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International Journal of Computational Engineering Research (IJCER) Volume 3, Issue 3, March, 2013

S.No. Article Title Page No. PDF Paper Index
1

Optimized Color Transforms for Image Demosaicing

Evgeny Gershikov

Abstract

Most demosaicing algorithms today are based on first reconstructing the green (G) color component followed by the reconstruction of the red (R) and the blue (B) components based on the green. This approach and the associated methods of using the differences R−G and B−G are arbitrary and in most cases not optimal. Instead, we propose optimal color transforms for demosaicing. This optimization is based on energy compactness and smoothness of the color components. We compare the performance of the proposed algorithms to presently available demosaicing methods and show that the new optimized approaches are superior both visually and quantitatively. Our conclusion is that the proposed color transforms improve the performance of demosaicing algorithms.

Keywords: Bayer pattern, Color transform, Demosaicing, Energy compactness, Image interpolation, Optimization, Smoothness
01-7 PDF  
03.3005/0330107
2

A Study of H-Function Transform And Its Inversion With Properties

Dr. A.K. Ronghe, Mrs. Kulwant Kaur Ahluwalia

Abstract

In this research paper we have defined H  function transform and developed its inversion formula, and it is further detected that particular cases of H  function transform comes out as Fox’s H-function transform defined by Gupta and Mittal [6.7], G-function transform defined by Bhise [1] and other etc.
08-11 PDF  
03.3005/03308011
3

Genealogy, Occurrences, Social and Psychological Consequences Of Violence In Nigeria

Dr Falana Bernard Akinlabi, Fasina Bosede Oluwayemisi

Abstract

The study investigated the genealogy, occurrence, social and psychological consequences of violence in Nigeria.' The researcher surveyed the entire population of Nigeria while he used descriptive research design. The researcher observed that the occurrence of violence in Nigeria is genealogical and that the state of social and psychological insecurity in Nigeria corroborates the state of low or delay in all spheres of life of Nigerians. Based on the observation and revelations; There should be critical incident stress management techniques, there should be outreach to affected population in form of crises counselling, distribution of materials on stress reactions. There should be moral reawakening beyond rhetoric, responsible and responsive leadership. There should be reduction in the social-economic gap between the rich and the poor. The political situation should be reorganised, the situation should not be winner takes all. There should be provision of jobs to the youths as well as reorientation programmes, provision of adequate infrastructure, repositioning and strengthening of health sector and agencies responsible for emergencies.

Keywords: Genealogy, occurrence, violence, social consequences, psychological consequences.

12-16 PDF  
03.3005/033012016
4.

Cloud Documentation and Centralized Compiler for Java & Php

Namrata Raut, Darshana Parab, Shephali Sontakke, Sukanya Hanagandi

Abstract

Cloud computing is an Internet based computing which aims at providing hardware and software resources. It enables the users to access and share information from devices like laptops, desktops, smart phones, etc. which have ability to connect to the Internet. Cloud computing caters to dynamism, abstraction and resource sharing. The project mainly deals with the creation of Integrated Development Environment for the java language to code, compile, run, test and debug the code using the browser based IDE through the Internet and a web browser. The project is aimed at creating a browser based IDE to code in Java language in the cloud which will allow real time collaboration with the peers.

Keywords: Centralized Compiler, Cloud Computing, Collaborative Learning Tools, Peer Reviewing, Browser Based IDEs, Compiler, Document Sharing.

17-20 PDF  
03.3005/033017020
5.

Real –Time Envirnorment Monitoring System and Data Logger Using Arm Processor

B.Hari Babu, Y.Varthamanan M.E

Abstract

This paper describes is to monitoring the real time environment and data logger using ARM processor. The various parameters of the surrounding system such as temperature, humidity, gas, fire and battery are acquired and processed through the Arm microcontroller and stored in a data logger and also we can analysis in Graphical Lcd.Additional features of this project is to locate the exact position of the sensed data from the sensors through Gps.The paper will describe decision regarding what resources were included in the device as well as how to provide flexibility in order to meet a diverse range of application.

Keywords: Bms, Data Logger, hyper terminal,LPG, POT, Sd card,Tdmi

21-25 PDF  
03.3005/033021025
6.

An Approach for Effective Use of Pattern Discovery for Detection of Fraudulent Patterns In Railway Reservation Dataset

Rasika Ingle, Manali Kshirsagar

Abstract

Data mining concepts and techniques can help in solving many problems. Useful knowledge may be hidden in the data stored. This knowledge, if extracted, may provide good support for planners, decision makers, and legal institutions or organizations. Hence Pattern discovery, as one of the powerful intelligent decision support platforms, is being increasingly applied to large scale complicated systems and domains. It has been shown that it has the capacity to extract useful knowledge from a large data space and present to the decision makers. This will contribute to the detection of illegal activities, the governance of systems, and improvements in systems. This paper proposes a work to develop a mechanism that allows the system to work interactively with a user in detecting, characterizing and learning unusual and previously unknown patterns over groups of records depending on the characteristics of the decisions. The data mining in real time could even help to alert Railways when something untoward happens. Hence this innovative mechanism focuses on detecting anomalous and potentially fraudulent behavioral patterns within set of railway reservation transactional data .The pattern based analysis will include the possible detection of fake ids, fake booking , an unusual pattern like reservation of a person for trains in two different directions on a given date form the same starting city etc.

Keywords: Anomalous transactions, data mining, fraudulent transactions, hash map, pattern, pattern discovery, rule based discovery

26-29 PDF  
03.3005/033026029
7.

Effective Service Security Schemes In Cloud Computing

K.Sravani, K.L.A.Nivedita

Abstract

The cloud computing is the fastest growing concept in IT industry. The IT companies have realized that the cloud computing is going to be the hottest topic in the field of IT. Cloud Computing reduces cost by sharing computing and storage resources, merged with an on demand provisioning mechanism relying on a pay-per use business model. Due to varied degree of security features and management schemes within the cloud entities security in the cloud is challenging. Security issues ranging from system misconfiguration, lack of proper updates, or unwise user behaviour from remote data storage that can expose user‗s private data and information to unwanted access can plague a Cloud Computing. The intent of this paper is to investigate the security related issues and challenges in Cloud computing environment. We also proposed a security scheme for protecting services keeping in view the issues and challenges faced by cloud computing.

Keywords: Cloud Computing, Data Protection, Security, Application Program Interface, Average Revenue Per user.

30-35 PDF  
03.3005/033030035
8.

