evaluate the feasibility of using Silica fume as soil stabilization material. In this paper the effect of Silica fume on engineering characteristics of expansive clay like Black Cotton Soil has been presented. A series of laboratory experiment has been conducted on black cotton soil blended with Silica fume content from 5% to 20% by weight of dry soil. The experimental results showed a significant increase in California bearing ratio and Unconfined compressive strength.The Differential free swell of the clay is reduced from 50% to 7% with increase in Silica fume content from 0% to 20% respectively.The Proctor compaction results showed a small decrease in Maximum dry density and increase in Optimum moisture content. From this investigation it can be concluded that the Silica fume as a potential to improve the characteristics of black cotton soil.

Keywords:Silica Fume, Black cotton soil, Soil Stabilization, Engineering Properties
01-06  
03.3005/03750106 
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2.

Design Of A Low Power And High Speed 1.5 Bit Stage For Pipeline ADC

Darshana Upadhyay, Sudha Nair

Abstract

The design and the preliminary measurements of a prototype 10 bit pipeline ADC based on 1.5-bit per stage architecture is presented here. For conventional ADCs differential amplifiers dominate the power dissipationin most high-speed pipelined analog-to digital converters (ADCs).We propose a new technique to design Pipeline ADCwith Gm stage as differential amplifier for low power consumption. The gm based amplifier performs a class-AB operation by smoothly changing between a comparator-like semi digital driver and a continuous– time high-gain amplifier according to the input voltage difference.The ADC has been designed with 50nm CMOS technology and achieves the low power upto 1.5 mWand integral nonlinearity within 0.5 LSB and 0.9 LSB, respectively

Keywords:Gm-based amplifier, operational transconductance amplifier (OTA), Op-Amp, Pipeline Analog-to-digital converter (ADC),
 
07-12  
03.3005/037507012 
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3.

Incorporation of Dstatcom in Radial Distribution Systems

K.Nirmala, N. Poorna Chandra Rao

Abstract

In this paper presents a method to determine the weakest bus in a radial distribution system. A unique& novel voltagestability indicator (VSI) can identify the condition of load buses with voltage collapse point of view.The voltage stability indicator is derived from the voltage equation of radial distribution system. The weakest bus voltage profile is improved by placing a DSTATCOM. The DSTATCOM is modeled to supply the required reactive power for compensation and to maintain the voltage magnitude of the node where DSTATCOM is placed as 1 p.u. The validity of the proposed VSI and DSTATCOM modeling is examined by a standard 33 bus radial distribution system. The results validate the proposed VSI and DSTATCOM models in large distribution systems

Keywords:Distribution system, DSTATCOM, load flow, voltage stability, voltage stability indicator (VSI),Load modelling.
13-20  
03.3005/0375013020 
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4.

The Involvement of Rsus in Vanets: Survey and Perspectives

Ouchene Faiza, Boukhatem Lila, Gueroui Mourad 

Abstract

VANETs (Vehicular Ad hoc NETworks) are the most active domain of research in recent years. They are aimed at offering safety and non-safety applications. All type of vehicles and infrastructure are the component elements of such networks. Their important characteristics are the special mobility pattern and very dynamic topology.This leads to particular features for this type of network. Frequently, communication path is disconnected between source and destination nodes, which represent a challenge to provide routing protocols with low communication delay and low overhead. Two types of communications are present in VANET: Vehicle-To-Vehicle communication (V2V)which uses only vehicles in the process of data propagation from source to destination. And Vehicle-To-Infrastructure communication (V2I) where the infrastructures are solicited to transfer data. Several routing protocols are proposed in the literature especially in the case of V2V communication. In this paper, we mainly survey routing protocols V2I in VANETs.This study allows us to have an idea of the area of operation of RSUs in VANETs

Keywords:Ad-Hoc Networks, Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks, Routing Protocols, V2V communications, V2I communications, Roadside units and On Board units.
21-25  
03.3005/0375021025 
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5.

DESIGN AND ANALYSIS OF DS-CDMA DETECTED MULTIPATH SIGNALS USING THE RAKE RECEIVER SIMULATOR FOR WIRELESS COMMUNICATION

Parisae.Veera Swamy, M Hari Krishnam Raju ,P.Suresh

Abstract

Wireless cellular telephony has been growing at a faster rate than wired-line telephone networks. This growth has also been fueled by the recent improvements in the capacity of wireless links due to the use of multiple access techniques (which allow many users to share the same channel for transmission) in association with advanced signal processing algorithms. Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) is becoming a popular technology for cellular communications. One form of CDMA called Direct Sequence CDMA (DS-CDMA) uses a set of unique signature sequence or spreading codes to modulate the data bits of deferent users

26-30  
03.3005/0375026030 
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6.

