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International Journal of Computational Engineering Research (IJCER) Volume 3, Issue 2, February, 2013

S.No. Article Title Page No. PDF Paper Index

Some Fixed Point Theorems for Expansion Mappings

A.S.Saluja, Alkesh Kumar Dhakde ,Devkrishna Magarde


In the present paper we shall establish some fixed point theorems for expansion mappings in complete metric spaces. Our results are generalization of some well known results.

Keywords: Fixed Point, Complete Metric spaces, Expansion mappings.
01-7 PDF  

Automatic Static Signature Verification Systems: A Review

Vitthal K. Bhosale, Dr. Anil R. Karwankar


Handwritten signature is a distinguishing biometric feature which is the most widely employed form of secure personal authentication. Signature verification is used in a large number of fields starting from online banking, passport verification systems to even authenticating candidates in public examinations from their signatures. Even today thousands of financial and business transactions are being authorized via signatures. Therefore an automatic signature verification system is needed. This paper represents a brief review on various approaches used in Static signature verification systems.

Keywords: Fixed Biometrics, false acceptance rate, false rejection rate, forgeries, static signature, simple distance classifiers, support vector machines.
08-12 PDF  

Throughput of Wireless Multi-Mesh Networks: An Experimental Study

P Ramachandran


To overcome the capacity and interference problem of Wireless Mesh Network (WMN), we explore the possibility of increasing the coverage area of WMN by running multiple WMNs in parallel and interconnecting them. Theoretical achievable capacity from [3] to every node in a random static wireless ad hoc network with ideal routing is estimated as O(1/√n log n), where n is the total number of nodes in the network. Therefore, with increasing number of nodes in a network, throughput capacity becomes unacceptably low. In this work we report our throughput measurements that show throughput in a WMN for different path length is almost the same, with nodes across two WMNs of the same path length. We propose to interconnect the networks by using multiple wireless adapters in gateway node configured with the SSID of the networks in operation. To achieve our goal we exploited the DSR protocol feature of assigning locally unique interface indices to its adapters.

Keywords: MR-LQSR, ETX. PktPair, RTT, ETX, WCETT, ARQ and MCL

13-22 PDF  

A Study on the Satisfaction with the Use of Leisure Food and Beverage Information System – Taking Traditional Farms for Example

Hung-Teng Chang, Pin-Chang Chen, Han-Chen Huang,Hui-Min Huang


The application of food and beverage information system to traditional farms has become a current trend. In addition to providing visitors with different featured itineraries and services, it also helps develop the so-called featured farms. However, the existing studies on F&B information system of farms mainly focused on the establishment of system, and seldom discussed the satisfaction with use of system. Therefore, this study took the farms where a complete leisure F&B information system was established and those where such a system was not established as the examples, and used a questionnaire survey to analyze customers' and operators' satisfaction. In addition, this study used independent sample t-test to compare the difference between customers' and operators' satisfaction with meal reservation, management of table condition, meal management, GPS parking navigation and F&B management, in order to understand the actual difference between customers' and operators' satisfaction with the use of F&B information system.

Keywords: Customer satisfaction, Traditional farm industry, e-leisure farm, F&B information system

23-29 PDF  

On Presence of Interaction In An Unbalanced Two-Way Random Model

F.C. Eze,P.E. Chigbu


In an unbalanced two-way random model, there is no obvious denominator for testing for the main effects as a result of the presence of inter-action. The interaction was removed from the model/data resulting to a reduced model devoid of interaction. The data were transformed by dividing the entries of each cell of the data by the inverse of the square root of the standard error to remove the interaction.

Keywords: Expected mean squares, fractional degrees of freedom, reduced model.

30-35 PDF  

Wi-Max Physical Layer Simulator Using Different Modulation Schemes

Vikas Kumar, Sukhjit Singh


WiMAX is a wireless technology which offers high data rate transmission in broadband. The Worldwide interoperability for microwave access (WiMAX) based on IEEE 802.16, has been one of the most important technologies in communication networks providing voice, data and video services with different type of QoS (Quality of Service) during last few years. In this paper, the architecture of the WiMAX physical layer simulator is presented. The main blocks are implemented with the aid of the Matlab Simulink and the bit error rate (BER) curves are presented with varying SNR under different digital modulationsin AWGN channel.