Development of Robotic Automated Storage and Retrieval System (AS/RS)

 Smita U.Chakole

Abstract

The automated storage and retrieval systems (AS/RS) are major material handling support systems that are commonly used in the automated factories, distribution centers, warehousing, and non manufacturing environments. Their applications vary widely from a simple storage and retrieval system for small parts to central systems where production, assembly, and manufacturing operations are concentrically located around them. This paper summarizes the literature study of a Robotic automated storage and retrieval system and development of a dedicated automated storage and retrieval system for YCCE Flexible manufacturing system laboratory. The prototype model of automated storage and retrieval system developed consist of the control hardware and software communicating over a field bus network. This also includes study of literature for types of automated storage and retrieval system, study of literature for suitable environment for automated storage and retrieval system, order processing for automated storage and retrieval system. This study of automated storage and retrieval system and the physical model of automated storage and retrieval system will ensure better understanding of automated storage and retrieval system for student. The development of physical prototype is highly beneficial to acquisition of tactic knowledge and greatly benefits the development of students by understanding the automated storage and retrieval system. This model will contribute to the ongoing development of dedicated FMS. And this prototype model for AS/RS will be the foot step ahead to achieve the goal.

Keywords: AS/RS, Dwell point analysis, FEM, Network system, Robotic
36-40 PDF  
03.3005/033036040
9.

Theoretical Investigation/Research On Binding Energy Of A Donor In A Spherical Quantum Dot At Various Locations On It

 S.R.Chitra

Abstract

The binding energy of a donor in spherical quantum dots (QDs) is calculated, using a variational approach within the effective mass approximation. The binding energy is computed for GaAs QD as a function of the dot size for different impurity positions, and also as a function of the impurity position for different dot sizes. The results of mine show that when the impurity binding energy increases with the reduction in the dot dimension. The binding energy is also found to depend on the location of the impurity, and the same is the maximum for the on-center impurity. Also I found that the value of the polarizability obtained is several orders higher than the hydrogen atom value.

Keywords: Spherical quantum dot, Donor binding energy, Impurity state, Parabolic confinementQuantum dots , quantum wells gallium arsenide, III-V semiconductors, impurity states, effective mass, donor Binding , Semiconductor compounds
41-45 PDF  
03.3005/033041045
10.

Modified Conjugate Cancellation Algorithm Forofdm Systems

Mohamed Tayebi , Merahi Bouziani

Abstract

The Inter-Carrier Interference Created By The Carrier Frequency Offset Significantly Degrades The Performances Of The Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing Signal. If These Offsets Are Random, Then The Performances Fluctuate With This Shift. In This Letter, We Give Various Reasons For The CFO And Propose A New Technique To Inhibit The Effect Of ICI And Achieve Performance Almost Independent Of Carrier Frequency Offset. This New Technique Is A Variant Of The Method Of Combined Data Using The Conjugate Cancellation Algorithm. When Compared To Other Techniques, It Offers Better Performance In Terms Of Stability And Consistency.

Keywords: Carrier Frequency Offset (CFO), Carrier To Interferences Ratio (CIR), Doppler-Effect, Inter Carriers Interferences (ICI), Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM).
46-48 PDF  
03.3005/033046048
11.

Estimation of the Population Total of Nigeria Using One Unit per Stratum (Based On 2006 Census Result)

T.J. Akingbade , O.S. Balogun 

Abstract

This research has been done to show the point estimate of the population total of Nigeria based on 2006 census resultand to examine the effect of the use of auxiliary information in estimating variance in collapsing of strata with one unit per stratum. Two stage sampling method was used for the sample selection, which involves two phases of selection. In the first stage, 12 states were selected out of 36 states using random number table. The Local Government Areas (774) were taken to be the second stage and purposive sampling method was used. Based on the research work, considering one unit per stratum, that is selecting one Local Government Area was selected from each of the selected state.Based on the result obtained, using stratified random sampling with addition of auxiliary variable, the least standard error of str Yˆ was 3,501,901.105under the collapsing of 12 strata in six into two groups with an estimated population total of 139,295,482 which was very close to the actual population total of Nigeria based on 2006 census result(140,003,542). Estimation using stratified sampling with addition of an auxiliary variable gave a better result than estimation with variable of interest only

Keywords: Population, Collapse strata, Stratified sampling, Stratum
49-53 PDF  
03.3005/033049053
12.

Evaluation Of Logistics Regression In Classification Of Drug Data In Kwara State

O.S. Balogun, t.J. Akingbade , A.A Akinrefon

Abstract

The classification of individuals who involve in illicit drugs into drug peddlers and non-peddlers on the basis of oral evidence, type and the quantity of exhibit found with them usually pose problem for the purpose of prosecution. This paper uses logistic regression to classify offenders into the two dichotomous dependent variable (peddlers or non-peddlers) in order to ease the work of the agency, National Drug Law Enforcement Agency (NDLEA), responsible for illicit drugs. The data used in this study include age of offenders, type and weight of exhibit collected from the agency. The discriminant analysis was first used by Abdulkadir and Emmanuel (2010)to classify the illicit drug offenders into peddlers and non-peddlers based on the data and then used by Balogun et tal (2011) including some other variable to it. In literature the author discovered that the discriminant analysis cannot handle mixed data (discrete and continuous data) effectively instead logistic regression better fit the data. The model correctly classified 95.4% original grouped cases with positive and negative predictive values 92.44% and 97.90% respectively, which are higher than values obtained under the discriminant analysis. It was discovered that large quantity of exhibit has more effect than other variables, yet their inclusion significantly improves the outcome of the findings.

Keywords: Logistic regression, classification, odds ratio, discriminant Analysis.
 
54-58 PDF  
03.3005/033054058
13.

A Study on Visualizing Semantically Similar Frequent Patterns in Dynamic Datasets

Y.N.Jyothsna Mallampalli, S.Jayaprada, Dr S.Vasavi

Abstract

Discovering frequent and interesting patterns is an important area of data mining. Transactional databases cannot serve the requirement of analyzing current trends in shopping; it is required to focus on analyzing dynamic data sets. Existing data mining algorithms when applied on dynamic data sets takes lot of time as they generate very huge number of frequent patterns making the analyst with the task to go through all the rules and discover interesting ones. Works that are reported until now in reducing number of rules are either time consuming or does not consider the interestingness of the user and does not focus on analysis of rules. This paper extends SSFPOA algorithm which produces clusters of semantically similar frequent patterns and presents these clusters using data visualization.

Keywords: Clusters, Dynamic Datasets, Ontology, Semantically similar frequent patterns, Data Visualization.
59-64 PDF  
03.3005/033059064
14.

CFD Simulation in Township Planning – A Case Study

Nilesh S. Varkute, R.S. Maurya 

Abstract

There are increasing concerns regarding the quality of urban public spaces. Wind is one important environmental factor that influences pedestrians’ comfort and safety. In modern cities there are increasing numbers of high constructions and complex forms which can involve problems of significant wind discomfort around these buildings. Architects and town planners need guidelines and simple design tools to take account of wind in their projects. In recent years the numerical investigation has emerged as powerful and sufficient tool for building optimization and a better township planning. Present work proposes the methodology to carry out exterior numerical on a cluster of existing structures and concludes with significant outcomes which are mostly neglected by the planners. Present work uses a three dimensional scale down model of buildings where steady incompressible flow analysis has been done. It has been implemented through ANSYS Fluent 12.0 using SIMPLE algorithm as solver. The effect of turbulence has been captured using k- model. Simulated work validates well with the available experimental result. The work progresses with single building simulation to a cluster of building with common external amenities. Some of the significant conclusion are changing ventilation pattern of air among buildings with wind direction, flow separation, wind shadow effect, location of amenities such as garden, playground etc.

