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International Journal of Computational Engineering Research (IJCER) Volume 3, Issue 1, January, 2013

S.No. Article Title Page No. Paper Index PDF

An Histogram Based Approach for Content Based Image Mining

Mr. Ashish Bandre ,Prof. Ramanand Singh , ,Prof. S. G. Kerhalkar


Typical content-based image retrieval (CBIR) system would need to handle the vagueness in the user queries as well as the inherent uncertainty in image representation, similarity measure, and relevance feedback. We discuss how Histogram set theory can be effectively used for this purpose and describe an image retrieval system called HIRST (Histogram image retrieval system) which incorporates many of these ideas. HIRST can handle exemplar-based, graphical-sketch-based, as well as linguistic queries involving region labels, attributes, and spatial relations. HIRST uses Histogram attributed relational graphs (HARGs) to represent images, where each node in the graph represents an image region and each edge represents a relation between two regions. The given query is converted to a FARG, and a low-complexity Histogram graph matching algorithm is used to compare the query graph with the FARGs in the database. The use of an indexing scheme based on a leader clustering algorithm avoids an exhaustive search of the FARG database. We quantify the retrieval performance of the system in terms of several standard measures.

Ultrasonic Behaviour of Binary Mixtures Containing Stearates and Acetone

r. Kavitha , s. Jayakumar, r. Uma


The ultrasonic velocity measurements along with density and viscosity in the binary mixtures of zinc stearate - acetone and calcium stearate - acetone at 303 K are studied. It is used to evaluate the different thermo acoustical parameters along with the excess properties. The experimentally determined velocities have been compared with theoretically estimated values obtained using different empirical theories and relations. The results are utilized to compare the relative merits of these theories and relations in terms of percentage of variation.

Keywords: Stearates, stabilizer, solvent, molecular interaction, excess properties.

Economic Impact Due To Automobile Air Pollution Linked Diseases In Rewa

Priyanka Rai, R.M.Mishra


Nowadays air over major cities throughout the world has become over burdened with gases produced by automobiles. The death rate due to automobiles pollution is increasing rapidly in the metropolitan areas. Every year an estimated 800,000 people die prematurely from illnesses caused by outdoor air pollution worldwide. They compare cost-of-illness (COI) and willingness-to-pay (WTP) estimates of the damages from minor respiratory symptoms associated with air pollution using data from a study in Rewa in 2010-2011. The present study is an attempt to exploit air problems and diseases caused by the automobile air pollution and its cause economic problem by the treatment of disease. We conclude from our results that blood pressure, ENT (Eye, nose and throat), fatigue, gastrointestinal diseases and cancer were highly correlated with lead distribution. We also conclude that the motor vehicles/ automobiles now constitute the main source of air pollution. On the basis of observation Bus stand sites is highly polluted than the Sirmour chauk in which respiratory problem recorded 45.24% at sirmour chauk and 48.73% at Bus stand and expenditure is maximum on Bus stand is 572244 Rs. than the Sirmour chauk 509537 Rs.

Key words: Urban air pollution, Human health and Economic loss.

An Efficient Memory Architecture For Network Intrusion Detection Systems Using Pattern Partitioning And Parallel String Matching

T.Aswini Devi, Mrs. K.Surya Kumari


In recent days hardware based Network intrusion detection system is used to inspect packet contents against thousands of pre defined malicious or suspicious patterns I order to support the high speed internet download. Because traditional software alone pattern matching approaches can no longer meet the high throughput of today‟s networking, many hardware approaches are proposed to accelerate pattern matching. Among hardware approaches, memory-based architecture has attracted a lot of attention because of its easy reconfigurability and scalability. In order to accommodate the increasing number of attack patterns and meet the throughput requirement of networks, a successful network intrusion detection system must have a memory-efficient pattern-matching algorithm and hardware design. In this paper, we propose a memory-efficient pattern-matching algorithm which can significantly reduce the memory requirement. Here we propose bit split based pattern matching which will match more pattern as compared to any ASCII value based matching.

