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International Journal of Computational Engineering Research (IJCER) Volume 3, Issue 6, June, 2013

Version I
S.No. Article Title Page No. Paper Index PDF
1

A Dwt-Svd Based Watermarking Techniques For Digital Images

Pooja Malhotra, Meenakshi Moza, Jyoti Verma

Abstract

Robustness geometric against distortion is one of the crucial important issues in watermarking. In this paper, a new discrete wavelet transform- singular value decomposition (DWT-SVD) image watermarking algorithm that is robust against affine transformation and ordinary image processing is presented. We use DWT transform to obtain four different frequency subbands. Watermarking is embedded in high frequency subbands by singular value decomposition (SVD). This is unlike traditional viewpoint that assumes watermarking should be embedded in low or middle frequency to have good robustness. Peak signal to Noise Ratio(PSNR) and Normal Cross Correlation are computed to measure image quality and template matching. In addition, the competency of the proposed scheme is verified under common image processing operations and a comparative study is made against our previous technique [6].

Keywords: DWT-SVD, Digital images, Robust watermarking
01-05  
03.3005/0360105
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2

Efficient Tree Based Structure for Mining Frequent Pattern from Transactional Databases

Hitul Patel, Prof. Mehul Barot , Prof. Vinitkumar Gupta

Abstract

Many different types of data structure and algorithm have been proposed to extract frequent pattern from a large given database. One of the fastest frequent pattern mining algorithm is the CATS algorithm, Which can efficiently represent whole data structure over single scan of the database. We have proposed an efficient tree based structure and algorithm that provide the performance improvement over CATS algorithm in terms of execution time and memory usage.

Keywords: Frequent Pattern Mining, Association Rule, Minimum Support, Transactional databases..
06-10


03.3005/03606010
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3

Local Maximum Lifetime Algorithms For Strong K-Barrier

Darshan R V, Manjunath C R, Nagaraj G S

Abstract

Barrier coverage of wireless sensor networks are been studied intensively in recent years under the assumption that sensors are deployed uniformly at random in a large area. In this paper a new network construction method of sensor nodes for Border Security Systems is proposed. This Barrier coverage are known to be a appropriate model of coverage for sensor barriers to detect intruders moving along restricted crossing paths, which is achieved by barriers of sensors. A Border Security System watches intruders by using sensor nodes with communication function. The detection of some intruders and the use of a long-term operation system are required in this system. This paper suggests a new Divide-and-Conquer scheme. Based on it, a new local maximal lifetime algorithm can be designed and following protocol for strong k- barrier with coordinated sensors. By computer simulation, we try to show that the proposed barrier coverage network construction methods are suitable for Border Security Systems and reduce the power consumption of the whole network system by effective control of sensor nodes.

Keywords: barrier coverage, data fusion, local algorithm, security, wireless sensor network;
11-14


03.3005/0361011014
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4

Sign Language Recognition System

Er. Aditi Kalsh, Dr. N.S. Garewal

Abstract

Communication is the process of exchanging information, views and expressions between two or more persons, in both verbal and non-verbal manner. Hand gestures are the non verbal method of communication used along with verbal communication. A more organized form of hand gesture communication is known as sign language. In this language each alphabet of the English vocabulary is assigned a sign. The physically disabled person like the deaf and the dumb uses this language to communicate with each other. The idea of this project is to design a system that can understand the sign language accurately so that the less fortunate people may communicate with the outside world without the need of an interpreter. By keeping in mind the fact that in normal cases every human being has the same hand shape with four fingers and one thumb, this project aims at designing a real time system for the recognition of some meaningful shapes made using hands.

Keywords: Edge Detection, Human Computer Interface (HCI), Image Processing, kNN Search, Peak Detection, Sign Language Recognition System (SLRs),
15-21


03.3005/0361015021
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5.

Enhancing The Security Of Wsn In Agriculture

Jagmohan Gaur ,Pooja Mittal

Abstract

Sensor is the device which takes or senses the physical or chemical quantities of the particular environment and then gives the information to the particular person or the other sink node which is specially designed for the collecting of the data from where the persons can get the information about that environment and act accordingly so that proper action can be taken. Whenever we use the sensors the network formed is called as the WSN (Wireless Sensor Network) and whenever we discuss about the WSN there is the possibility that at any certain point the security will be compromised since it is not that much secure network which is to be used for the transferring of the important data.In this paper we have proposed a method for the field of agriculture so that whenever the data will be transferred to the co-ordinating node then that data has to reach its destination (co-ordinating node) without any problem like congestion, node failure, hacking etc. And if any problem comes then that will be notified to the user suddenly.


Keywords: WSN, Sensor, Node.

22-25
03.3005/0361022025
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6.

Report on Reputation Based Data Aggregation For Wireless Network

Bhoopendra Singh , Mr. Gaurav Dubey

Abstract

wireless sensor network consists of spatially distributed autonomous sensors to monitor physical or environmental conditions, such as temperature, sound, pressure, etc. and to cooperatively pass their data through the network to a main location.In wireless networks, malicious sensor nodes send false data reports to distort aggregation results. Existing trust systems rely on general reputation to mitigate the effect of this attack. This report is the implementation of one of a novel reliable data aggregation protocol, called RDAT i.e Reliable Data Aggregation Protocol.In this report Reliable Data Aggregation Protocol with functional reputation is implemented. It is based on the concept of functional reputation. Functional reputation enables data aggregators to evaluate each type of sensor node action using a respective reputation value thereby increasing the accuracy of the trust system. The simulation results show that protocol RDAT significantly improves the reliability of aggregated data in the presence of compromised nodes.


26-33


03.3005/0361026033
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7.

Text Assisted Defence Information Extractor

Nishant Kumar, Shikha Suman, Anubhuti Khera, Kanika Agarwal

Abstract

The huge amount of news information available on the web or in a huge textual repository requires the use of Information Extraction (IE) techniques to filter the information needed by different category of users. Such techniques differ from a normal search. The main objectives of the Information Extraction System are: reduce the time spent in reading the articles included in the corpus, avert the redundancy and addition of various annotation lists. In this context, article recognition and extraction have become key points. In this paper we initially define the various processing resources as they are the base for an efficient Information Extraction System. Following this, an information extraction tool has been discussed, which is being developed for use of Defence Research & Development Organization using open source software and focuses on extracting defence related keywords from a pool of textual data. Preliminary result is very promising, although more refinement is under process

Keywords: Annie Transducer, Annotation sets, GATE, Information Extraction, Jape Grammar, Processing Resources, Text Mining

34-38
03.3005/0361034038
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8.