Keywords: WiMAX, Physical layer, QoS, OFDM

36-42 PDF  

Reliability of Thermal Stresses in Bars When Stress Follows Half-Logistic Distribution

P.Hari Prasad, T.S.Uma Maheswari


This paper deals with the reliability of Thermal stresses in simples bars whose body may be expand or contract due to some increase or decrease in the temperature of the body when stress follows the Half-logistic distribution . For such thermal stresses in simple bars we are particularly interested in investigating the reliability by using the Half-logistic distribution function .It is also compared the results between the reliability of thermal stresses in bars if the ends of the bars are fixed to rigid supports and if the supports yield by an amount equal to .it is observed that the reliability is depending on the coefficient of linear expansion .This coefficient of linear expansion is different for each material.

Keywords: Thermal stresses, Temperature, Reliability, Coefficient of linear expansion, Simple bars,Half- logistic distribution, Hazard Rate.

43-46 PDF  

A Multihop Dynamic Channel Assignment Scheme For Cellular Network

 Mr. Chetan D. Jadhav, Prof. A. S. Joshi


A multihop Dynamic Channel Assignment Scheme is proposed here for Multihop Cellular network. The proposed scheme splits the cell into microcell and macrocell to accept and complete the call as single hop, two hops, or three hops call. The radio resources are assigned to each call based on the interference information in the surrounding cells, stored in Interference Information Table at MSC. Two different channel searching algorithms, namely, Sequential Channel searching and packing based Channel searching are proposed and studied here. Such schemes with channel re-assignment procedure to further enhance the system performance, is also investigated. The MDCA scheme for significant improvement of system capacity and call blocking probability is simulated and studied. Further the situation of Hot-Spot is also studied for avoiding call blocking.

Keywords: Multihop Cellular Network, Channel Assignment, Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks, Clusters.
47-52 PDF  

Calculation of Stress And Deflection In Double Layer Microcantilever For Biosensor Application

 Lia Aprilia,Ratno Nuryadi,Djoko Hartanto


In microcantilever-based biosensor, a sensitive layer plays an important role as a place for the establishment of functional layer for detecting molecules target. When a sensitive layer is coated on the microcantilever surface, a surface stress change is induced as a consequence of adsorbate-surface interaction, resulting in a deflection of the microcantilever. However, the microcantilever with the sensitive layer of gold (Au) or 3-Aminopropyltriethoxysilane (aminosilane) which are commonly used in biosensor, has not been reported. In this paper, we study a dependence of the microcantilever deflection on the gold / aminosilane layers thickness in static mode operation. From a derivation of Stoney equation, it is found that the influence of material properties on the deflection of double layer microcantilever from the film stress and radius of curvature. Such relationship is important because the microcantilever deflection directly influences the sensor sensitivity. Our results indicate that the material and the thickness of sensitive layer should be considered to obtain a high sensitivity of microcantilever sensor.

Keywords: Microcantilever, double layer, deflection, stress, sensitive layer, thickness.
53-57 PDF  

Fatigue Failure Analysis of Small Wooden Wind Turbine Blade

Maldhure S. S., Dr. kharde Y.R


Advances in engineering technology in recent years have brought demands for reliable wind turbine blade which can operate at different climatic condition and speeds. When failures occur they are expensive, not only in terms of the cost of replacement or repair, but also the costs associated with the down-time of the system of which they are part. Reliability is thus a critical economic factor and for designers to produce wind turbine blade with a high reliability they need to be able to accurately predict the stresses experienced by the different load condition. A wooden 1.5m wind turbine blade was tested by means of a mechanically operated test rig for fatigue failure. The rig uses a crank eccentric mechanism by variable load for each load cycle. The stress distribution in fatigue critical areas of the blade during testing was found to be similar to the expected stress distribution under normal operational condition

Keywords: Wind turbine, blade, bending stresses, analysis, wood, fatigue.
58-61 PDF  