Cost- Benefit Analysis of Wastewater Recycling Plant for Textile Wet Processing

Prof. Mahesh B. Chougule, Dr. (Capt.) Nitin P. Sonaje


Water has been a cheaper commodity for a very long period and never accounted for in processing cost. Now it becomes scarce and a priced commodity and the costs for water and its treatment to make it suitable for processing have escalated to the newer heights necessitating its inclusion in production costs. Water conservation techniques must be instigated in the textile industries. The industries must take initiatives to implement water management practices. Also it is necessary to encourage industries for investment in various water recycling methods. Treated wastewater from city wastewater plant is disposed either on land or in river. This water causes various land pollution problems and water pollution. This treated waste water can be used in textile wet processing by retreating it. The treatment plant comprises water storage tank, Oil and gas removal trap, Slow sand filter, Granular Activated carbon unit (GAC), Chlorination unit, two stage ion exchange unit with strong acid cation exchange resin SAC) and strong base anion exchange resin (SBA). This paper focuses on cost benefit analysis of wastewater recycling plant for textile wet processing

Key words: Wastewater recycling, textile wet processing, GAC technology, strong acid cation exchange resin, strong base anion exchange resin, cost benefit analysis

A Novel Approach To Improve Detection Rate And Search Efficiency Of NIDS

Manisha R. Patil, Madhuri D. Patil


Signature based Network Intrusion Detection System (NIDS) apply set of rules to identify the traffic and classify known attacks by comparing with the signature. As the detection rate and speed of searching for signature in NIDS are two main aspects, this paper gives data mining approve to improve on detection rate and we use an algorithm to use the known signature to find the signature of the related attack quickly.

Keywords: Classification, Signature Based NIDS, Association Rule Mining, Data Mining, Apriori algorithm, Network Intrusion Detection.

Application of Ellipse for Horizontal Alignment

Farzin Maniei, Siamak Ardekani


In highway design, horizontal curves provide directional transition for roadways. Three categories of horizontal curves are simple circular curves, compound circular curves, and spiral circular curves. Compound and spiral curves, as alternatives to a simple circular curve, are often more costly since they are longer in length and require additional right-of-way; with cost differences amplified at higher design speeds. This study presents calculations associated with using a single elliptical arc in lieu of compound or spiral curves in situations where the use of simple circular curves is not prudent due to driver safety and comfort considerations. The study presents an approach to analytically determine the most suitable substitute elliptical curve for a given design speed and intersection angle. Computational algorithms are also provided to stakeout the elliptical curve. These include algorithms to determine the best fit elliptical arc with the minimum arc length and minimum right-of-way; and algorithms to compute chord lengths and deflection angles and the associated station numbers for points along the elliptical curve. These algorithms are applied to an example problem in which elliptical results are compared to the equivalent circular curve and spiral-circular curve results..

Keywords: Horizontal alignment, elliptical curve, circular curve, spiral curve

Face Feature Recognition System Considering Central Moments

Sundos A. Hameed Al_azawi, Jamila H.Al-A'meri


Shape Features is used in pattern recognition because of their discrimination power and robustness. These features can also be normalized by Central moment. In this work, Faces Features Recognition System considering central moment (FFRS) is including three steps, first step, some image processing techniques worked together for shape features extraction step, step two, extract features of shape ( face image) using central moment, third step is recognition of face features by comparing between an input test face features from the input image and an face features which stored in the features database.

Keywords: Recognition, detection, face feature, moment, image preprocessing, feature database, and central moment.

Prediction of Weld Width of Shielded Metal Arc Weld under Magnetic Field using Artificial Neural Networks

R.P. Singh, R.C. Gupta , S.C. Sarkar.


The prediction of the optimal weld bead width is an important aspect in shielded metal arc welding (SMAW) process as it is related to the strength of the weld. This paper focuses on investigation of the development of the simple and accurate model for prediction of weld bead width of butt joint of SMAW process. Artificial neural networks technique was used to train a program in C++ with the help of sufficient number of welding data sets having input variables current, voltage, speed of welding and external magnetic field and output variable weld bead width. These variables were obtained after welding mild steel plates using SMAW process. The welding set-up was mounted on a lathe machine. In this paper, the effect of a longitudinal magnetic field generated by bar magnets on the weld bead width was experimentally investigated. Using the experimental data a multi-layer feed forward artificial neural network with back propagation algorithm was modeled to predict the effects of welding input process parameters on weld width accurately. It was found that welding voltage, arc current, welding speed and external magnetic field have the large significant effects on weld bead width. It has been realized that with the use of the properly trained program, the prediction of optimal weld bead width becomes much simpler to even a novice user who has no prior knowledge of the SMAW process and optimization techniques.