A Triband Slotted Bow-Tie Antenna for Wireless Applications

Dr. Siva Agora Sakthivel Murugan, K.Karthikayan, Natraj.N.A, Rathish.C.R

Abstract

This paper presents a new approach for the design of a tri-band bowtie antenna. By incorporating slots with triangular shapes on the arms of the bowtie, resonance is obtained in the 2.5 GHz, 4.4 GHz, and 6.2 GHz bands. A study of the effect of triangular slots, their size and their location on the return loss of the antenna is presented. The designed antenna enjoys advantages such as low profile, low cost of fabrication, and high radiation efficiency. Details of the design along with experimental and simulation results in FEKO are presented and discussed. .The simulation results of proposed antenna are analyzed by using Method of Moment (MoM) from FEKO software.

Keywords:Triband,Triangular slots,Resonance.
31-35  
03.3005/0375031035 
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7.

An Enhanced Localization Scheme for Mobile Sensor Networks

Dr. Siva Agora Sakthivel Murugan, K.Karthikayan, Natraj.N.A, Rathish.C.R 

Abstract

Localization in mobile sensor networks is more challenging than in static sensor networks because mobility increases the uncertainty of nodes positions. The localization algorithms used in the Mobile sensor networks (MSN)are mainly based on Sequential Monte Carlo (SMC) method. The existing SMC based localization algorithms commonly rely on increasing beacon density in order to improve localization accuracy and suffers from low sampling efficiency and also sampling in those algorithms are static and have high energy consumption. Those algorithms cannot able to localize sensor nodes in some circumstances.The main reason for that is in some time slots the sensor node cannot hear any beaconnode. This results in localization failure. The Improved Monte Carlo Localization (IMCL) algorithm achieves high sampling efficiency, high localization accuracy even in the case when there is a low beacon density. This can be achieved using bounding box and weight computation techniques. This algorithm also uses time series forecasting and dynamic sampling method for solving the problem of localization failure. Simulation results showed that the proposed method has a better performance in sparse networks in comparison with previous existing method.

Keywords:Mobile Sensor Networks, Localization,Sequential Monte Carlo methods
36-43  
03.3005/0375036043
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Version VI
S.No. Article Title Page No. Paper Index PDF
1.

Analysis&Optimization of Design Parameters of Mechanisms Using Ga

B.Venu, Dr.M.nagaphani sastry

Abstract

The main objective of this study is to investigate of dynamic reaction forces of a crank mechanism. Therefore, this study consists of three major sections: (1) dynamic reactions investigation, (2) analysis of the mechanisms (3) optimization for static analysis. Analysis on slider crank mechanism is performed to calculate the reaction forces. This data is implemented for regression analysis for regression equation. These parameters are aimed to be optimized using GA. Because genetic algorithm is give good optimal values comparing to traditional optimization. This traditional optimization was done by using MATLAB.

Keywords:dynamic reactions, regression analysis, genetic algorithm (GA), MATLAB
01-12  
03.3005/037601012
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2.

Selection Problems for Application of Probit, Tobit, Logit & Maximum Likelihood Estimation: A Methodological Issue

Dr Debasis Patnaik , Mr Nikunj Sunil Sharma 

Abstract

The application of probabilistic models to economics and finance study poses a problem in the sense of which model is more appropriate. A brief discussion using case studies by authors is undertaken to assess a realistic level of difficulty in the discipline. Then we take recourse to data on women's wages and distribution thereof to assess equity in the system is assess the appropriability of use of a probabilistic model. Assessment of student scorecard is also done to show the relative degree of successful prediction achieved. Stata and SPSS softwares were used for filling in data, testing hypothesis and deriving results to nullify software specificity in result efficiency. Finally a model is built to decide whether an individual decides to pay the requisite amount of taxes or not.

13-29  
03.3005/0376013029
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3.

On The Stability and Accuracy of Some Runge-Kutta Methods of Solving Second Order Ordinary Differential Equations

S.O. Salawu, R.A. Kareem,O.T. Arowolo

Abstract

This paper seeks numerical solutions to second order differential equations of the form y   f  x , y , y   with initial value,   0 0 y x  y ,   0 0 y  x  y  using different Runge-Kutta methods of order two. Two cases of Explicit Runge-Kutta method were derived and their stability was determined, this is then implemented. The results were compared with the Euler's method for accuracy

Keywords:Euler's Method, Ordinary Differential Equation, Runge-Kutta method, Stability and Taylor series
30-39  
03.3005/0376030039
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4.