Keywords: Building, CFD, Environment, High Rise Building, k- model, Optimization, Simulation, Township.
65-72 PDF  
03.3005/033065072
15.

Adhesive Wear Theory of Micromechanical Surface Contact

Biswajit Bera

Abstract

Microscopically, when two surfaces come in contact, strong adhesive bond is formed at the tip of the asperities and consequently, adhesive wear particle is formed by shearing the interface caused by sliding. On the basis of JKR adhesion theory, dimensionless real area of contact and wear volume are computed numerically for multiasperity contact and It is found, their ratio is almost constant for different pair of MEMS surfaces. From which adhesive wear law is derived and accordingly, adhesive wear volume is the multiplication of real area of contact and rms roughness (sigma).

Keywords: JKR adhesion theory, Real area of contact, Adhesive wear volume, Coefficient of adhesive wear
73-78 PDF  
03.3005/033073078
16.

Birads Score For Mammographic Images

Parveen Jaseela Regina .O. M 

Abstract

Breast imaging and screening has evolved for accurate diagnosis of breast cancer at earlier stages of development. 20% of malignant cases which has been proved as cancerous have been misinterpreted as non-detected cancers owing to technical problems in imaging procedure. These cancers is generally referred to as missed cancers (MC). Various image segmentation algorithms like K-Means Clustering , Expectation Maximization has proved for segmenting cancerous part from tumour part and statistically proved approaches for extracting features such as Area, Entropy, Clustering image, Uniformity, Mean evolved for classifying features of abnormal tissue. Evidences prove that about 65-80% of breast biopsies result in benign diagnosis and many false negative errors in retrospect considered as false positive biopsies. Hence clearer vision of classifying image based on textures provide wider view for radiologists in assessing the categories.

Keywords: malignant, missedcancers, K-Means Clustering,biopsies
79-86 PDF  
03.3005/033079086
17.

Concept Drawing For Oil Draining Machine For Vtu With Numerical Analysis

Prajwal Shantalwar, Smitesh Bobde, Bhojraj Kale, Vivek Patil 

Abstract

The aim of this Project is to Manufacture and design Oil Draining unit for Vary Touch Unit (VTU) to overcome the current problem of the industry and to make the efficient unit to increase the productivity and reduce the human fatigue. The proposed machine will be automated and will work with the help of PLC program. The machine will be compact as compared to the existing unit and it will be easy for the maintenance work whether it is mechanical or electrical or instrumental side as all the components on the machine will be easily approachable.

Keywords: The machine will be completely automated and will work on the PLC program.
87-91 PDF  
03.3005/033087091
18.

Newly Developed Automatic Lay-Up Process for Manufacturing of FRP Sheets

Prof. A. R. Chaple, Prof. S.S. Khedakar, Prof. S.R. Dharmadhikari, Mr. N.R. Chaple

Abstract

Hand lay-up process is fabrication process to manufacture of FRP products. FRP or fiberglass corrugated roof sheet also manufactured by hand lay-up process, but some problems has been arise with this method such that, mainly low production rate of sheets; uniform thickness not maintaining; lay-up does not uniformly perform, resin is harmful for human. These problems can be eliminated by hand lay-up process converted into Automatic lay-up process with providing safety environments for works. In this paper also discussed about different composite materials of methods for manufacturing of roof sheet and other products.

Keywords: Corrugated roof sheet, Composite materials, FRP, Fiberglass, Hand lay-up, Gantry structure, Automatic machine.
92-97 PDF  
03.3005/033092097
19.

Methodology of Special Purpose Spot Facing Machine

Prof. Hansini S. Rahate, Prof. R. B. Chadge, Prof. P. H. Dahake, Prof. S. Rewatkar

Abstract

Special purpose machine are widely used for special kind of operations, which are not economical on conventional machines. It is design for getting higher accuracy at desired condition. Spot facing in industrial valve is followed by a mechanical drilling or milling process. After the initial hole is drilled recess is develop on the valve with the help of required tool material. This aim of this paper is to presents the concept of spot facing in industrial valve, identified problems in flanges during spot facing and propose concept for avoiding the same.

Keywords: Back spot facing operation, Special purpose machine, Spot facing, Industrial valve.
 
98-102 PDF  
03.3005/0330980102
20.

Application of Image Processing For Development of Automated Inspection System

Ms. Shubhada.K. Nagrale, Mr. S.T.Bagde

Abstract

In manufacturing industry, machine vision is very important nowadays. Computer vision has been developed widely in manufacturing for accurate automated inspection. A model of automated inspection system is presented in this conceptual paper. Image processing is used for inspection of part. It is assumed that the part after going through many previous operations comes to inspection system where the weight of the part as well as geometry made on that part is detected and later decided whether it is to be accepted or rejected with the help of image processing technique. Using MATLAB software a program is developed and pattern or geometry is detected.

Keywords: Automated Inspection System, Digital Camera, Image Processing, Machine Vision, MATLAB, Pattern Recognition, PRO-E Software
103-107 PDF  
03.3005/03301030107
21.

Invention of The Plane Geometrical Formulae - Part I

Mr. Satish M. Kaple

Abstract

In this paper, I have invented the formulae of the height of the triangle. My findings are based on pythagoras theorem.

108-122 PDF  
03.3005/03301080122
22.

Underground Water Prospecting In Rural Settings

E. C. Mabunda, Beng, Msc

Abstract

This paper presentsthe design of a portable water table detector. The device can be used to identify where the water table is likely to be found. The heart of the design is on the microcontroller. The ground probes require high voltage and this is generated from a 12 volt battery using a 555 timer arranged as an a-stable multi-vibrator. The use of a battery is to make the device usable even at remote places where electrical power is not available. A suggested code in assemble language for the microcontroller is given as guide. However a high level language can also be implemented, to achieve the same results. The use of the microcontroller (μprocessor) makes it feasible to produce a device that is cost effective for both urban and rural dwellers. The main activity of this design is centred on the development of the code (software program), design of a special power supply and the interfacing external hardware for the detector.

Keywords: Water table detector, electrode interface, PIC microcontroller, Geological strata, resistivity measurement, Analogue to Digital conversion.
  
123-132 PDF  
03.3005/03301230132
23.

Biosensors Based on Nano-Particles

Sidharth Singh Sisodia, Shalinee Dumoliya, Deepak Koli

Abstract

Nano-particles have various unique features , which include biocompatibility, rapid and simple chemical synthesis, excellent electro-activity, and efficient coating by biomolecules. So if biosensors are built from nano-particles, it is proved to be a benefactor. Taking this in account, the paper discusses important features of nano-particle biosensors and R&D bibliometric analysis. Since R&D bioliometric analysis show that gold nano-particles are the best in class, this paper evaluates them in detail.