Keywords: Artificial Neural Network, Back Propagation, External Magnetic Field, Hidden Layer, Input Process Parameters, Shielded Metal Arc Welding, Weld Bead Width.

The Gracefulness of the Merging Graph N ** C4 with Dotnet Framework

Solairaju, N. Abdul Ali,R.M. Karthikkeyan


There are many graceful graph from standers path, circuit, wheel etc .In this paper a new class of graceful graphs related to c4 [circuits with 4 vertices] is obtained .

Keywords: path limit, ‛n' - copies of c4

A Novel Ultra High Speed D.C Motor Protection Using NI Lab View

 Raj Kumar Mishra, Dr. S. Chatterji, Shimi S.L


This paper presents a novel concept of D.C motor protection using NI Lab VIEW. The researcher has designed highly powerful real time D.C motor protection software by using NI Lab VIEW, which is proficient of protecting D.C motor within fraction of seconds against different types of faults, giving the real time protection, hence giving a brilliant solution to virtual instrument based protection system. Now a days due to increase in complication in motor use, there was a vital necessity of motor protection system which can constantly monitor and control a very large motor system. That is why high speed, high accuracy, real time solutions are required for measuring D.C motor protection. This paper presents a high precision and high fidelity approach based on NI ELVIS Instruments and NI Lab VIEW for monitoring and protection of D.C motors.

Keywords: LabVIEW, Virtual Instruments, D.C motor protection, D.C motor monitoring, fault analysis

Reengineering of relational Databases to Object Oriented Database

 Mr.R.S.Mawale, Prof.A.V.Deorankar, Prof. P.U. Malve


Many information systems use relational database systems for efficient sharing, storage, and retrieval of large quantities of data. On the other hand, object-oriented programming has been gaining wide acceptance in the programming community as a paradigm for developing complex applications that are easy to extend and maintain. This paper discusses development of an integrated environment which maps a relational schema to an object-oriented schema without the need to modify the existing relational schema and providing a platform for migrating data from relational database to object oriented database.

Keywords: Schema Mapping, RDBMS, OODBMS, Reengineering

Hand Palm Vein Authentication by Using Junction Points with Correlation Method

S.Sharavanan, Dr.A.Nagappan


Hand palm vein authentication is a biometric modality, which can be used to identify a person. In this paper, palm vein authentication by using Junction point with correlation method is proposed. The process of training and testing the palm vein will take less time to produce the output Our proposed method effectively reduce the processing time and increase the accuracy rate.

Keywords: Biometric, Junction point, Hand palm vein, Correlation method.

Solution Of Matrix Game In Intuitionistic Fuzzy Environment

 Sibasis Bandyopadhyay,Prasun Kumar Nayak, Madhumangal Pal


Text password is the most popular form of user authentication on websites due to its convenience and simplicity. However, user's passwords are prone to be stolen and compromised by different threats and vulnerabilities. Users often select weak passwords and reuse the same passwords across different websites. Typing passwords into untrusted computers suffers password thief threat. The user authentication protocol proposes the oPass enhancement to protect user identity; it requires a long-term password for cell phone protection and account ID for login on all websites. OPass only requires each participating website possesses a unique phone number, and involves a telecommunication service provider in registration and recovery phases for the creation of one-time password. User can recover oPass system with reissued SIM cards and long-term passwords. Opass is efficient and affordable compared with the conventional web authentication mechanisms. Therefore one-time password mechanism that has enhanced security using private key infrastructure to prevent integrity problem due to phishing attack and keyloggers.

Keywords: Network security, password reuse attack, pass- word stealing attack, user authentication.

A Survey on 3d Localization in Wireless Sensor Networks

 Shayon Samanta, Prof. Punesh U.Tembhare, Prof. Charan R. Pote


WSN is used in many recent trends in wireless application, where its nodes needed to localize him before sending any data. Nodes are defines their coordinates in localization process, through coordinates they localize himself. There are various algorithm proposed in localization based on 2D works on two plane, it provides accuracy but in real world needed all three planes for correct estimation and more accuracy in localization. The 2D works on flat terrain, we need to deploy WSN in harsh terrain also, so we needed to define algorithm on 3D basis for providing better accuracy and decrease the error of estimation and it provide a real world view. This paper works on localization of node using 3D and its algorithm.