Dependency Analysis of Other Service Sectors On Ict

 Narinder Singh Rana, Dr. S N Panda


The use of the computational and communication devices has been increasing at an exponential rate for the last couple of decades. Today, along with the Information Technology (IT) and IT enabled Services (ITeS), all other sectors such as financial institutions, manufacturing and retail, transportation and logistic services, tourism, pharmaceuticals, education, public governance etc are highly dependent on ICT (Information and Communication Technology) infrastructure and resultantly the economic growth and stability of a country are highly dependent on the secure and continuous availability of the ICT resources. A miscreant or an adversary today just needs to target this subtle and neophyte backbone of the neo economy and bring more disaster to the country than any weapon can. It has been observed in past that the breakdown in the ICT infrastructure has caused a ripple effect in the economy and created an environment of instability. In this paper, the authors have studied the impact of the ICT sector on other sectors of the economy and the society as a whole.
62-66 PDF  

Computer-Aided Design of Concrete Mixes

D.O. Onwuka, C.E. Okere, O.M. Ibearugbulem, S.U. Onwuka


The determination of mix components and their proportions is referred to as mix design. Traditional methods of designing concrete mixes are based on laid down rules, design standards and codes of practice. These methods are arbitrary and require several trial mixes. Consequently, it is not possible to select at once, the exact mix proportions required to produce concrete of specified or desired property. Thus this work focuses on the development of computer programmes (code in VISUAL BASIC Language) based on simplex and modified regression theories for the designing of concrete mixes. The computer programs can predict all possible combinations of concrete mix proportions if given a desired compressive strength of concrete. Conversely, they can predict the compressive strength of concrete if the mix proportion is specified as well as the optimum value (for the case of the Scheffe’s based program). The programs developed are user friendly, easy and inexpensive to use and yields quick and accurate results. The results obtained from the programs agreed with the experimental results and with each other.

Keywords: computer programs; computer-aided design; concrete mixes; compressive strength; simplex method; modified regression method; visual basic language
67-81 PDF  

Determination through Use of ATND Method of Impact Strength of 359.0 Alloy Modified With Strontium

 Jacek Pezda


The paper presents a method for determination of impact strength of the 359.0 alloy modified with strontium, based on the ATND method and regression analysis performed as early as at the stage of its preparation (melting). Method of Thermal-Voltage-Derivative Analysis (ATND in short) allows registration of voltage and temperature curves, on which one can observe a thermal and voltage effects being results of crystallization of phases and eutectic mixtures, present on the curves in form of characteristic “peaks”. Values of the temperatures and voltages, which can be read out for the characteristic points, constitute the basis for the regression analysis to obtain mathematical relationships presenting effect of changes of their values on change of impact strength of the 359.0 (AlSi9Mg) alloy. It has enabled determination of impact strength of the 359.0 alloy, using equation estimating characteristic points of the ATND method, in experimental conditions at significance level of  = 0,05.

Keywords: silumins, modification, thermal analysis, impact strength, regression analysis.
82-85 PDF  

BSMR: Byzantine-Resilient Secure Multicast Routing In Multi-Hop Wireless Networks

 Vijay Bahadur Singh, Ashok Prasad, Mukesh Chauhan


Multi-hop wireless networks rely on node cooperation to provide unicast and multicast services. The multi-hop communication offers increased coverage for such services, but also makes them more vulnerable to insider (orByzantine) attacks coming from compromised nodes that behave arbitrarily to disrupt the network.In this work we identify vulnerabilities of on-demand multicast routing protocols for multi-hop wirelessnetworks and discuss the challenges encountered in designing mechanisms to defend against them. We proposeBSMR, a novel secure multicast routing protocol that withstands insider attacks from colluding adversaries. Ourprotocol is a software-based solution and does not require additional or specialized hardware. We present simulationresults which demonstrate that BSMR effectively mitigates the identified attacks.

Keywords: multi-hop destination, multicast routing, Byzantine resilient protocols.Byzantine attacks, Byzantine resiliency, Multi-hop wireless networks..
89-93 PDF  

Patient Monitoring By Using Wearable Wireless Sensor Networks with Zigbee Module

 A.Dasthagiraiah, N.Viswanadham, Y.P.Venkateswarlu, B.Balaobulesh, D.Murali Krishna