Analytical Review of Model Simplification Aspects for Wind Turbine Based Doubly Fed Induction Generator.

 Amit Nehete , Amit Pathak , Bhakti Chaughule

Abstract

There has been a fast growing demand for the application of doubly fed induction generators (DFIG) in wind power plants in recent years. They have in particular dominated the market in last two years. DFIG is an ideal candidate to satisfy the requirements of the recently proposed challenging grid codes. In order to investigate the transient response of doubly fed induction generator (DFIG) under various disturbances, an accurate modeling is required. In this paper simulation results of transient responses of DFIG during faults for different order models are reviewed. However, many uncertainties still exist regarding validated comprehensive DFIG models. This paper attempts to clarify the ambiguities in various model orders. Impact of various orders such as fifth, third and simplified model, accurate model including saturation, excluding saturation is discussed here. A brief review of assumptions and considerations with the choice of reference frames is also included.

Keywords: DFIG, Electric variables control, Flux Saturation, Induction Machine, Machine Models, Power system transient stability, Wind energy generation
39-52


03.3005/0361039052
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9.

Harmonic Analysis and Power Factor Correction For Food Processing Industry

Rupali Shinde , Amit Pathak , Bhakti Chaughule

Abstract

Harmonic analysis of the distribution system is essential to study the behavior of equipments connected in the non-sinusoidal system environment for designing and optimal location of filters. Harmonic distortion can have a significant impact on industrial customers such as additional losses and heating of certain network equipment, faulty operation of control equipment and interference in neighboring telecommunication system. In this case study harmonic analysis of food processing industry has done using harmonic analyzer 'YOKOGAVA'. The aim of the study was to improve the power factor, maintain harmonic distortion within acceptable levels and reduce possible resonance problem at the plant. Analysis of voltage and current harmonics is performed at distribution side point of common coupling before and after connecting APFC panel

Keywords: APFC Panel, Energy Audit, Harmonics, Nonlinear load, Total Harmonic Distortion, Under loaded motors, Yokogava.
53-58
03.3005/0361053058
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10.

Reduction In Harmonic Distortion Of The System Using Active Power Filter In Matlab/Simulink.

Bhakti I. Chaughule , Amit L. Nehete , Rupali Shinde

Abstract

A different type of load draws non-sinusoidal current from the mains, degrading the power quality by causing harmonic distortion. These nonlinear loads appear to be prime sources of harmonic distortion in a power system. In addition, the harmonic currents produced by nonlinear loads can interact adversely with a wide range of power system equipment, most notably capacitors, transformers, and motors, causing additional losses, overheating, and overloading and interferences. The aim of this paper is to review an active power filter that commonly used to mitigate harmonics. Thus, to solve this harmonics problems The system is verified by simulation using Matlab/Simulink simulation package. The paper starts with a brief overview of harmonic distortion problems and their impacts on electric power quality, how the active power filter mitigate this problems and the verifying using Matlab software. The proposed filter minimizes the harmonic distortion is within an acceptable range.

Keywords: Active power filter, current harmonic, load, Matlab, non-linear load, power quality, Total harmonic distortion.
59-64


03.3005/0361059064
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Version II
S.No. Article Title Page No. Paper Index PDF
1.

Efficient Triple Connected Domination Number of a Graph.

G. Mahadevan, N. Ramesh, Selvam Avadayappan ,T. Subramanian 

Abstract

The concept of triple connected graphs with real life application was introduced in [16] by considering the existence of a path containing any three vertices of a graph G. In [3], G. Mahadevan et. al., was introduced the concept of triple connected domination number of a graph. A subset S of V of a nontrivial connected graph G is said to be triple connected dominating set, if S is a dominating set and the induced sub graph

Keywords: Domination Number, Triple connected graph, Triple connected domination number, Efficient triple connected domination number.
01-06
03.3005/03620106
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2.

Four Wave Mixing In DWDM Optical System.

Gouri Deshmukh, Prof.Santosh Jagtap

Abstract

Optical nonlinearities give rise to many ubiquitous effects in optical fibres'. These effects are interesting in themselves and can be detrimental in optical communication. In the Dense Wave length division multiplexing system (DWDM) the nonlinear effects plays important role .DWDM system offers component reliability, system availability and system margin. DWDM system carries different channels. Hence power level carried by fiber increases which generates nonlinear effect such as SPM, XPM, SRS, SBS and FWM. Four wave mixing (FWM) is one of the most troubling issues. The FWM gives crosstalk in DWDM system whose channel spacing is narrow. By using the fiber with proper amount of dispersion and by unequal spacing between channels it is possible to suppress FWM crosstalk. In this paper the effect of FWM on optical system is considered and different techniques are compared to suppress FWM. Also optical spectrum and eye diagrams are observed for various dispersion and equal or unequal spacing at attenuation 0.2 dB, power 0.2 mW and wavelength 1550 nm.

Keywords: FWM, DWDM system, channel spacing, Optical spectrum, cross phase modulation
 
07-11
03.3005/036207011
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3.

Analyzing Macular Edema In Diabetic Patients.

Deepika.K.G, Prof.Prabhanjan.S 

Abstract

Diabetic macular edema (DME) is an advanced symptom of diabetic retinopathy and can lead to irreversible vision loss. In this paper, a two-stage methodology for the detection and classification of DME severity from color fundus images is proposed. DME detection is carried out via a supervised learning approach using the normal fundus images. A feature extraction technique is introduced to capture the global characteristics of the fundus images and discriminate the normal from DME images. Disease severity is assessed using the neural networks.

Keywords: Abnormality detection, diabetic macular edema, hard exudates, PCA, Neural network.
12-18
03.3005/0362012018
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4.

Intrusion Detection in Virtualized Environment.

Nilambari Joshi, Varshapriya J N 

Abstract

Server Virtualization is one of the concepts driving current enterprise infrastructure design and setup. It ensures business continuity and agility through on demand resource sharing and optimum resource utilization. At the same time it has raised concerns over new trends of security breaches and attacks on virtual machines. Traditional Intrusion Detection systems have their own limitations and they are less effective when used in virtual environment. Concept of Virtual Machine Introspection can be considered as an effective mechanism to do intrusion detection in virtual machine. This paper studies approaches of intrusion detection in virtual machines from higher privileged level than virtual machine operating system and presents a framework to detect network based as well as host based attacks on virtual machine.