Keywords: Beacon Node, Localization Algorithm, Unknown Nodes, Wireless Sensor Networks.

Crosswind Sensitivity of Passenger Cars and the Influence of Chassis

 Ram Bansal, R. B. Sharma


Results of vehicle crosswind research involving both full-scale driver-vehicle tests and associated analyses are presented. The paper focuses on experimental crosswind testing of several different vehicle configurations and a group of seven drivers. Atest procedure, which utilized wind-generating fans arranged in alternating directions to provide a crosswind "gauntlet", is introduced and described. Driver preferences for certain basic chassis and aerodynamic properties aredemonstrated and linked to elementary system responses measured during the crosswind gauntlet tests. Based on these experimental findings and confirming analytical results, a two-stage vehicle design process is then recommended for predicting and analysing the crosswind sensitivity of a particular vehicle or new design.

Keywords: (A) vehicle dynamics considerations (e.g., weight distribution, tire, and suspension characteristics), (B) vehicle aerodynamic properties, (C) steering system characteristics (most notably steering system compliance, friction and torque assists), and (D) driver closed-loop steering behaviour.


Comparison of Imputation Techniques after Classifying the Dataset Using Knn Classifier for the Imputation of Missing Data

Ms.R.Malarvizhi, Dr. Antony Selvadoss Thanamani


Missing data has to be imputed by using the techniques available. In this paper four imputation techniques are compared in the datasets grouped by using k-nn classifier. The results are compared in terms of percentage of accuracy. The imputation techniques Mean Substitution and Standard Deviation show better results than Linear Regression and Median Substitution.

Keywords: Mean Substitution, Median Substitution, Linear Regression, Standard Deviation, k-nn Classifier.

Bandwidth Enhancement of A 2×2 Triangular Microstrip Patch Antenna Using Triangular Lattice Ebgs in the Ground Plane

Jalaj Sharma, Sunil Kumar Singh


Triangular lattice Electromagnetic Band-Gap (EBG) Structure in the ground plane is used in the design of a Triangular Microstrip Patch Antenna (TMPA) Array to improve its bandwidth. The patch elements are equilateral triangular in shape. The Equilateral Triangular Microstrip Patch Antenna (ETMPA) Array design has four patch elements in 2×2 form with ground plane having circular cutouts forming triangular lattice EBG. The ETMPA array with EBG provides better antenna gain and bandwidth. The ETMPA Array with EBG gives an impedance bandwidth of 16.76GHz and a percentage bandwidth of 110% while ETMPA Array gives an impedance bandwidth of 2.46GHz and a percentage bandwidth of 17.7%, thus an increment of approximately 500% in impedance bandwidth is observed. The achieved bandwidth of the ETMPA array with EBG extends from 2.7034GHz to 19.4649GHz. The array gain with EBG structure improved to 14.6dBi which is 9.7dBi for ETMPA array without EBG.

Keywords: ETMPA, ETMPA Array, Electromagnetic Band-Gap (EBG), Impedance Bandwidth, Percentage Bandwidth, Triangular Lattice.

Single Layer Monopole Hexagonal Microstrip Patch Antenna for Direct Broadcast Satellite (DBS) System

  Supriya Jana , Bipadtaran Sinhamahapatra, Sudeshna Dey, Arnab Das, Bipa Datta, Moumita Mukherjee, Samiran Chatterjee


In recent years, great interest was focused on microstrip antennas for their small volumes, low profiles, excellent integration, low costs and good performance. With the continuous growth of wireless communication service and the constant miniaturization of communication equipment, there are higher and higher demands for the volume of antennas, integration and working band. This paper presents a single layer monopole hexagonal microstrip patch antenna is thoroughly simulated for wireless communications system application which are suitable for the 13.71GHz operations. These systems may include direct broadcast satellite (DBS) system, also known as "Direct-To-Home". DBS systems are commonly referred to as "mini-dish" systems. DBS uses the upper portion of the Ku band. The initial design and optimization of the patch antenna is operating in Ku band (12-18GHz).It has been performed in Zeland IE3D software.