Patient monitoring systems are gaining their importance as the fast-growing global elderly population increases demands for caretaking. These systems use wireless technologies to transmit vital signs for medical evaluation. In a multi hop ZigBee network, the existing systems usually use broadcast or multicast schemes to increase the reliability of signals transmission; however, both the schemes lead to significantly higher network traffic and end-to-end transmission delay. Our scheme automatically selects the closest data receiver in an any cast group as a destination to reduce the trans- mission latency as well as the control overhead. The new protocol also shortens the latency of path recovery by initiating route recovery from the intermediate routers of the original path. On the basis of a reliable transmission scheme, we implement a ZigBee device for fall monitoring, which integrates fall detection, indoor position- ing, and ECG monitoring. When the tri axial accelerometer of the device detects a fall, the current position of the patient is transmit- ted to an emergency center through a ZigBee network. In order to clarify the situation of the fallen patient, 4-s ECG signals are also transmitted. Our transmission scheme ensures the successful transmission of these critical messages. The experimental results show that our scheme is fast and reliable. We also demonstrate that our devices can seamlessly integrate with the next generation tech- nology of wireless wide area network, worldwide interoperability for microwave access, to achieve real-time patient monitoring.

Keywords: MEMs, FLEX, Wireless Sensors.
94-99 PDF  

Performance Analysis Of Multi Level Frequency Hopping For Cdma Systems

 M.Paul Vinod Kumar, C.Ravi Shankar Reddy


Frequency hopping is performed by changing carrier frequencies while communicating. Spread spectrum techniques have become more prevalent in modern communication systems and the demand for the efficient usage of available spectrum. In this paper multi level frequency hopping is proposed for CDMA systems. The performance analysis shows that this provides better spectral efficiency and support more users at higher data rates. The results were compared against Goodman’s FSK based FH-CDMA scheme at maintained constraints.

Keywords: Code division multiple access(CDMA), code modulation, frequency hopping(FH), spectral efficiency(SE), multiple access interference (MAI).
100-103 PDF  

Gravitational Energy and Its Field



Gravitation is a force which binds all of us with this Earth. After two years of research, my friends and I came to a very interesting conclusion-“Gravity force (g) of the Earth is due to its revolution on its own axis”.Reason – Since the Earth is revolving around the Sun, a force is being exerted by the Sun on the Earth. This means there has to be an energy which the Sun is providing to the Earth. We know that “energy can neither be created nor destroyed.”Hence this energy has been changing its form to another. Our earth is utilizing this energy in two ways- 1) By rotating around the Sun. 2) And revolving on its own axis. This energy is producing a force known as gravitational force, which is binding us. Recently we also noted that if a body is not doing any kind of motion then it is not capable of applying any force on the bodies nearby.In simple words “a body can exert a force on another body if and only if it is in motion”.Thus a new concept of “gravitational induction” is introduced. Thus, if there is a body whose not doing any kind of motion and comes into a region of another body‟s gravitational effect then it is capable of generating its own field due to gravitational induction.

Keywords: Energy, force, gravitation, gravitation induction, graviton, motion, string theory.
104-105 PDF  

An Ultra-Low Power Physical Layer Design For Wireless Body Area Network

 D.Venkadeshkumar , K.G.Parthiban


The wireless body area network (WBAN) is a wireless network used for communication among sensor nodes operating on, in or around the human body in order to monitor vital body parameters and movements. The pursuit of higher quality of life motivates people to be more concerned about their health and potential diseases. At the same time, many patients can benefit from continuous monitoring of their diagnostic procedures. All these require a convenient healthcare surveillance system to monitor people’s health status anytime and anywhere. The tracking capability of such a system should also be able to provide optimal maintenance after a surgical procedure and support early detection of abnormal health conditions.This paper investigates the efficient design of the PHY layer architecture for wireless body area networks (WBAN), which targets on ultra-low power consumption with reliable quality of service (QoS). A low cost baseband transceiver specification and a data processing flow are proposed with a comparatively low-complexity control state machine. A multifunctional digital timing synchronization scheme is also proposed, which can achieve packet synchronization and data recovery. To demonstrate and to optimize the reliability of the proposed design, the dedicated bit-error-rate and power analysis is reported. VHDL code is created to describe the PHY system and SPI and is verified on a Xilinx field-programmable gate array (FPGA) platform.