Keywords: Hypervisor, Intrusion Detection, Security, Virtual Machine Introspection, Virtualization.
19-25
03.3005/0362019025
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5.

Maximum Likelihood for Land-Use/Land-Cover Mapping and Change Detection Using Landsat Satellite Images: A Case Study "South Of Johor.

Hayder Abd Al-Razzaq Abd, Husam Abdulrasool Alnajjar 

Abstract

Land cover change has become a central component in current strategies for managing natural resources and monitoring environmental changes. Urban expansion has brought serious losses of agriculture land, vegetation land and water bodies. Urban sprawl is responsible for a variety of urban environmental issues like decreased air quality, increased local temperature and deterioration of water quality. In this study we have taken South of Johor as a case study to study the urban expansion and land cover change that took place in a period of time about of 16 years from 1995 to 2011. Remote sensing methodology is adopted to study the geographical land cover changes occur during the study period. Landsat TM and 7 ETM+ images of Johor are collected from the USGS Earth Explorer website. After image pre-processing, supervised classification has been performed to classify the images in different land cover categories. The study area classified into five classes: urban area, water bodies, vegetative area, barren land and unknown area (clouds). Classification accuracy is also estimated using the field knowledge obtained from using a topographic map and Google earth. The obtained accuracy is about 90.11% and 94.14%. Change detection analysis shows that built-up area has been increased by 3%, in the other side the vegetative area has been decreased by 12%. Information on urban growth, land use and land cover change is very useful to local government and urban planners for the betterment of future plans of sustainable development of the city.

Keywords: Remote sensing, Maximum likelihood classification, Change detection, land use/land cover, Landsat TM and 7 ETM+ images, Urban growth.
26-33
03.3005/0362026033
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7.

An Automated Combined Microwave and Electric-Element Fish Dryer.

Boyo H. O., Boyo A. O., Osibona A., Ishola F

Abstract

This work provides an improvement in the efficiency and economics of the drying process by combining an electric hot air flow and microwave drying unit. It is intended to improve the nutritional qualities for the dried fish market and its shelf life. We fabricated a drying Kiln having combined 1.6KW twin microwave gun and 4KW quad electric element, volume 897,000cm3 and wet fish cargo capacity up to 80Kg. The characteristics of electric drying (ED) and combined microwave-electric drying (MED) of Clarias Gariepinus tissues were studied experimentally. Results show that the moisture ratio decreases with an increase in microwave drying time when microwave power is fixed. The drying rate is fast initially and then falls slowly. Finally, the curve of MED was steeper than that of ED alone during the initial drying period. The data of the percentage of water and volatile oil loss by drying with respect to time follows a logarithmic relationship. The taste panels evaluations and sample results of organoleptic assessment of the dried Clarias Gariepinus was found to range from excellent quality for appearance, taste and odour, good quality for fragmentation and texture. The addition of microwave to the electric heater has saved about 28 hours in drying time and reduced the product cost by energy consumption to 38%. In conclusion this method provides rapid dehydration (shorter drying time), improved product quality and flexibility in drying a wide variety of products.

Keywords: Microwave Electric Drying, Internal Moisture, Nutritional Qualities
 
38-41
03.3005/0362038041
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8.

Hetero-Sonic Methanolysis of Palm Kernel Oil To Produce Biodiesel Fuel.

H. O Boyo, O. T. Ogundipe, A. O. Boyo, L. A. Adams, N. N. Okwara 

Abstract

The valuable oil obtained from the kernel of the African oil palm, Elaeis guineensis was used for the production of biodiesel fuel (BDF). A prototype production plant based on hetero-sonic agitation was designed, fabricated and tested in the Hardware Development Laboratory. The produced plant was used to investigate the effect of hetero-sonic mixing on the methanolysis of palm kernel oil (PKO) in comparison to its absence in the conventional catalysis method. The susceptibility of commercial stocks of PKO to mesophilic and thermophilic fungi was investigated at the Molecular Systematic Laboratory. Its effect on the breakdown of PKO into free fatty acid (FFA) resulting into unpredictable quality of produced BDF was also investigated. Results showed that; Acoustic cavitations condition created by hetero-sonic agitation produced high speed mixing and mass transfer between methanol and oil. The net effect was a higher yield of biodiesel fuel within a shorter time frame. It proved to reduce the transesterification time. Rancidity of Palm kernel oil was facilitated by moisture, light exposure and atmospheric oxygen resulting to changes in odour and pH. Due to the biodegradation conditions, a pH change of 5+10% was observed on a 3 month average storage at the University of Lagos. This project provides the clue for sustainable and economic growth of the Nigerian energy sector which requires; a stock pile preservation of raw materials (PKO) and fast production plant (hetero-sonic mixer) to meet potential market quality and demands.

Keywords: Hetero-sonic Agitator (HA), Acoustic Spectral Control (ASC), virtual instrument (VI), Biodegradation, Biodiesel fuel (BDF).
42-47
03.3005/362042047
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9.

An Efficient Comparison Ofmimo-Ofdm Detection Using Spatial Multiplexingtechniques.

 Ms. Hiral Patel, Dr.MinalSaxena 

Abstract

Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO) systems have recently emerged as a key technology in wireless communication systems for increasing both data rates and system performance. There are many schemes that can be applied to MIMO systems such as space time block codes, space time trellis codes, and the Vertical Bell Labs Space-Time Architecture (V-BLAST). This paper proposes a novel signal detector scheme called MIMO detectors to enhance the performance in MIMO channels. , we study the general MIMO system, the general V-BLAST architecture with Maximum Likelihood (ML), Zero- Forcing (ZF), Minimum Mean-Square Error (MMSE), and Ordered Successive Interference Cancellation (SIC ) detectors and simulate this structure in Rayleigh fading channel. Also compares the performances of MIMO system with different modulation techniques in Fading and AWGN channels. Base on frame error rates and bit error rates, we compare the performance and the computational complexity of these schemes with other existence model. Simulations shown that V-BLAST implements a detection technique, i.e. SIC receiver, based on ZF or MMSE combined with symbol cancellation and optimal ordering to improve the performance with lower complexity, although ML receiver appears to have the best SER performance-BLAST achieves symbol error rates close to the ML scheme while retaining the low-complexity nature of the V-BLAST.