Keywords: Compact, Patch, Slot, Resonant frequency, Bandwidth, DBS System.

Study of Decision Making Process Using Psychology-Oriented Artificial Society Model, Part 2: Analysis of Decision Making Process in Bangladesh Regarding the Acceptance of Nuclear Power Plants

 Sarkar Barbaq Quarma, M. Khaled Kamal, Shanjida Afroj, Nalin Warnajith, Md. Ruhul Amin, Masanori Itaba, Atsushi Minato, and Satoru Ozawa


The decision making process in Bangladesh regarding the acceptance of nuclear power plants has been analyzed on the basis of authors' psychology-oriented artificial society model [1]. The first part of this paper includes the selection of agents for the modeling, and collection of various parameters of Bangladeshi society. In particular, a "keyword analysis method" is proposed to determine the knowledge function of agents. From the keyword analysis of various message data from the agents, it has been found that the knowledge functions of government, general people and mass media have a similar structure which reflects their positive attitude to the problem; only social network media is against the problem. In the latter part, computer simulations are carried out and the knowledge function of each agent is calculated as a function of time. It has been shown from the computational study that the Bangladeshi society, as a whole, will continue to have a positive attitude to the problem in the next six years, and that this trend will not change even in a suppositional case where the effect of social network media is 10 times stronger than that of the present.

Keywords: artificial society model, knowledge, social decision making, message transfer, cognitive psychology

Design of Simulink Model for Real Time Video/Image Splitting

  Naveen B., Dr. K.R. Nataraj, Dr. K.R. Rekha


For split the real time image/video of size P x Q into four image/video blocks. Each splitted image/video blocks are interpolated to the dimension of the original image without blurring and display video/image in four different screens. Video splitting is the process of dividing the video into non overlapping parts. In this paper , techniques for splitting an image are implemented using MATLAB simulink.

Keywords: Image, Video, Splitting, Simulink.

Cascade Reliability for Generalized Exponential Distribution

T.sumathi UmaMaheswari, N.Swathi


Cascade reliability model is a special type of Stress- Strength model. The n- Cascade system is a hierarchical standby redundancy system, where the standby component taking the place of failed component with decreased value of stress and independently distributed strength. This paper deals with the generalized exponential distribution with cascade system.

Keywords: Stress – Strength model, Cascade system, generalized exponential distribution.

Seismic Damage Prediction of Reinforced Concrete Buildings Using Pushover Analysis

 M.Mouzzoun, O.Moustachi, A.Taleb


In this paper we propose to assess the seismic vulnerability of a five storey reinforced concrete building designed according to the Moroccan seismic code RPS2000 [1].the building is residential and has a reinforced concrete frame structural system. In the first time a set of dynamic analysis are carried out to compute dynamic properties of the building (fundamental period, natural frequencies, deformation modes,), in the second time a pushover analysis is performed to assess the seismic performance of the building and detect the locations of the plastic hinges. Pushover analysis was performed using SAP2000.the results obtained from this study show that designed building perform well under moderate earthquake, but is vulnerable under severe earthquake.
Keywords: Analysis, building, pushover, performance, performance point, reinforced concrete, seismic.

Packet-Hiding Methods for Preventing Selective Jamming Attacks

  Ashish Kumar, Sachin Kumar Gupta, Shubham Singh


The open nature of the wireless medium leaves it vulnerable to intentional interference attacks, typically referred to as jamming. This intentional interference with wireless transmissions can be used as a launch pad for mounting Denial-of-Service attacks on wireless networks. Typically, jamming has been addressed under an external threat model. However, adversaries with internal knowledge of protocol specifications and network secrets can launch low-effort jamming attacks that are difficult to detect and counter. In this work, we address the problem of selective jamming attacks in wireless networks. In these attacks, the adversary is active only for a short period of time, selectively targeting messages of high importance. We illustrate the advantages of selective jamming in terms of network performance degradation and adversary effort by presenting two case studies; a selective attack on TCP and one on routing. We show that selective jamming attacks can be launched by performing real-time packet classification at the physical layer. To mitigate these attacks, we develop three schemes that prevent real-time packet classification by combining cryptographic primitives with physical-layer attributes. We analyze the security of our methods and evaluate their computational and communication overhead.