Keywords: Gold Nano-Particles, Bibliometic analysis.
133-140 PDF  
03.3005/03301330140
24.

Comparative Study of Transcritical CO2 Cycle with and Without Suction Line Heat Exchanger at High Ambienttemperature

A..D. Kadam, A.S. Padalkar, V.U.Walekar

Abstract

Global warming and ozone depletion potential of chemical refrigerants have motivated to develop the refrigeration systems with natural refrigerants. Transcritical CO2 refrigeration cycle losses its performance at higher ambient temperature due to lower critical temperature of CO2. This paper discusses the comparative analysis of the transcritical cycle with and without suction line heat exchanger. At higher ambient conditions, the use of suction line heat exchanger improves the cycle performance by 2 to 4%. Due to more heat transfer rate the specific refrigeration capacity, mass flow rate and compressor power consumption. The performance of cycle does not improve significantly with increase in the effectiveness of the suction line heat exchanger.

Keywords: Transcritical cycle; CO2; suction line heat exchanger; cycle simulation; gascooler; refrigerant
141-145 PDF  
03.3005/03301410145
25.

Novel Encoding and Decoding Algorithm for Block Turbo Codes over Rayleigh Fading Channel

M.Christhu Raju, Dr. Ch. D.V. Paradesi Rao 

Abstract

Proposed Error Correcting codes are widely used for error detecting and correcting which are present in during receiption and they are also widely used in compact disc and wireless and digital communications. Proposed paper mainly discuss about the Block Encode and Decoder architectures with less complexity in terms of encoding and decoding. There are Six types of block codes are mainly discussed i.e Block (7, 3), Block (15,11), Block (31,15), Block (31,27), Block (255, 165) and Block(255,205). Simulation results over a AWGN and Rayleigh fading Chanenel shows that Block Codes with higher block lengths are giving more gain compared to the lower block length and also error correcting capacity also higher for higher block lengths but compexity of encoding and decoding algorithms will increase and simulation results are shown for both voice and image and compared with existing algorithm.

Keywords: Block codes, convolutional codes, forward error correctiong codes and decoding algorithms.
146-154 PDF  
03.3005/03301460154
26

Secured Reversible Data Transmission by Using Gzip Deflector Algorithm for Encoded AVC Video

Gokiladeepa.G, Gayathri.S,Heeba.S.D, Pavithra.R  

Abstract

Reversible data transmission, visible watermarking and steganography schemes that can be employed along with multimedia applications. However, these methods are susceptible to quantization errors provided by standard image/video compression standards. In this work we present a secured data transmission using novel reversible visible watermarking scheme for H.264/AVC encoded video sequences. The proposed approach reversibly embeds the residual information that will then be used by the decoder to recover the original image or video frame. The residual information is losslessly compressed using the Gzip Deflector algorithm to minimize the information to be embedded and reduce the distortion provided by RCM. The compressed information is then encrypted using the 128–bit Advanced Encryption Standard (AES). Furthermore we add security in this work if the key does not match we provide irrelevant information or unwanted data’s to the decoder. And finally we compared our proposed work with existing state of art.

Keywords: Information embedding, data compression, lossless recovery, reversible watermarking scheme, DCT, AES, GZip Deflector algorithm.
155-160 PDF  
03.3005/03301550160
27.

“Isolation of Microorganism from Dairy Effluent for Activated Sludge Treatment”

Vishakha S. Shivsharan , Minal P. Wani , Suhas W. Kulkarani

Abstract

On current trends, it is estimated that, in the year 2030 most of our water resources would be exhausted or totally destroyed (UK Trade and Investment, 2002). Most water bodies have the ability to self-purify whereby they are pendent on environmental conditions, pollutant load and water retention times (Sanders and Yevjevich, 1996).But the natural contaminants are coupled with artificial pollutants, which are a result of human activities, the pollution load becomes too much for the water body to handle. The main pollutant derived from the industrial wastewaters are organic and inorganic substances,solved or in suspension, with different harmfulness degree (Banu, 1998). In the early 1960`s U.S. senate committee noted that dairy industry was second most important single source of pollution in streams (worners-1976).The dairy waste is basically organic and slightly alkaline in nature, when discharged in to streams without treatment, result in rapid depletion of dissolved oxygen(DO) and encourage the growth of algae i.e. eutrophication(Forsberg, 1998). Due to the overuse of surfactants in dairy, the waste can become unamenable to the biological treatment. The treatment of dairy wastewater, so that it is microbiologically and chemically acceptable for use in flush and irrigation applications, is of great importance (Ibekwe et al. 2003 ).Every Dairy is having particular characteristics of effluents and hence has the different effluent related problems. These problems can be revealed by effective treatment of the effluent a possible by the study of wastewater microbiota and to identify some new active strains adapted to the wastewater physical-chemical conditions, which metabolize organic compounds, similar to those which determine the pollution of wastewaters such as starch, casein, basic carbohydrates and lactic acid (Mihaela Palela et.al;2007).There were identified strains able to produce a fast biodegradation of the organic compounds. Normally to isolate microbial culture of endogenous origin for the development of microbial biomass which can be used effectively under Activated sludge treatment to stabilize the effluent. For that purpose bacteria isolated from effluent and study morphological, cultural and biochemical characteristics and identified with the help of Bergey’s Mannuals of Systematic Bacteriology (1984)

Keywords: Dairy Effluent, Activated Sludge, Endogenous Culture, Isolation & Preliminary Identification , Microbiological And Biochemical Characterization.
161-167 PDF  
03.3005/03301610167
28.

Determining Pinpoint of Mobile Location in Global System for Mobile Communication Network (Gsm)

Adnan Affandi, Mubashshir Husain

Abstract

The objective of this proposed paper is to present an extensive simple study about the mobile Location and the technologies that can enable them in conventional GSM networks, which do not require any significant changes to the network or the mobile device itself.A set of cell-based positioning techniques are proposed based on information available from the network and on accurate path loss models.We have also developed a program in matlab language for GSM vendors to use this feature without physical change in the network hardware.

Keywords: Global System For Mobile Communication, etc.
168-176 PDF  
03.3005/03301680176
29.

Fabrication And Implementation Of Turbo Charger In Two-Wheeler

Amalorpava Dass. J, Mr.Sankarlal.P

Abstract

The progress of automobiles for transportation has been intimately associated with the progress of civilization. The automobile of today is the result of the accumulation of many years of pioneering research and development.An attempt has been made in this project, the exhaust gas is used to rotate the turbine with blower arrangement. Exhaust gas is used to rotate the blower and this air is given to the ignition input supply. Our fore most aim in selecting this project is to use efficiency turbo charging. It is also good with regard to economical considerations and engine efficiency.

Keywords: Turbocharger;Efficiency;IC engines.
177-180 PDF  
03.3005/03301770180
30.