Keywords: MIMO, V-BLAST, ZF, MMSE SIC and ML
48-53
03.3005/0362048053
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10.

A Survey on Security in Multihop Wireless Network

Kritika Jain, Anurag Joshi, Pawan Prakash  

Abstract

Multihop wireless networks are the type of networks which require two or more wireless hops to deliver the information from the source to destination. Thus finding an optimal and most secure path to route the data is the major challenge. There are various routing protocols proposed for Multihop wireless networks but most of them are either insecure or informal method of reasoning is used to analyze their security.In this paper, we aim to identify the security measures that could increase the security of routing protocol.

Keywords: Routing, Routing protocols, Adversary, Security attacks, Authentication, Node disjoint paths
54-59
03.3005/0362054059
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11.

Modeling and Fault Analysis of Canal Type Small Hydro Power Plant

 Rayes Ahmad Lone ,Zahoor Ahmad Ganie 

Abstract

TIn this paper, the simulation model of a typical canal type small hydroelectric power plant was developed through interconnection of models of various equipments of the plant under consideration in a MATLAB/Simulink based software environment. The various components of small hydroelectric plant like governor, Semi-Kaplan turbine, synchronous generator, exciter are being considered under modeling and simulation.. The aim is to study its behavior during phase to phase fault. This study helps in verifying costs and safety conditions, in selecting the best alternatives in the early phase of design and to determine the requirements of special protection devices to control over-current and under-voltage..

Keywords: Mathematical models, small hydro electric power plants, Fault Currents, Fault Voltages, Matlab/Simulink.
60-67
03.3005/0362060067
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12.

Analysis of Performance Standard ABNT NBR 15575:2008 with Emphasis on the Luminic Performance, In the Context of Brasilia.

Suélio da Silva Araújo ,Rudi Sato Simões ,Rosa Maria Sposto 

Abstract

This study is a review based on the theoretical analysis of the Performance Standard ABNT NBR 15575:2008 focused lighting and in the performance standards or other national and international sources relevant to the topic, as well as discussion of possible applications or difficulties of implementation in accordance with the criteria of the standard and its likely consequences, especially for users and professional construction of Brasilia, Brazil. Aims to produce a consultation document, the undergraduate and graduate students on luminous performance, based on the ABNT NBR 15575:2008, emphasizing the reality brasiliense through examples of buildings that have some type of control element for natural lighting. Ramble on possible impacts of implementing the standard in the professional, the market and for customers.

Keywords: Performance Standard ABNT NBR 15575, luminic performance, the control element
68-74
03.3005/0362068074
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13.

Application of the Artificial Neural Networks of MLP Type for the Prediction of the Levels of Heavy Metals in Moroccan Aquatic Sediments

 Hicham El Badaoui, Abdelaziz Abdallaoui, Imad Manssouri, L. Lancelot

Abstract

The present work describes a new approach to the prediction of the concentrations of heavy metals in Moroccan river sediments relying on a number of physico-chemical parameters. The originality of this work lies in the application of neural networks the application of neural networks MLP type (Multilayer Perceptron). During the first step, the parameters of the neurons are determined by the method supervised. In a second step, the weights of output connections are determined using the algorithm of gradient back propagation. The data used as the basis for learning of the neuronal model are those related to the analysis of the sediment samples collected at the level of several stations, distributed in space and time, of the watershed of the river Beht of the region Khemisset in Morocco. The dependent variables (to explain or predict), which are three, are containing heavy metal (Cu, Pb and Cr) of sediments. A comparative study was established between the neuronal model for prediction of MLP type and conventional statistical models namely the MLR (Multiple linear regression).The performance of the predictive model established by the type MLP neural networks are significantly higher than those established by the multiple linear regression.

Keywords: Heavy metals, Prediction, Physico-Chemical Parameters, ANN, Back propagation Gradient, MLP, MLR.
 
75-81
03.3005/0362075081
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14.

AUGMENTED ZRP AS A ROUTING PROTOCOL FOR MANET.

Gayatri Kapila

Abstract

MANET (Mobile ad hoc Network), ZRP, Modified ZRP.

Keywords: MANET (Mobile ad hoc Network), ZRP, Modified ZRP
  
82-86
03.3005/0362082086
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Version III
S.No. Article Title Page No. Paper Index PDF
1.

Design and Construction of an Adjustable and Collapsible Natural Convection Solar Food Dryer

Yusuf Abdullahi, Musa Momoh, Mahmoud Muhammad Garba, Muazu Musa

Abstract

A new model of a box type adjustable and collapsible natural convection solar food dryer, capable of taking 14,688 pieces equivalent to 16.52kg of fresh groundnut with maximum moisture content of 35%, at maximum capacity of 3.39m2, and 3,672 pieces equivalent to 4.06kg of groundnut at minimum capacity of 0.8475m2, was designed and constructed using locally available materials.

Keywords: Adjustable, Collapsible, Solar, Food Dryer
01-08
03.3005/03630108
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2.

A Presumable Data Retentive Framework for Multi Cloud

 S.L Sailaja, S.Anjanayya

Abstract

Cloud Storage or storage outsourcing is a rising trend where the cloud storage service provides a comparably low-cost, scalable, position-independent platform for storing client's data. This archival storage guarantees the authenticity of data on storage server, but does not guarantee for the tampering of data (modifications or deletions, to the data).Thus, the problem for proving the integrity of the data stored at the third party cloud service providers has increased its attention. This work defines a framework for the efficient construction of data possession at the cloud storage servers dynamically. This scheme is considered for a hybrid cloud in which multiple cloud storages servers are considered, based on a cryptographic technique Interactive Proof System-multi-proved Zero knowledge proof system. This system is based on homomorphic verifiable response from multiple cloud servers, and the stored data is indexed using collision resistant hash index hierarchy. This scheme satisfies the security properties of completeness, knowledge soundness, and zero-knowledge system. This work also presents an optimal method for minimizing the computation, communication costs of storage service providers.

Keywords:Data possession, data outsourcing, storage outsourcing, probabilistic possession
09-13
03.3005/036309013
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3.