Keywords: Selective Jamming, Denial of Service, Wireless Network , Packet Classification .

An Approach to Find Maintenance Costs Using Cost Drivers of Cocomo Intermediate Model



Maintenance of software under several cost drivers is as sort of assigning a range of ratings instead of a single point rating to get range of estimates. Several parameters come into use like Annual change traffic and development costs in man-months. Software is being used worldwide, in the same way maintenance of software is equally important as of development of software. Here, we have taken particular range values of lines of code to evaluate costs pertaining to development which intern evaluates final maintenance costs. Every multiplier is taken randomly according to characteristics of product and made a product with development costs to obtain maintenance costs of software. This procedure is done for all the three modes namely organic, semidetached and embedded modes in order to obtain comparison statements of results. The main aim to carry out this review is to explore the changes in maintenance of software when new cost drivers are introduced to the product.

Keywords: Eaf, Act, Cocomo, Ks, Sloc, Nnl, Nml, Nol

Potential of Information and Communication Technology Towards the Success of the Indian IT Software Industry

  Sheela Bhatt, Dr.S.S.Sarangdevot


India has also embraced ICT tools for strengthening its economic and technical power. The present research explores the potential of ICT towards the Indian IT Software Industry. This paper embraces modern ICT to explore and examines the potential of ICT towards the Indian Software Sector. In particular, it surveys the impact of Information on Communication Technologies with respect to information on the company's framed policies procedures. Further, it also examines its potential towards the Indian IT software and services sector. Only Primary data is used.Two Structured Questionnaire Modules are set. Cluster sampling and Random sampling is used respectively. Sampling frame is South India. Data collection methods are: Mails, Interviews and Schedules for both modules. Source list comprises of important Indian Software Entrepreneurs/Organizations.. A Pilot Testing is undertaken. To meet objectives, hypothesis test is applied. For statistical analysis, multivariate regression, Analysis of Variance and Factor Analysis is used. Test Statistics F or t is also used. For coding and computations, SPSS and Microsoft Office Excel along with embedded Q1Macros 2012 is used.

Keywords: Entrepreneur /Organization, explore, impact, Indian, Information on Communication Technologies, policies and procedures, potential, Software, Industry.

Synchronization, Anti-Synchronization and Hybrid-Synchronization Of A Double Pendulum Under The Effect Of External Forces

Ayub Khan, Priyamvada Tripathi


In the present manuscript, an investigation on synchronization, anti-synchronization and hybrid-synchronization behavior of a double pendulum under the effect of external forces using active control technique based on the Lyapunov stability theory and the Routh-Hurwitz criteria, have been made. The designed controller with a new choice of co-efficient matrix of the error-dynamics are found to be effective in the stabilization of error states at the origin, thereby achieving synchronization between the states variables of two dynamical systems under consideration. Numerical simulations have been presented to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed control techniques using mathematica.

Keywords: Double Pendulum under the effect of external forces, Lyapunov stability theory and Routh- Hurwitz Criteria, Synchronization, Anti-synchronization and Hybrid- synchronization.

Dynamic Voltage Restorer (DVR) System for Compensation of Voltage Sags, State-of-the-Art Review

 Shazly A. Mohammed, Aurelio G. Cerrada, Abdel-Moamen M. A, B. Hasanin


The problem of voltage sags and its severe impact on sensitive loads is well known. To solve this problem, The DVR is a modern and important custom power device for compensation voltage sags in power distribution systems. The Dynamic Voltage Restorer (DVR) is fast, flexible and efficient solution to voltage sag problem. The DVR is a series compensator used to mitigate voltage sags and to restore load voltage to its rated value. In this paper, an overview of the DVR, its functions, configurations, components, operating modes, voltage injection methods and closed-loop control of the DVR output voltage are reviewed along with the device capabilities and limitations.

Keywords: Power Quality, Voltage Sag, Dynamic Voltage Restorer (DVR), Control Strategy, Voltage Source Converter.