Mining Association Rules From Time Series Data Using Hybrid Approaches

Hima Suresh, Dr. Kumudha Raimond

Abstract

Due to the frequent appearance of time series data in various fields, it has always been an essential and interesting research field. A time series analysis involves the methods for analyzing time series data, in order to mine meaningful and other relevant characteristics of the data. In most cases, time series data are quantitative values, so to come up with an intellectually appealing data mining algorithm to deal with quantitative type of data presents a biggest challenge to researchers in this field. In this paper, an extended Fuzzy Frequent Pattern (FP) growth approach is proposed and analyzed against the existing approach called Fuzzy Apriori (FA).

Keywords: Conditional Pattern Base, Fuzzy Apriori, Frequent Pattern, Fuzzy Logic, Genetic Algorithm , Neural Network and Frequent Pattern tree.
181-188 PDF  
03.3005/03301810188
31.

A Study of Influence of Electrochemical Process Parameters on the Material Removal Rate and Surface Roughness of SS AISI 304

S. S. Uttarwar, Dr. I. K. Chopde 

Abstract

The machining of complex shaped designs was difficult earlier, but with the advent of the new machining processes incorporating in it chemical, electrical & mechanical processes, manufacturing has redefined itself. This paper presents results of the Electrochemical Machining (ECM) process, which was used to machine the SS AISI 304. Specifically, the Material Removal Rate (MRR) and Surface Roughness (SR) as a function of ECM were determined. The experimental work was based on the Taguchi approach of experimentation and table L32 was used. Furthermore, a theoretical and computational model is presented to illustrate the influence parameter variations in results. The influence of independent parameters such as time of electrolysis, voltage, current, concentration of electrolyte, feed rate and pressure on output parameters material removal rate and SR is studied in this work. The results indicated that MRR was remarkably affected by variation in current and Surface Roughness decreased with increase in current. Hence, it was apparent that irregular MRR was more likely to occur at high currents. The results showed that MRR increased with increasing electrical voltage, molar concentration of electrolyte, time of electrolysis and feed rate. However, the time of electrolysis was the most influential parameter on the produced surface finish.

Keywords: Electrochemical machining; Material removal rate; Time; Feed rate; electrolyte concentration, Anova, Percentage error.
189-197 PDF  
03.3005/03301890197
32.

Implementation of Data Mining Techniques for Weather Report Guidance for Ships Using Global Positioning System

P.Hemalatha 

Abstract

This paper deals with the implementation of data mining methods for guiding the path of the ships. The implementation uses a Global Positioning System(GPS) which helps in identifying the area in which the ship is currently navigating. The weather report on that area is compared with the existing database and the decision is made in accordance with the output obtained from the Data Mining technique. This decision about the weather condition of the navigating path is then instructed to the ship. This paper highlights some statistical themes and lessons that are directly relevant to data mining and attempts to identify opportunities where close cooperation between the statistical and computational communities might reasonably provide synergy for further progress in data analysis. GLOBAL POSITIONING SYSTEM(GPS) provides specially coded satellite signals that can be processed in a GPS receiver enabling the receiver to compute position, velocity and time. Satellites were first used in position finding in a simple but reliable 2D Navy system called "Transit‟ which laid the ground work for a system-"The Global Positioning System" that is funded and controlled by US Dept of Defense (DOD).

198-202 PDF  
03.3005/03301980202
33.

Equalization of Doppler Effect Using Constellation Diagram of 8-PSK Modulation

Vinay Negi, Sanjeev Kumar Shah, Sandeep Singh, Arun Shekhar, Tanuja Sundriyal 

Abstract

This paper describes the calculation and simulation results of the Doppler effect on a mobile user while walking with the help of constellation diagram for 8 PSK modulation when the walking user experienced the Rayleigh fading. And the equalizer is used to optimize the Doppler effect. Here LMS Linear equalizer is used to optimize the Doppler effect when the walking user having speed 1.5 m/sec. and the walking user is assumed on freeway. The results are taken at three position of mobile user i.e. at an angle of 50,600 and 850. The calculation and simulation results of the Doppler effect on a mobile user with the help of constellation diagram for 8 PSK modulation is simulated in MATLAB.

Keywords: 8 PSK modulation, LMS Linear equalizer, Rayleigh fading, Doppler effect, constellation diagram.
203-208 PDF  
03.3005/03302030208
34.

Spectroscopic Constants & Potential Energy Function for Diatomic Molecules

Ratikant Thakur ,Jagdhar Mandal

Abstract

The interionic interaction potential energy functions consisting of an attractive term within the framework of 'effective charge model along with a short range repulsive interaction (SRRI) term incorporating the near values of molecular state polarizability, van der Waals dipole-dipole and dipole-quadrupole interaction and repulsive interaction of the Born-Mayer, Hellmann, Varshni-shukla and Ali-Hasan types have been used to compute the dipole moment, binding energy, rotation-vibration coupling constant and vibrational anharmonicity. The values of binding energies have been calculated with and without the inclusion of polarization. The inclusion of polarizable terms in the interaction-energy makes significant improvement in the result. This shows the interaction model must be dependent on this effect. The obtained values are in good agreement with the observed values available in the literature. The results are capable enough to establish the reliability and superiority of the interaction models.

Keywords: Anharmonicity constant, Binding energy, Dipole moments, dipole-dipole and dipole-quadrupole interaction constants, vdWenergies
209-215 PDF  
03.3005/03302090215
35.

Lockme – Android Security Application

Sumaiya Patel, Darshana Thakur ,Sujit Sherkar, Priyanka Dhamane  

Abstract

This paper presents an Android based App which is a security application. The idea behind this project is to develop an application which will help user of android to create Admin and Guest accounts like other computer based operating system. Security holes in Android operating system occur due to the permission based security model which is not properly enforced during system design. Permission based security model has central role hence it creates security holes in Android OS [1]. Google's android security model erased by its openness

Keywords: Android OS, Permission based security model, central role
 
216-218 PDF  
03.3005/03302160218
36.

Computer Aided Engineering (CAE) Techniques Applied To Hip Implant

M. S. Abo_Elkhair, M. E. Abo-Elnor, A. E. Radi

Abstract

Methods to predict contact stresses in femoral prostheses can provide an improved understanding of load distribution. The objectives of this study is to apply advanced computer aided engineering techniques (CAE) for predicting stress transfer to femur after implantation of standard and short femoral stems (Proxima stem). A perspective three-dimensional geometry model for the femoral bone using subject-specific geometry from X-ray computed tomography image data (CTI) is used to create 3D CAD model. Forces acting on the femur in different gait regimes were reviewed and compared while loaded with standard and then with Proxima stem. And finally a developed finite element analysis model based on the created CAD model with forces acting on both femurs loaded with standard and Proxima stem is analyzed.

Keywords: Computer aided engineering, Biomechanics, Femur modeling, implant, Hip joint
219-225 PDF  
03.3005/03302190225
37.