Modeling and Characterization of Piezoelectric Mems Energy Harvester

Varalakshmi perumal , Dr . s.Hosimin Thilagar 

Abstract

This paper presents the modeling, characterization of a piezoelectric microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) energy harvester using a d33 piezoelectric mode. A analytical modeling for the d33-mode device were first performed to estimate the output voltage as a function of the material parameters and device geometry. A Zno layer was newly applied as an interlayer between the PZT and silicon dioxide films to improve the piezoelectric property. The cantilever PZT film with an interdigital shaped electrode exhibited a polarization of 3.25e-15C/m^2, a relative dielectric constant of 1125.1, and a d33 piezoelectric constant of 50 pC/N. The simulated energy-harvesting device generated an electrical voltage of 0.3453V for a force 45e-6 of from a vibration. The corresponding electric field and polarization was produced.

Keywords: energy harvesting, interdigital electrodes, lead zirconate titanate (PZT) , microelectromechanical systems (MEMS), piezoelectric effect
14-18
03.3005/0363014018
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4.

PS2 Controller IP Core For On Chip Embedded System Applications

V.Navya Sree , B.R.K Singh

Abstract

In many case on chip systems are used to reduce the development cycles. Mostly IP (Intellectual property) cores are used for system development. In this paper, the IP core is designed with ALTERA NIOSII soft-core processors as the core and Cyclone III FPGA series as the digital platform, the SOPC technology is used to make the I/O interface controller soft-core such as microprocessors and PS2 keyboard on a chip of FPGA. NIOSII IDE is used to accomplish the software testing of system and the hardware test is completed by ALTERA Cyclone III EP3C16F484C6 FPGA chip experimental platform. The result shows that the functions of this IP core are correct, furthermore it can be reused conveniently in the SOPC system.

Keywords:Intellectual property
19-22
03.3005/0363019022
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5.

Medical Diagnosis by Using Relation Extraction

M.Syed Rabiya

Abstract

The healthcare information system extracts the sentences from published medical papers that mention group of diseases and treatments, and identifies semantic relations that exist between diseases and treatments.The extracted information is less accurate. My proposed methodology obtains reliable outcomes that could be integrated in an application to be used in the medical care main. The potential value of my paper stands in the ML settings that I propose and in the fact that would outperform previous results on the same data set. The same data set to provide the fact.

Keywords: Healthcare, machine learning, natural language processing
23-27
03.3005/0363023027
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6.

Modelling of Automated Controllable Network Transformer

 Nepolean.C, Harinath.S, Ilampoornan.M.K

Abstract

Controllable Network Transformer (CNT) is considered as an important component in the AC links. It has flexibility of matching two networks of different voltage levels with subsequent power flow control. This work highlights the use of controllable network transformers along with simulation. The work further analysed CNT by automating its response to system voltage variation. The automation is successfully done using MATLAB simulation package. The output obtained proves beyond doubt the capability and indispensable nature of CNT in future trend of the network links.

Keywords: AC chopper, CNT, LTC, pulse width, tap.
28-34
03.3005/0363028034
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7.

Construction of Theissen Polygons for Rain Gauge Stations in Anantapuram District

Dr. R. Bhavani

Abstract

Anantapuram district is one of the drought affected districts in Andhra Pradesh and has semi arid type of climate. The spatial and temporal variability of rainfall in the district is high. It is necessary to adopt a suitable method to evaluate the applicable precipitation for water resources management. Computation of weighted precipitation considering all the influencing rain gauge stations of the catchment area is one of the suitable methods. Theissen polygon method can be used for finding the influencing zones of the rain gauge stations. In the present study an attempt has been made to construct Theissen polygons for all the existing 63 rain gauge stations in Anantapuram district so that the area influenced by each rain gauge station can be determined. It provides facility to estimate the weighted area for the proposals where ever necessary with in Anantapuram district.

Keywords: Influencing area, Isohyet, Perpendicular bisectors, Precipitation, Rain gauge station, Theisssen polygon and Weighted area
 
35-38
03.3005/0363035038
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8.

Ranked Keyword Search in Cloud Computing: An Innovative Approach

 Vimmi Makkar, Sandeep Dalal

Abstract

Cloud computing has become an integral part of IT industry. Amount of information available on World Wide Web is increasing at an exponential pace. In such a vast collection it becomes difficult for the user to query something out of the whole collection. Great efforts have been made for facilitating users via keyword search. However, there are a few researches about entertaining the exact user query and presenting a ranked URL list according to it. In this paper, We give an overview of our framework for keyword searching with summaries, besides we describe a ranking algorithm for ranked keyword search and their results. Keyword searches are typically done so that users can actively utilize clouds to query a collection. This paper discusses our study design on user presenting a query in a cloud.

Keywords: Cloud computing, Ranked keyword search
39-44
03.3005/0363039044
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9.

Effects of Earthquake Loads on Existing School Buildings In Sudan.

M.A. Ismaeil, M.E. Sobaih, A.E. Hassaballa

Abstract

Schools built world-wide routinely collapse in earthquakes due to avoidable errors in design and construction. This is because existing technology is not applied and existing laws and regulations are not enforced. Unless action is taken immediately to address this problem, much greater loss of life will occur. It is estimated that of the approximately one billion children in compulsory education living in countries with high seismic risk, several hundred millions would be in danger if an earthquake were to strike while they are attending school. Recently the evaluation of seismic performance of existing school buildings has received a great attention. All school buildings in Sudan are not earthquake-resistant. The objective of this paper is to assess the seismic performance and retrofitting of existing school buildings in Sudan. Two typical case studies have been chosen. The evaluation has proved that the two-story school is not safe. A comparative study has been done to choose a suitable strengthening method. An effective method has been proposed by adding steel shear walls.

Keywords: Earthquake, Existing, Loads, Retrofitting, School building, Steel plate, Sudan.
45-56
03.3005/0363045056
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10.

Detection System of Illegal Logging Image Using Matching Process With Discrete Cosine Transform

Syafruddin Syarif, Nadjamuddin Harun, M. Tola, M. Wihardi Tjaronge

Abstract

To support the government monitoring system, Logging Detection Tool is used as an implementation of remote sensing technology. It prevents the forest from any damage due to illegal logging activity. Illegal Logging is an actifity of deforestation without any authority and causes many problems in some sectors such as economic, ecology and enviromental inbalance as a result of disruption of the forests. The research is aim to create a system to detect the illegal logging, using Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT). The Image Processing Stage is using index selection. The value of index is taken from RGB Image that has been proceed with DCT and applied as the data to determine the forest location based on its damage. In this system, to reveal the site or forest location, it is derived from its damage level through the selection of total of avarage index value and characterized as low, moderate and severe level. Image sample is taken from reserved forests in Gowa, South Sulawesi, Indonesia. It has 750 m x 560 m size and using a sample image pairs in year 2007 as the initial data and year 2009 for the final data. The test results give the accuracy of the illegal logging detection system with DCT and it reaches 83.33%.