Studies on the Dielectric Beheviour of Some Plant Fibers

  Gajendra Nath Sarma,,Manoranjan Talukdar


The dielectric diffractogram of raw and chemically degummed ginger (Zingiber officinale), turmeric (Curcuma longa) and java galangal (Alpinia galangal) fibers are taken at different temperatures and at different frequencies. It is found that the dielectric constants of the plant fibers are changed due to degumming. Also the dielectric constants of the fibers decrease with the increase of frequency at temperature 300C. The variation of dielectric constant with change of frequency indicates that the plant fibers are hydrophilic in nature. The hydrophilic nature of the fibers has not been changed due to degumming. The glass transition temperature (Tg) has changed when the fibers are degummed by 2% NaOH. The dielectric loss tangent (tanδ) shows a linear relation with temperature in air and in vacuum. The tanδ changes due to degumming of the fibers at lower temperature but remain almost same at higher temperature. Further, the values of tanδ vary at different medium.

Keywords: Dielectric diffractogram, Zingiber officinale, Curcuma longa, Alpinia galangal, dielectric loss tangent.

Numerical Simulation of Flow past a Circular Cylinder with Varying Tunnel Height to Cylinder Diameter at Re 40.

  Rajani B.N, R.V.P Gowda, P. Ranjan


The current study mainly focuses on the two-dimensional numerical simulation of the unsteady laminar flow past a circular cylinder in a channel, mimicking the effect of the tunnel wall. The computational results obtained using two different flow solution codes are validated against other computational and measurement data available in the literature. The study confirms a decrease in wake length and a shift in flow separation further downstream at smaller gaps between the tunnel walls and cylinder.

Keywords: Cylinder, OpenFOAM, parabolic flow, tunnel, uniform flow, vortices.

Behaviour of Reinforced Concrete Slab Subjected To Fire

 Mr. C Sangluaia , Mr. M K Haridharan, Dr. C Natarajan, Dr. A. Rajaraman


The behavior of reinforced concrete slab exposed to fire is presented. Two stages of analysis is carried out using Finite Element package ABAQUS to find thermal response of structural members namely thermal analysis and structural analysis. In the first step, the distribution of the temperature over the depth during fire is determined. In the next step, the mechanical analysis is made in which these distributions are used as the temperature loads. The responses of structure depend on the type of concrete and the interactions of structural members. The RCC slab were modeled to show the role of slab thickness, percentage of reinforcement, width of slab and different boundary condition when expose to fire loading. Effects for both materials in RCC slab at elevated temperatures are also evaluated.

Keywords: ABAQUS, Concrete, Fire, Floor slabs, Modeling, Structural response, Thermal response.

Strength, Economic and Sustainability Characteristics of Coal Ash –GGBS Based Geopolymer Concrete.

Mr. Bennet Jose Mathew, Mr. M Sudhakar, Dr. C Natarajan


The need to reduce the global anthropogenic carbon dioxide has encouraged researchers to search for sustainable building materials. Cement, the second most consumed product in the world, contributes nearly 7% of the global carbon dioxide emission. Geopolymer concrete (GPC) is manufactured using industrial waste like fly ash, GGBS is considered as a more eco-friendly alternative to Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) based concrete. The feasibility of production of geopolymer concrete using coarser bottom ash is evaluated in this study. Additionally, the effect of replacement of fly ash with bottom ash at varying percentage on strength of Geopolymer concrete is also studied. The effect of curing methodology on strength of fly ash-GGBS based geopolymer concrete has also been evaluated. Economic impact and sustainability studies were conducted on both OPC based concrete and geopolymer concrete. Comparison studies shows that geopolymer concrete can be prepared at comparable cost with that of OPC concrete while they offer huge reduction in carbon dioxide emissions.

Keywords: Geopolymer concrete, Sustainability, Green concrete, coal ash concrete, sustainability, waste materials, Cost analysis

Prediction and Control of Weld Bead Geometry in Gas Metal Arc Welding Process Using Simulated Annealing Algorithm

 P, Sreeraj,T, Kannan , Subhasis Maji


In order to automate a welding process, which is a present trend in fabrication industry, it is necessary to have a mathematical model that is to relate the process parameters. Because of high reliability, easiness in operation, high penetration good surface finish and high productivity gas metal arc welding (GMAW) became a natural choice for fabrication industries. This paper presents five level factorial techniques to predict four critical dimensions of bead geometry. The developed models have been checked for adequacy and significance. The bead geometry is predicted again using Simulated annealing Algorithm (SA).