FPGA Modeling Of Neuron for Future Artificial Intelligence Applications

S. Sai Sree Andal, N. Aravind

Abstract

An Artificial Neural Network, often just called a neural network, is a mathematical model inspired by biological neural networks. A neural network consists of an interconnected group of artificial Neurons. An artificial neuron is a mathematical function conceived as a crude model, or abstraction of biological neurons. This project describes a system realization of translating data from electrochemical sensor for neuron to process on FPGA. The structure of a neuron is split into various sub blocks and these blocks will be implemented individually first and then they are integrated to form the entire neuron. This project will be implemented in three stages. First we have to convert the analog signal coming from the analog circuitry using an ADC (analog to digital converter). In this project the 12 bit ADC chip will be used to convert analog signal from 4 channel analog circuitry to digital. The next module is the design of mathematical operation. This includes issues relating to data structure, design of Multiplier Accumulator (MAC) and activation function implementation. The final module is displaying the result from the data that have been accumulated by the neuron. The proposed architecture is simulated using Modelsim and synthesized using Xilinx ISE and it will be implemented on FPGA board for hardware implementation and testing. The Xilinx Chip scope tool will be used to test the FPGA inside results while the logic running on FPGA..

Keywords:Synaptic weights, Activation function, Electrochemical sensors, Bias
40-46  
03.3005/0376040046
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5.

 

Design and Fabrication of Mobile Phone Controlled Four Legged Walking Robot

 Kadam Rohan Chandrakant, Mr. Vijayavithal Bongale, Mr. Sree Rajendra

Abstract

In recent years, practical mobile robots have been successfully used in controlled environments such as factories, offices, and hospitals, as well as outdoors on prepared surfaces and terrain with minor irregularities. The most common type of robot has rigid body and is driven on wheels or tracks. However, for the operation of mobile robots in extremely rough, uneven terrain has been impossible or unreliable at best. So instead of wheeled robot, it has looked to the animal world for inspiration, attempting to develop walking robot to imitate the body structure and method of locomotion of mammals, human beings, and other arthropods. However, reliable mobility on extremely uneven terrain such as step climbing, gap crossing, gradients, side slopes remains an elusive goal for manmade devices. Most legged robots have been based on the concept of a single rigid body having articulated legs. Such a robot become attractive for any required application traversal of terrain that is difficult for wheeled and tracked robots, and is expensive or dangerous for humans.The present project work describes design of four legged robot which uses legs for its movement instead of wheels. This robot is capable of receiving few sets of command instructions in the form of DTMF tones and performs the necessary tasks. This robot is controlled by mobile and is capable of walking front & back and other specified direction with the help of the legs. The robot also senses the movement of living beings, leakage of gas and gives the siren and sends the message so that robot can be used as a security device in many applications.

Keywords:Animal world, Control system, DTMF, Legged robot, Sensor, Uneven terrain, Wheeled robot.
47-51  
03.3005/0376047051
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6.

Fem Based Analysis Of Chip Tool Interactions To Study The Stress Distribution On The Rake Face

Mr.G.Balamurali, Mr. Bade Venkata Suresh, Mrs.Y.Shireesha, Mrs.T.Venkata Sylaja

Abstract

Introduction of green concepts in machining operations is being envisaged by introducing different echo friendly cooling systems in the modern machine shops. The role of cutting fluids usage in metal cutting is predominant as it influences the surface quality and production cost. The current work mainly focuses on the study of chip tool interactions viz. contact pressure, temperature and chip flow pattern on the rake surface in plain turning operation for different cutting parameters without any cooling medium and analyze the influence of high pressure air jet as the cooling medium on the chip tool interactions like contact pressure reducing the tool wear, cutting temperatures thereby increasing tool life..

Keywords:Modelling; Machining; Compressor; Air Jets; Nozzle.
52-58  
03.3005/0376052058
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7.

SAFETY ENGINEERING

Sangotola t.m.,Folami, f.t. ,Opaleye, e.t.

Abstract

Safety is the state or condition of freedom from danger or risk. It cannot be restricted to a field alone it is what's applicable to us in our day to day activities. This work covers safety in large organizations in relation to personal, fire and gas and automobile. Other areas which this work cover are safety at the place of work, safety of site in relation to protection of an individuals from the consequences of its own actions, safety of road men from potential hazard on a particular site (electricity, examinations and falls) and safety of road men from another's actions, regulations and rules as it relates personal, safety habit, workshop safety habits, tools safety, workshop machines tools safety and electrical equipment safety. This work sheds light on the characteristics of fire and the causes of fire outbreaks in public buildings (office buildings, hotels, cinema halls, warehouses etc). Also, it gives details on fire protections, precautions and means of escape in case of fire

Keywords:Safety, Environment, Equipment
59-63  
03.3005/0376059063
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