New Methods for Horizon Line Detection in Infrared and Visible Sea Images

Ilan Lifshitz , Evgeny Gershikov, Benjamin Milgrom   

Abstract

In this work we propose methods for horizon line detection and target marking in marine images captured by either infra-red (IR) or visible light cameras. A common method for horizon line detection is based on edge detection and the Hough transform. This method suffers from serious drawbacks when the horizon is not a clear enough straight line or there are other straight lines present in the image. We improve the algorithm performance by proposing a pre-processing stage eliminating some of the false detections. We also propose a new method for horizon line detection. The new algorithm is based on the idea of segmenting the image into two regions (sky and sea) by comparing the regional probability distribution functions (PDFs) or histograms. The line maximizing a statistical distance between these PDFs is chosen. This method is highly complex and can be further improved. Thus, we proceed to introduce two new methods combining the basic edge detection and Hough transform (EDHT) method to detect several candidate lines in the image and a statistical criterion to find the optimal line among the candidates. The chosen criterion can be based on regional covariances or the distance between PDFs as described above. We show that choosing the first option provides the best performance among the methods tested, at least with respect to the angular error, and yields a low complexity fast algorithm. We compare all the examined methods not only quantitatively by their average accuracy and relative speed, but also visually for several test images. Our conclusion is that all the methods introduced in this work can be beneficial for automatic processing of marine images for the purpose of tracking, navigation, target recognition and other applications.

Keywords: horizon detection, marine images, edge detection, Hough transform, image analysis, covariance based method, histogram-based method
226-233 PDF  
03.3005/03202260233
38.

A Study on Customer Preference of LG Lap-Top

Dr. Srinivasa Rao Kasisomayajula

Abstract

The consumers' tastes are changes rapidly. They want new models with the latest features. It is a very hard fight. The competition is on features differentiation, time to market and promotion, basically on every front. The dealer-push and brand pull, both plays a very crucial role. Hence the company concentrate on both fronts equally will have an upper hand over the others. Companies like hp, Compaq, Lenovo, Sony and LG have practices this very well and leading on the sales front. The dealers have to observe that the consumers add a lot of value after sales and service provided by the company while making a purchase decision. Today Management of Customers' relationship is assuming more and more importance and company cannot afford to ignore this. Based on the above response, hp and Compaq, provide better customer service as compared to others.

234-237 PDF  
03.3005/03302340237
39.

Flowshop Scheduling Using Multiagents with Adaptive Auction

Amar Jukuntla , Dr. E. Grace Mary Kanaga   

Abstract

In The Face Of Globalization And Rapidly Decreasing Of Product Lifecycle, Manufacturing Companies Trying To Improve The Machine Utilization And Product Life Cycle. Flowshop Scheduling Is Major Task For Manufacturing Companies In Terms Of Improving Machine Utilization And Scheduling Of Jobs. Here Agents Are Responsible To Solve Flowshop Scheduling Problem. The Differential Evolution Algorithms Are Employed To Obtain Solutions For Solving Flowshop Scheduling Problem. This Paper Describes Novel Approaches That Use The Price Utilization, Adaptive Auction Mechanism To Solve The Flowshop Scheduling Problem.

Keywords: Flowshop Scheduling, Auctions, Resource Allocation, Bidding, Adaptive Auction, Combinatorial Auction.
238-242 PDF  
03.3005/03302380242
40.

Five Dimensional String Cosmological Model In General Relativity

Kalpana Pawar (Mody), Vidhya Chauhan , G. D. Rathod

Abstract

In this paper we have investigated Five Dimensional String Cosmological Models with bulk viscosity and determined it's solution for three different cases. The various physical and kinematical properties are also studied.

Keywords: Bulk viscosity, Cosmic string, Five dimensional cosmological models.
243-245 PDF  
03.3005/03302430245

41.

 

Role of Software Agents in E-Commerce

Ramya S. Gowda

Abstract

This paper states how software agents will influence the present marketing prototype in interactive media. It focuses on the importance of these in E-Commerce. E-Commerce is a platform for the online activities of commerce, increase in the activities of trade in cyberspace increases the business opportunities over internet. Software agents are the useful tools to help individuals to undertake their activities on E-Commerce surroundings. Software agents create different paths for communication. Software agents increase the effectiveness and efficiency in several levels of market processes. The agent technology builds the bridge between the previously existing physical market and consequences of virtual markets. Software agents will have dramatic competition effects by quick transfer of information through new technology. As the name indicates software agents acts as mediators for the processes of choosing products and merchants. Overall software agents act as a vehicle between E-Commerce and business.

Keywords: agent, Agent-Based technology, collaborative agent, e-business, E-Commerce, ecommerce analysis, Mobile agent, reactive agent, Software Agents, technology
246-251 PDF  
03.3005/03302460251
42.

Water Audit- A Tool for Assessment Of Water Losses

R.A.Ganorkar, P.I.Rode, S.A Deshmukh, Dr.R.M.Dhoble,

Abstract

The world's water resources are finite but exist on a planet with a constantly growing population. The development of water resources to man's benefit has been a fundamental factor in the evolution of civilizations throughout history. But, as our populations continue to grow and shift, the availability of quality water resources is in decline. Pollution, climate change and construction of cities in dry regions are some of the factors exacerbating evolving supply/demand imbalances. Many innovative technologies have been developed in recent times to assist the efficient delivery and utilization of drinking water. Water audits provide a rational, scientific framework that categorizes all water use in your system. It is a tool to overcome drought related problem, shortage, leakage and losses. International Water Association (IWA) / American Water Work Association (AWWA) initiated a large scale effort to asses reduced above related problem with the help of audit.

Keywords: IWA, AWWA, Water Audit
252-256 PDF  
03.3005/03302520256
43.

An Efficient Semantic Web Through Semantic Mapping

Jenice Aroma R, Mathew Kurian

Abstract

The outgrowth of web usage leads to the expectation of faster and easier access of web resources. Experts and even naïve users wish to have more advanced features on search schemes to acquire accurate results within a short time span. Semantic web can bring this expectation to real practice. To bring Semantic web in true, efficient Semantic Mapping is must. In this paper, a novel Two step Semantic Mapping algorithm and few related Semantic Mapping schemes are detailed with their functions and features. It helps one to acquire more knowledge on Semantic Mapping of concepts.

Keywords: Semantic web, WSDL,DAML-S,OWL-S.
257-261 PDF  
03.3005/03302570261
44.

Lightweight Decentralized Algorithm for Localizing Reactive Jam-mers in Wireless Sensor Network

Vinothkumar.G, Ramya.G, Rengarajan.A 

Abstract

In wireless sensor network one of the most security threats is the reactive jammer because of the mass destruc-tion to the sensor communication and it is difficult to disclose. So we have to deactivate the reactive jammers by identifying all the trigger nodes, because the transmission invokes the jammer. Such a trigger identification procedure can work as an application-layer service and benefit many existing reactive jamming defending schemes. In this paper, on the one hand, we leverage several optimization problems to provide a complete trig-ger-identification service framework for unreliable wireless sensor networks. On the other hand, we provide an improved algorithm with regard to two sophisticated jamming models, in order to enhance its robustness for various network scenarios. Theoretical analysis and simulation results are included to validate the performance of this framework.