Keywords: GMAW, Weld bead geometry, Multiple Regression, Mathematical models,

Image Authentication Using Distributed Source Coding

 Dr. Krishna Mohanta, Dr.V.Khanaa


We Present A Novel Approach Using Distributed Source Coding For Image Authentication. The Key Idea Is To Provide A Slepian-Wolf Encoded Quantized Image Projection As Authentication Data. This Version Can Be Correctly Decoded With The Help Of An Authentic Image As Side Information. Distributed Source Coding Provides The Desired Robustness Against Legitimate Variations While Detecting Illegitimate Modification. The Decoder Incorporating Expectation Maximization Algorithms Can Authenticate Images Which Have Undergone Contrast, Brightness, And Affine Warping Adjustments. Our Authentication System Also Offers Tampering Localization By Using The Sum-Product Algorithm.

Keywords: Distributed Source Coding, EM Algorithm, Image Authentication, Sum-Product Algorithm.

On The Enestrom –Kakeya Theorem and Its Generalisations

M. H. Gulzar


Many extensions of the Enestrom –Kakeya Theorem are available in the literature. In this paper we prove some results which generalize some known results .

Keywords: Complex number, Polynomial , Zero, Enestrom – Kakeya Theorem

Effect Of Mode Of Training On Product Quality The Case Study Of Arc Welding In Small Scale Metalworking Enterprises In Kenya

 Dr. Charles M.M. Ondieki, Prof.Elifas T. Bisanda, Prof. Wilson O.Ogola


The quality of products from the micro and small enterprise sector is affected by both the entrepreneur's and enterprise's attributes. This paper presents and discusses findings of a study that was designed to investigate experimentally the relationship between the quality of arc welding in the Small Scale Metalwork sub-sector and the artisan's mode of training. Four pairs of groups with a total of 36 with secondary education and 36 with primary education consisting of formally and informally trained artisans from urban and rural areas participated in the evaluation. A mild steel product was fabricated by each participating artisan, assessed and scores awarded based on the quality of arc welding. The analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to show any variation in the quality of arc welding; comparisons of means using the Least Significant Difference (LSD) at the alpha level of 5% were done to determine which pairs of artisans affected quality significantly. The study found out that informally trained artisans with secondary education working in urban areas exhibited the highest quality of arc welding. The informally trained artisans with primary education working in rural areas exhibited the lowest quality of arc welding. Generally formal training does not have a significant effect on urban artisans, but it does improve product quality of arc welding from artisans in rural areas. The findings of the study provide evidence that formal training can improve product quality from artisans working in rural areas, and therefore more resources should be channelled to training of rural artisans.

Keywords: Modes of Training, Product Quality, MSE, Metalworking sub-sector, Arc welding

Strong Triple Connected Domination Number of a Graph

 G. Mahadevan, V. G. Bhagavathi Ammal, Selvam Avadayappan, T. Subramanian


The concept of triple connected graphs with real life application was introduced in [14] by considering the existence of a path containing any three vertices of a graph G. In [3], G. Mahadevan et. al., introduced Smarandachely triple connected domination number of a graph. In this paper, we introduce a new domination parameter, called strong triple connected domination number of a graph. A subset S of V of a nontrivial graph G is said to be smarandachely triple connected dominating set, if S is a dominating set and the induced sub graph is triple connected. The minimum cardinality taken over all triple connected dominating sets is called the triple connected domination number and is denoted by tc. A set D ⊆ V(G) is a strong dominating set of G, if for every vertex x ∈ V(G) − D there is a vertex y ∈ D with xy ∈ E(G) and d(x,G) ≤ d(y,G). The strong domination number st(G) is defined as the minimum cardinality of a strong domination set. A subset S of V of a nontrivial graph G is said to be strong triple connected dominating set, if S is a strong dominating set and the induced sub graph is triple connected. The minimum cardinality taken over all strong triple connected dominating sets is called the strong triple connected domination number and is denoted by stc. We determine this number for some standard graphs and obtain bounds for general graph. Its relationship with other graph theoretical parameters are also investigated.

Keywords: Domination Number, Triple connected graph, Strong Triple connected domination number AMS Subject Classification: 05C 69