Keywords:Illegal Logging, Illegal Logging Detection, Discrete Cosine Transform, Image Processing Stage, Index selection
 
57-62
03.3005/0363057062
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11.

Literature Review on Application of Artificial Neural Network (Ann) In Operation of Reservoirs.

S.S.Khare , Dr. A.R.Gajbhiye

Abstract

Population explosion, urbanisation and industrialisation increased the water demands for various purposes other than irrigation demands like domestic requirements, industrial demands, hydropower and recreation etc. Reservoirs, the most important elements of a complex water resources system are constructed for spatial and temporal redistribution of water resources. Once the structural facilities like dams, barrages and distribution network etc. are constructed, the benefits that could be available / gained depends to a large extent, upon how well these facilities are operated and managed. System analysis like simulation and optimisation has proved to be a potential tool in the planning, operation and management of the available resources. In recent years, artificial intelligence techniques like Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) have arisen as an alternative to overcome some of the limitations of traditional Guide curve methods. Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) is black box models that are used to forecasting and estimating purposes in so many different areas of the science and engineering. A study will be carried out to develop an ANN model for reservoir operation and assess the application potential of ANN in attaining the reservoir operation objectives compared with the conventional rule curves.

Keywords: Artificial Neural Network, Guide curves (Rule curves), optimisation, reservoir operation, System analysis.
 
63-68
03.3005/0363063068
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12.

Road Extraction from High Resolution Satellite Imagery.

H. S. Bhadauria, Annapurna Singh, Ashish Arya

Abstract

This paper describes the task of extracting road from a satellite image. Road information is essential for automatic Geographical Information System (GIS) application, such as cartography, military, traffic controlling software and infrastructure planning. Automatic and semi-automatic, two types of techniques for road extraction, have improved the extraction rate of road networks. In this paper a methodology is introduced to predict the performance of road detection from high resolution satellite image. Extented Kalman Fiter (EKF) is used for single road detection. While in typical areas, where there are obstacles, Particle Filter (PF) with EKF has been used. In contrast to previous work on road detection, the focus is on characterizing the road detection performance to achieve reliable results of the detection when both human and computer resources are involved.

Keywords: Road map extraction, satellite imaging, Extended Kalman filtering, particle filtering
 
69-75
03.3005/0363069075
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13.

Heavy Metal Biosorption Using Cheap Biomass.

S.V.A.R.Sastry, B.Shyam Shankar, S.V.S. Kishore

Abstract

The metal taking capacity of several types of biomass, agro products and by-products has gained attention during recent years. In the present study, one such material i.e., coconut shell powder was chosen as the biosorbent for the removal of Cu(II) from aqueous solutions. The adsorption capacity of this sorbent was investigated by batch experiments. High adsorption (>90 %) is achieved in the present study.

Keywords: Biosorption, Copper, Coconut shell powder
 
76-78
03.3005/0363076078
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14.

MANET: Black Hole Node Detection in AODV.

Ms.Chetana Khetmal, Prof.Shailendra Kelkar, Mr.Nilesh Bhosale

Abstract

In today's world every user need to transfer data with one-other irrespective to individual's geographic location. Hence a Mobile Ad-hoc Network (MANET) has become a vital part of modern communication over wireless network. MANET helps to transfer data without fixed infrastructure and many autonomous nodes vigorously can become part of ongoing communication. Due to this, MANET gets attacked by malicious nodes very easily. Hence secure routing of data packet in MANET is essential task. There are number of attacks we have seen in MANET like Denial of Service attack, Jellyfish attack, Warm-Hole attack etc. In this paper we are concentrating on Black Hole attack in AODV i.e. Ad-hoc On Demand Distance Vector Routing. We are proposing authentication techniques based on Authenticated Node, Authentication on Path, Authentication Key Packet and Data Routing Information table (DRI) on each node.

Keywords: AODV routing protocol, Authentication Terminologies, Black Hole Attack, MANET (Mobile Ad-hoc NETwork), External or Internal attack, Active or Passive attack.
 
79-85
03.3005/0363079085
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15.

Eye Safe Laser Using Optical Parametric Oscillation

Kireet Semwal , S. C. Bhatt

Abstract

It is found that laser with operating wavelengths in the region of approximately 0.4 μm to 1.4 μm (i.e. visible and near infrared) is the eye hazardous portion of optical spectrum, because in this region it is transmitted by the cornea and the lens serves to focus the laser beam on the retina. Thus, the actual laser power density entering the eye can be increased by some 105 by the time the light gets to the retina, and burn it without any time lag. This hazardous wavelength region often called ocular focus region. Whereas wavelengths beyond this region are absorbed in the cornea, lens, and vitreous humor of eye, and therefore laser cannot make direct impact on the retina. In this region our eye is relatively safe, and there is only thermal injury to eye. Therefore retinal damage is often more severe than corneal damage. Eye damage may not only result from laser light coming directly from the laser, but may also by light coming from secondary light path i.e. reflection, refraction, scattering etc. For extremely high-power laser, even diffuse reflections may be capable of causing eye damage.

Keywords: Eye safe laser, MPE for Eye, Optical Parametric Oscillator, KTP crystal
 
86-92
03.3005/0363086092
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16.

Mobile Learning for Education: Benefits and Challenges

Yousef Mehdipour , Hamideh Zerehkafi

Abstract

Education and training is the process by which the wisdom, knowledge and skills of one generation are passed on to the next. Today there are two forms of education and training: conventional education and distance education. Mobile learning, or "M-Learning", offers modern ways to support learning process through mobile devices, such as handheld and tablet computers, MP3 players, smart phones and mobile phones.This document introduces the subject of mobile learning for education purposes. It examines what impact mobile devices have had on teaching and learning practices and goes on to look at the opportunities presented by the use of digital media on mobile devices. The main purpose of this paper is to describe the current state of mobile learning, benefits, challenges, and it's barriers to support teaching and learning.

Keywords: Education, Learning, M-Learning, Mobile, Teaching
 
93-100
03.3005/03630930100
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17.