Keywords: Reactive jamming, jamming detection, trigger identification, error tolerant non adaptive group testing, optimization, NP-hardness.
262-266 PDF  
03.3005/03302620266
45.

Secure Data Forwarding In Distributed Environment Using Cloud Storage System

S.Amritha , S.Saravana Kumar 

Abstract

A cloud storage system, used to store large number of data in storage server. Cloud system is used to provide large number storage servers, which provide long-term storage service over the Internet. Third party's cloud system does not provide data confidentiality. Constructing centralized storage system for the cloud system makes hackers stole data easily. General encryption schemes protect data confidentiality. In the proposed system a secure distributed storage system is formulated by integrating a threshold proxy re-encryption scheme with a decentralized erasure code. The distributed storage system not only supports secure and robust data storage and retrieval, but also lets a user forward data from one user to another without retrieving the data back. The main technical involvement is that the proxy re-encryption scheme supports encoding operations over encrypted messages as well as forwarding operations over encoded and encrypted messages. The method fully integrates encrypting, encoding, and forwarding. The proposed system is applied for military and hospital applications, then other secret data transmission.

Keywords: Decentralized erasure code, proxy re-encryption, threshold cryptography, secure storage system.
267-271 PDF  
03.3005/03302670271
46.

Seismic Analysis of High-Rise Building by Response Spectrum Method

Prof. S.S. Patil , Miss. S.A. Ghadge , Prof. C.G. Konapure, Prof. Mrs. C.A. Ghadge

Abstract

This paper describes seismic analysis of high-rise building using program in STAADPro. with various conditions of lateral stiffness system. Some models are prepared that is bare frame, brace frame and shear wall frame. Analysis is done with response spectrum method. This analysis will produce the effect of higher modes of vibration & actual distribution of forces in elastic range in a better way. Test results including base shear, story drift and story deflections are presented and get effective lateral load resisting system.

Keywords: High-rise building, response spectrum method, seismic analysis, story deflection, time period, lateral load resisting system, storey drift
272-279 PDF  
03.3005/03302720279
49.

Automatic Cash Deposite Machine With Currency Detection Using Fluorescent And UV Light

Dhiraj Vasant Kapare , Sadashiv Lokhande , Sayaji Kale

Abstract

Cash Deposit Machines (CDM) has altered the relationship between banks and their depositors, as well as the competitive relationships among banks. In this paper, I survey the literature to describe the ways have influenced these aspects of banking markets. The project is designed to provide fully automatic cash deposit machine. It is combination of Embedded, DIP & Automation. In Mat lab every data image of note is compared with ideal stored image of every appropriate type of note. Every note is passed through UV light to detect the originality of note which consequently results in acceptance and rejection of faulty notes.

Keywords: Currency, Fake Detection, Spindle, Storage, UV light.
309-311 PDF  
03.3005/03303090311
50.

Simulink Design Of Pipelined CORDIC For Generation of Sine and Cosine Values

Richa Upadhyay , Dr. Nisha Sarwade , Shrugal Varde 

Abstract

In recent researches, there are countless applications where sine and cosine wave are used, like in Physics, Digital Signal Processing for various transforms, several modulation and demodulation techniques etc. There are numerous ways to generate digital sine and cosine waves, the use of previously calculated tables is one of the choices, but it requires excessive memory usage when good quantization level is needed. CORDIC algorithm, on the other hand, offers an excellent alternative, and its best characteristic is flexibility. Its quantization accuracy is a function of word length. In this paper a simple Pipelined CORDIC structure for generation of sine and cosine values has been implemented and verified using Simulink tool by MATLAB.

Keywords: CORDIC, Simulink, Pipeline Architecture, Shift And Add, Trigonometric, Unscaled, HDL, Hardwired.
312-316 PDF  
03.3005/03303120316
51.

Discrimination of Fault from Non-Fault Event in Transformer Using Concept of Symmetrical Component

Mr. R.V.KATRE , Prof. Mr. D. S. Chavan, Prof.S.S.Sardey

Abstract

In this paper a overcurrent protection using concept of symmetrical component for power transformer is presented .first we review the concept of symmetrical component. Secondly we investigate how the concept of symmetrical component can be used to improve the transformer protection scheme and how it helps to discriminate the fault and non fault events. For this an algorithm and discrimination criteria is analysed for various fault condition and switching event.

Keywords: Fault, overcurrent relay, symmetrical Components, type of Faults, Transformer energizing, PSCAD, Switching event
317-322 PDF  
03.3005/03303170322
52.

Image Segmentation and Classification of Mri Brain Tumors Based On Cellular Automata and Neural Network

R.Fany Jesintha Darathi , K.S.Archana

Abstract

Cellular automata (CA) based seeded tumor segmentation method on magnetic resonance (MR) images, which uses Region of interest and seed selection. The region of tumor is selected from the image for getting seed point from abnormal region. This seed is selected by finding Co occurrence feature and run length features. Seed based segmentation is performed in the image for detecting the tumor region by highlighting the region with the help of level set method. The brain images are classified into three stages Normal, Benign and Malignant. For this non knowledge based automatic image classification, image texture features and Artificial Neural Network are employed. The conventional method for medical resonance brain images classification and tumors detection is by human inspection. Decision making is performed in two stages: Feature extraction using Gray level Co occurrence matrix and the Classification using Radial basis function which is the type of ANN. The performance of the ANN classifier is evaluated in terms of training performance and classification accuracies. Artificial Neural Network gives fast and accurate classification than other neural networks and it is a promising tool for classification of the tumors. Segmentation of brain tissues in gray matter, white matter and tumor on medical images is not only of high interest in serial treatment monitoring of "disease burden" in oncologic imaging, but also gaining popularity with the advance of image guided surgical approaches. Outlining the brain tumor contour is a major step in planning spatially localized radiotherapy (e.g., Cyber knife, iMRT) which is usually done manually on contrast enhanced T1-weighted magnetic resonance images (MRI) in current clinical practice. On T1 MR Images acquired after administration of a contrast agent (gadolinium), blood vessels and parts of the tumor, where the contrast can pass the blood–brain barrier are observed as hyper intense areas. There are various attempts for brain tumor segmentation in the literature which use a single modality, combine multi modalities and use priors obtained from population atlases. Using gray scale, spatial information and thresholding method, region growing was applied to segment the region. The region of tumor is selected from the image for getting seed point from abnormal region. This seed is selected by finding Co occurrence feature and run length features. Seed based segmentation is performed in the image for detecting the tumor region by highlighting the region with the help of level set method.

323-327 PDF  
03.3005/03303230327
53.