Keywords: Digital circuit design, low power, wireless body area network (WBAN), wireless communication.
106-111 PDF  

An Elementary Review of Linkages & Gaps Among BPR, SOA & Software Reverse Engineering

 Prasenjit Kundu, Bikram Keshari Ratha, Debabrata Das


Research on Business Process Reengineering has started as an effort in proposing methods and techniques for organizational restructuring in order to increase organizational efficiency and effectiveness. Later on researchers and consultants started using the tools of IT as part of BPR processes and ultimately they started to develop IT based models and methodologies for BPR. One such effort is the development of Object Oriented Knowledge Based model or the OKB model of BPR which encompasses the idea of Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) and Reverse Engineering in order to implement BPR in a simple yet efficient manner. In this paper an elementary literature review has been done in order to build a linkage among the concept of BPR, SOA and Reverse Engineering as well as to identify the gaps among these from the point of view of the OKB model.

Keywords: ADRI Approach, Business Process Reengineering, Dynamic Plug in instrumentation, OKB Model, Service Oriented Architecture (SOA), Software Reverse Engineering, Software Visualization.
112-120 PDF  

An Appropriate F -Test for Two-Way Balanced Interactive Model

 F.C. Eze, F.O Adimonye, C.P. Nnanwa2 M.I. Ezeani


The presence of interaction in a set of data/ model in a two-way interactive model may lead to a biased result when testing for the main effects. The nuisance parameter which is the interaction was removed from the data without distorting the assumption of homogeneity condition of analysis of variance. This is done by a linear combination such that the differences between the corresponding yield row-wise as well as column-wise difference is a constant and yet the total sum of the yield remains unchanged.

Keywords: Nuisance parameter, Mixed effect model, Least squares method.
121-127 PDF  

Deploying Self-Organizing-Healing Techniques for Software Development of Iterative Linear Solver

  Okon S. C., Asagba P. O.


Self-Organization and Self-Healing are fundamental survival/evolutionary technique in natural complex Systems. In this work we present a formal approach to the specification and design of Software that can apply the technique of Self-Organization and Self-Healing to survive unforeseen circumstances. We achieved this by engineering a System that can autonomously reconfigure, reorganized its states to overcome faults/errors thus continuing normal, gracefully degrading or enhanced performance at execution time.Our specification shows how we apply structured system analysis and design methodology, neural network and descriptive model as methodologies to engineer Software whose constituent parts are designed and developed as rule players as is obtainable in autonomous natural complex system. Our Prototype Software is in the area of solving systems of linear equations iteratively. This work can easily be adopted for other Software Projects by making all modules participate in the Software Architecture as rule players.

Keywords: Self-Organization, Self-Healing, Software Component Capacity, Rule Player
128-136 PDF  

Computation of Least Cost Pipe Network –An Alternate Method

  Briti Sundar Sil, Ajeet Kumar, Pallavi Saikia, P. Jarken Bui, Preetam Banerjee


The paper is based on the optimal design of pipe networks for the water distribution. The treated water has to be supplied to the consumers in their individual homes. This function of carrying water is accomplished through well planned distribution system with optimal design of pipes as it comprises the major investment in the system. So for economy and cutting down huge expenditures, design of water distribution networks has to be such that the cost incurred is minimal and simultaneously it meets the demands and discharges at various outlets of the network. The problem in this paper has thus been solved with a view to reduce the cost of pipe networking with the required amount discharge in the outlet, Hardy Cross Method has been used for estimating the required discharge in each outlet of the pipe network, and optimization of the system has been done to reduce the cost with the help of Microsoft-excel. The proposed optimization setup has been very close to the original value, thereby validating its use for optimization.
137-142 PDF  

Design of Low Power Column bypass Multiplier using FPGA

 J.sudha rani, R.N.S.Kalpana


It is well known that multipliers consume most of the power in DSP computations. Hence, it is very important for modern DSP systems to develop low-power multipliers to reduce the power dissipation.. In this paper, we presents low power Column bypass multiplier design methodology that inserts more number of zeros in the multiplicand thereby reducing the number of switching activities as well as power consumption. The switching activity of the component used in the design depends on the input bit coefficient. This means if the input bit coefficient is zero, corresponding row or column of adders need not be activated. If multiplicand contains more zeros, higher power reduction can be achieved. To reduce the switching activity is to shut down the idle part of the circuit, which is not in operating condition. Use of look up table is an added feature to this design. Further low power adder structure reduces the switching activity. Flexibility is another critical requirement that mandates the use of programmable components like FPGAs in such devices.

Keywords: Low Power, Multiplier, Reduced Switching,Column By passing
143-151 PDF