A Novel Approach for Converting Relational Database to an Object Oriented Database: Data Migration and Performanace Analysis

Mr.R.S.Mawale, Prof.A.V.Deorankar, Prof. V. A. Kakde

Abstract

The object-oriented data model is predicted to be the heart of the next generation of database systems. Users want to move from old legacy databases into applying this new technology that provides extensibility and exibility in maintenance. However, a major limitation on the wide acceptance of object-oriented databases is the amount of time and money invested on existing database applications, which are based on conventional legacy systems. Users do not want to lose the huge amounts of data present in conventional databases. This paper presents a novel approach to transform a given conventional database into an object-oriented database. It is assumed that the necessary characteristics of the conventional database to be re-engineered are known and available. The source of these characteristics might be the data dictionary and/or an expert in the given conventional database.

Keywords: algorithms, data migration, forward engineering, object-oriented databases, reengineering of legacy databases, relational databases
 
101-104
03.3005/036301010104
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Version IV
S.No. Article Title Page No. Paper Index PDF
1.

Automatic Generation Control of Three Area Power Systems Using Ann Controllers

Nehal Patel , Prof.Bharat Bhusan Jain 

Abstract

This paper presents the use of one of the methods of artificial intelligence to study the automatic generation control of interconnected power systems. In the given paper, a control line of track is established for interconnected three area thermal-thermal-thermal power system using generation rate constraints (GRC) & Artificial Neural Network (ANN). The proposed control has been designed for a three-area interconnected power system that two areas include steam turbines , artificial neural network (ANN) controller, which controls the inputs of each area in the power system together, is considered. The working of the controllers is simulated using MATLAB/SIMULINK package. The outputs using both controllers are compared and it is established that ANN based approach is better than GRC for 1% step load conditions. The performance of the power system is simulated by using GRC and ANN controller, separately. By comparing the results for both cases, the performance of ANN controller is better than GRC.

Keywords: Load Frequency Control(LFC), Automatic Generation Control(AGC), ANN Controller, Area Control error(ACE), Narma controller, Tie-line, Control System Tool, MATLAB / SIMULINk.
01-07
03.3005/03640107
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2.

An Effort to Improve Cohesion Metrics Using Inheritance

Ankita Mann, Sandeep Dalal,Dhreej Chhillar 

Abstract

Software metrics are used to assess and improve the quality of Software Product. Class Cohesion is degree of relatedness of class members and important measurement attribute of quality of a software product. But most of the existing cohesion tools and approaches do not consider inherited elements. But to measure overall design of product it is necessary to include all inherited elements. In this paper we calculate all existing metrics on implemented elements as well as on inherited elements to measure quality of design.

Keywords: Software metrics, Cohesion.
08-15
03.3005/036408015
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3.

A Novel Approach for Design and Verification of 4-Bit Asynchronous Counter Using Reversible Logic Gates

K Ramprasd , R Sudheer Kumar,

Abstract

Reversible logic has extensive application in emerging nanotechnologies. Design of reversible sequential circuits are presented that are optimized for the number of reversible gates and the garbage outputs. The optimization of the number of the reversible gates is not sufficient since each reversible gate is of different computational complexity, and thus will have a different quantum cost and delay. While the computational complexity of the reversible gates can be measured by its quantum cost, the delay of a reversible gate is another parameter that can be optimized during the design of a reversible sequential circuit. In this work, we presents novel designes of reversible latches that are optimized in terms of quantum cost, delay and the garbage outputs. The optimized designs of reversible latches presented in this work are the T latch and SR latch. The choice of reversible gates and design approach to carefully select a reversible gate for implementing a particular logic function will significantly impact the quantum costm, delay and garbage outputs of the reversible design. As compared to the best reported designs in literature, the proposed reversible sequential latches are better in terms of quantum cost, delay and garbage outputs.

Keywords: Quantum cost, Quantum Delay, Reversible, Garbage, Ancilla, Optimization, flip-flop, Complexity.
 
16-21
03.3005/0364016021
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4.

Cloud Computing Security: Abuse and Nefarious Use of Cloud Computing

Yasir Ahmed Hamza, Marwan Dahar Omar

Abstract

Cloud computing is an emerging and promising computing model that provides on-demand computing services which eliminates the need of bearing operational costs associated with deploying servers and software applications. As with any technology, cloud computing presents its adopters with security and privacy concerns that arise from exposing sensitive business information to unauthorized access. This paper will explore and investigate the scope and magnitude of one of the top cloud computing security threats "abuse and nefarious use of cloud computing" and present some of the attacks specific to this top threat as it represents a major barrier for decision makers to adopting cloud computing model. Also, this paper aims to serve as an introductory research effort to warrant more extensive research into this top threat and help researchers to make recommendations to business organizations as to whether or not their data are vulnerable to such threat when deciding to join the cloud.

Keywords: algorithms, data Cloud computing security threats, Virtualization, Abuse and nefarious use of cloud computing, Public cloud, Private cloud
22-27
03.3005/0364022027
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5.

Investigation Analysis on Design and Modification of a Conventional Floating Dome Digester

Subbarao Chamarthi, N.Srinivasa Reddy , Ch Chandra Mouli 

Abstract

A 2 m3 floating dome anaerobic digester has been developed and its performance is compared with that of conventional mild steel dome biogas digester The overall objective of carrying the work is to construct the transparent dome type biogas plant for better performance of the digester tank and to optimize the biogas generation under normal operating conditions. The experimental setup consists of a conventional biogas plant in which analysis is carried out to check the performance of the plant. Apart from that the biogas plant is modified from conventional mild steel dome type digester to transparent fibre type dome plant to capture the green house effect and the results are compared with the conventional biogas plant in order to check the performance of the modified biogas plant.The experimental setup consists of two plants which are located at Vyara region 60 km away from Surat. The two plants are studied under normal operating conditions in which one of the plant acts as reference to the modified plant. The reference plant is a conventional biogas plant with floating drum type digester having mild steel as a digester dome whereas the modified biogas plant is also a floating drum type digester plant with transparent fibre material as the dome.

Keywords: ANAEROBIC DIGESTER, TRANSPARENT FIBRE DOME, MILD STEEL DOME
28-33
03.3005/0364028033
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6.