The Industrial Maintenance Management and Implementing Maintenance Policies for Improvement in Productivity

Ajay S. Bonde, Ashwadeep C. Fulzele 

Abstract

As a consequence, of the implementation of advanced manufacturing technologies and just-in-time production systems, the nature of the production environment has changed during the last two decades. This has allowed companies to massively produce products in a customized way. But the increase in automation and the reduction in buffers of inventory in the plants clearly put more pressure on the maintenance system. The present maintenance management policy has been proposed in order to diminish this pressure. Whatever the policy an organization adopts, it has to be evolving to continue being useful against the fast changes that occur in business, communications and industry. Most companies lack a formal method to address maintainability during the project delivery process, yet maintenance can seriously affect productivity. This paper outlines the proposed model process and describes the potential roles and benefits of maintenance policy [1].

Keywords: Maintainability, Maintenance, Organization, Production Environment, Productivity, Maintenance Policy,

328-331 PDF  
03.3005/03303280331
54.

Azotobacter Chroococcum Mass Culture for Production of Bio-Fertilizer, Its Sustained Efficacy on Nitrogen Fixation and Crop Productivity in Mulberry Garden

S.Rajaram , Klisdamon Nongrang , S.K.Mandal, M.K.Ghosh , B.B.Bindroo. 

Abstract

Mulberry is cultivated by farmers for its leaves, the sole food for silkworm (Bombyx mori L.) for commercial production of raw silk in Sericulture Industry. As mulberry is a perennial crop can be maintained for several years in the field, selection of suitable land and follow-up of recommended package of practices are inevitable for maintenance of potential productivity of the variety selected for cultivation. As the quality of mulberry leaves alone contributes about 38.2% for the success of silkworm cocoon crop, quality linked leaf productivity of mulberry leaves can be achieved through adequate supply of all required input into soil. Nitrogen is one of the important macronutrient required for mulberry in larger quantity. In order to reduce the high cost involved towards nitrogenous chemical fertilizers and to maintain the soil health in an eco-friendly way Integrated Nutrient Management (INM) approach in agriculture sector became popular and the same has been followed in mulberry cultivation as well in recent years. Use of different kinds of microbial inoculants as bio-fertilizer to fix atmospheric nitrogen in mulberry garden brought improvements in soil health maintenance and helps to reduce nitrogenous chemical fertilizer requirements and expenditure to farmers considerably without affecting the quality linked productivity. Keeping in view of the above an experiment study was conducted to ascertain the consistent efficacy of Azotobacter chroococcum inoculants @ 108-9 cells per g charcoal carrier material used as nitrofert bio-fertilizer application in mulberry garden during July to September 2012 crop. S1635 mulberry variety in Paired Row System [PRS] of plantation with (150+90) x 60 cm spacing under irrigated condition with two treatments i.e., T1 as control with basal dose of application of 20 MT FYM ha-1 year-1 in two split doses and recommended 336:180:112 NPK ha-1 year-1 in 5 split doses and in T2, except 50% of N replaced by 20 kg nitrofert bio-fertilizer ha-1 year-1 in 5 split doses all other nutrients and package of practices as followed in T1 with 13 replications in CRD. Average leaf yield of 7.35 & 7.34 and total biomass of 12.95 & 13.0 tons ha-1 obtained in T1 and T2 respectively and quality of leaves on economic characters found without significant difference between the treatments revealed the consistent efficiency of Azotobacter chroococcum in fixing atmospheric nitrogen in the soil of mulberry garden to reduce nitrogenous chemical fertilizer and expenditure without affecting the quality linked leaf productivity and mass culture of the bacteria for preparation of Nitrofert bio-fertilizer, its application techniques are discussed in the paper.

Keywords: Mulberry leaf, bio-fertilizer, biological nitrogen fixation, eco-friendly soil health, potential productivity.

332-340 PDF  
03.3005/03303320340
55.

Realization Of Gateway Relocation Using AC And LB Algorithms In Mobile Wimax Networks

K.Sujatha , C.Nandagopal

Abstract

The WiMAX Forum has defined a two-tiered mobility management to minimize handover delay and packet loss. However, it leads to another problem: When to perform ASN GW relocation? The standards only define the ASN GW relocation procedures without specifying when the ASN GW relocation should be performed. It is left for vendors and operators to develop their own proprietary solutions. In this paper, we propose an algorithm, which incorporates traditional Admission Control (AC) and Wiener Process (WP)-based prediction algorithms to determine when to carry out ASN GW relocation. We further develop an analytical model to analyze the proposed algorithm. Simulations are also conducted to evaluate the performance of the proposed algorithm. The results show that the proposed algorithm can improve the performance significantly in terms of blocking probability, dropping probability, average serving rate, and average signaling overhead. The performance is checked with hard handoff and compared with the existing system.

Keywords: Admission control Wi-MAX networks, Mobility management, resource management, statistics and stochastic process and wireless networks

 
341-346 PDF  
03.3005/03303410346
56.

Convective Heat Transfer in Maxwell-Cattaneo Dielectric Fluids

S. Maruthamanikandan , Smita S. Nagouda

Abstract

The effect of second sound on the onset of Rayleigh-Bénard instability in a dielectric fluid subject to the simultaneous action of a vertical ac electric field and a vertical temperature gradient is investigated theoretically by means of the method of small perturbation. The horizontal layer of the fluid is cooled from the upper boundary, while an isothermal boundary condition is imposed at the lower boundary. The eigenvalues are obtained for free-free, isothermal boundary combinations and the influence of various parameters on the onset of electrothermal convection has been analyzed. Some of the known cases are derived as special cases. The Rayleigh-Bénard problem for a Maxwell-Cattaneo dielectric fluid is always less stable than that with classical heat conduction. It is shown that the destabilizing influence of the Cattaneo number is not attenuated by that of the dielectrophoretic force and vice versa, and that both second sound and electric forces change the aspect ratio of convection cells appreciably.

Keywords: AC electric field, Dielectric fluid, Electroconvection, Hyperbolic energy equation, Maxwell-Cattaneo heat flux, Roberts number, Stationary instability.

 
347-355 PDF  
03.3005/03303470355
57.

Enhancing Degraded Color Images Using Fuzzy Logic and Artificial Bee Colony

 Adlin Sharo T, Dr. Kumudha Raimond

Abstract

The principal objective of image enhancement is to modify attributes of an image to make it more suitable for a given task and a specific observer. Many research works have been carried out to enhance the degraded images using many techniques including hybrid approaches such as fuzzy logic and Ant Colony Optimization (ACO). Besides, many works have adopted optimization techniques to improve the quality of the degraded images where convergence of optimizing parameters plays an important role. An approach has been proposed in this paper using fuzzy logic and Artificial Bee Colony (ABC) optimization technique to improve the convergence time as well as quality of the degraded images. This approach has yielded better results than ACO with respect to convergence time.

Keywords: ABC, ACO, Fuzzification, Guassian MF, HSV, Over exposed, Under exposed.

356-361 PDF  
03.3005/03303560361