THD Minimization of a Cascaded Nine Level Inverter Using Sinusoidal PWM and Space Vector Modulation

G.Lavanya, N.Muruganandham, 

Abstract

Multi-level inverters offer several advantages such as a better output voltage with reduced total harmonic distortion (THD), reduction of voltage ratings of the power semiconductor switching devices and also the reduced electro-magnetic interference problems etc. Multilevel inverters synthesis the AC output voltages from various DC voltages. Space Vector Modulation (SVM) is one of the most popular PWM techniques used in multilevel inverters. SVM provides a best space vector performance, sequences of different space vectors suitable for voltage source inverter is identified. In this paper a 9 level cascaded H-bridge inverter model for space vector PWM is established and simulated using MATLAB/SIMULINK software and its performance is compared with sinusoidal PWM. The simulation study reveals that space vector PWM utilizes dc bus voltage more effectively and generates less THD when compared with sine PWM.

Keywords: Multilevel Inverters, THD, Sinusoidal Pulse Width Modulation (SPWM), Space Vector PWM.
34-40
03.3005/0364034040
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7.

A Novel Design for a Scooter Radiator Using Minichannel

Thanhtrung Dang, Daly Minh Nao, Ngoctan Tran, And Jyh-Tong Teng,

Abstract

The study was presented a novel design for a scooter radiator using minichannel. The minichannel heat exchanger size is about 64% the size of the scooter radiator which made from manufacturer; however, the heat transfer rate obtained from the minichannel heat exchanger is higher than or equal to that obtained from the scooter radiator. In addition, the experimental method also shows that the heat transfer efficiency obtained from the heat exchangers with water as the working fluid is higher than that obtained from the heat exchanger with ethylene solution as the working fluid. The results are in good agreements with the relevant research.

Keywords: radiator, minichannel heat exchanger, experimental method, heat transfer rate, temperature.
 
41-49
03.3005/0364041049
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8.

Secure Adhoc Network

1,Pawan Bhadana , Ritu Khurana, Chanchal ,Manisha

Abstract

Now a day, it is no longer optional to have security solutions even inevitable for every kind of organizations and individuals. There are number of generic tools which are common for organizations as well as for individual users to provide security which includes; Anti-Spam, Anti-Virus etc., and network security have become essential issue in MANET. Security is one of the main issues in the MANET especially with respect to size and complexity of the network. The aim of the thesis is to discuss different aspects of security in MANET (e.g. multi-layer intrusion detection technique in multi hop network of MANET, security problems relates between multihop network and mobile nodes in MANET etc) and also implement some of the solutions (e.g. comparative study of different routing protocol (AODV, DSR and TORA) security threats within MANET network like intruder behavior, tapping and integrity, MANET link layer and network layer operations with respect to information security etc) with respect to MANET network.This paper also discusses different number of scenarios of MANET network which we implement in our simulation. In our simulation we use to implement different routing protocols and also did comparative study that which one is better with respect to different aspects. We also use to implements mechanisms of intruder behavior, tapping and integrity, and MANET link layer and network layer operations with respect to information security.

Keywords: MANET, Security, tapping, intruder
 
50-57
03.3005/0364050057
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9.

Study of Water Distribution Network Using EPANET

Ishani Gupta, Dr. R.K. Khitoliya, Dr. Shakti Kumar

Abstract

An attempt has been made to simulate the water distribution network of urban estate, city of Punjab, India, based on the observation taken in the month of April 2013. The area under study is served by Municipal Corporation, which relies on water supply from ground water deep bore wells. In this study attempt has been made to develop a water distribution system using EPANET software as a tool to assist the assessment of the hydraulic behaviour of hydraulic parameters. This report has presented the following aspects of the overall assessment of hydraulic behaviour of a water distribution network  Data gathered for simulation for the period of April 2013.  Development of water distribution model  Calibration of water distribution model The present day water distribution system has four deep bore tube-wells to serve. The simulation of network was carried out for 24 hour period supply for afternoon shift of 12 noon to 3pm. Elaborate calibration was not possible but attempt has been made to check simulation results at 10 different locations. Comparison of these results indicates that the simulated model seems to be reasonably close to the actual network.

Keywords: calibration, EPANET, hydraulic losses, simulation, distribution system.
58-61
03.3005/0364058061
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10

A Study of Treatability of Kitchen Wet Waste And Biogas Production

Navjot Riar, Dr. R.K.Khitoliya , Dr. Shakti Kumar

Abstract

The present paper contributes to solve 'the waste disposal' problem to some extent. The percentage of Kitchen waste in total Municipal solid waste is quite high, so the treatability of Kitchen waste should be start at personal level i.e. from homes. The contribution in treating the waste by using organic wet waste in anaerobic digestion i.e. decomposition of large complex chain into smaller chain of molecules without the presence of oxygen. Anaerobic digestion process is placed in Biogas plant. So for a middle class family the plan should be economical. Deenbandhu biogas plant is Economical plant, because the Payback period of this plant is 2 and half year only. The initial investment cost is only Rs27000/-. Place for such kind of plant at homes is 424sq. ft, which is easily available at backyard of home. The contribution describes the several month laboratory research of the utilization of domestic waste as the organic source of biogas production .The results from Deenbandhu biogas plant produces up to 6m³of Biogas per day, which is available for cooking 8-12hours for 10- 14 family members. Production of Biogas depends upon various factors which are also to be taken into account. So the optimum pH, TS% and temperature which is recorded time to time are i.e. 7, 12%and 37˚C respectively.

Keywords: Waste disposal, Treatability, Kitchen waste, Anaerobic digestion, Economics, Deenbandhu biogas plant.
62-65
03.3005/0364062065
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11.

A Survey of Permissive Public Auditability and Data Dynamics For Storage Security In Cloud Computing

Girish Metkar, Sanjay Agrawal,

Abstract

Cloud storage allows users to remotely store their information and revel in the on-demand top quality cloud applications while not the burden of local hardware and software management. although the advantages are clear, such a service is additionally relinquishing users physical possession of their outsourced information, that inevitably poses new security risks towards the correctness of the information in cloud. In order to handle this new drawback and any attain a secure and dependable cloud storage service,we offer in this paper a versatile distributed storage integrity mechanism, utilizing the homomorphic token and distributed erasure-coded information. The proposed style permits users to audit the storage of cloud with terribly light-weight communication and execution price. The auditing result not solely ensures robust cloud storage correctness guarantee, however conjointly at the same time achieves quick information error localization,that is, the notification of misbehaving server. Considering the cloud information are dynamic in nature, the planned style any supports secure and economical dynamic operations on outsourced data , as well as block modification, deletion, and append operation. Analysis shows the planned theme is extremely economical and resilient against Byzantine failure, malicious information modification assailant, and even server colluding attacks

 
66-71
03.3005/0364066071
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