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International Journal of Computational Engineering Research (IJCER) Volume 2, Issue 6, October, 2012

S.No. Article Title Page No. Paper Index PDF

Adjusment of a Braced Quadrilatral by Rigorous Method in Tabular Form

Dr A. M. Chandra


Adjusting a braced quadrilateral by rigorous method is a tedious and laborious job. This paper presents the step-by-step computations of adjustment in a simplified manner by making use of a table designed by the author for the purpose.

CPW Feed Patch Antenna for GPS Applications

Yashu Rajput, Tejender Singh Rawat, Leena Varshney


In this paper we are proposing a CPW-Fed patch antenna. This paper presents the design of rectangular patch microstrip antenna for the frequencies at L1 (1.67 GHz to 1.90 GHz) and L2 (2.65 GHz to 3.05GHz). The simulation is done by using the HFSS software, which is a full-wave simulation tool, based on the method of moments The bandwidth of the proposed antenna reaches about 230MHz & 400MHz with the return loss of about -30dB & -28dB respectively over the chosen frequency spectrum.

Keywords: CPW-Feed, Microstrip Patch Antennas, Radiation Pattern, Return Loss.

Power Quality Measurement by Artificial Neural Network And Mitigation Using Dstatcom

Mithilesh Singh, Dr. A.S. Zadgaonkar


An uninterrupted supply of high quality power to customers in a secure and economic environment is the goal of power system engineers. An important task in power system operation is to decide whether the system, at a given point of time, operates safely, critically and optimally while the system operates safely. In this thesis work the problem of power quality of voltage sag is detected by artificial neural network then trained data and neural network output simulated in neural network block set, then it will be mitigated using DSTATCOM with neural network control block. Different aspects or power line status were considered and simulated using Artificial Neural Network to get the response under changed operating conditions.

Keywords:Voltage Sag, DSTATCOM, Artificial Neural Network

Classification of Segmented Images for Analysis Using Hybrid Methodology



With natural and aerial images, besides the absence of exact damage, images are of a relatively poor quality and then analysis in general is complex due to data composition, described in terms of speckle formation. Due to discolor creation and reduction objects, it is complicated to correctly divide the ultrasound image to identify concerned objects with the exact location and shape. There are a huge number of diverse approaches are used on segmenting an images freshly engaged. Seeded region growing method is mostly applied for image segmentation based on region. But this method fails to process since the region at the edge of the image is not processed well. To overcome this issue, the previous work presented Multitude Regional Texture Extraction for Image Segmentation of Aerial and Natural Images. Based on multitude region, extraction of texture is to be done for image segmentation. In this work, we plan to present a hybrid methodology for classification of segmented images in an efficient manner. A hybrid unsupervised/supervised classification methodology is applied to aerial and natural images and described briefly. The hybrid method varies from the conservative classification intellect to that the clustering algorithm is useful to a set of regions that are acquired from the segmented image. The geometric parameters of these regions are utilized to categorize based on the results attained. After the prior step, some regions are chosen to be training data sets on a supervised categorization step. An evaluation is done among the pixel per pixel classification and the region classification. The experimental evaluation is conducted with training samples of natural and aerial images to show the performance of the proposed classification of segmented images for analysis using hybrid methodology and compare the results with an existing seeded region growing model and Multitude Regional Texture Extraction for Image Segmentation.

Key words:Segmentation, classification, hybrid methodology, supervised/unsupervised classification.

An Implementation Approach of Ecdlp-Based Diffie-Hellman Using Vb.Net

Dipti Aglawe, Samta Gajbhiye


Elliptic curve cryptography [ECC] is a public-key cryptosystem like RSA. In wireless networks and mobile devices such as cell phone, PDA and smart card, security of wireless networks and mobile devices are prime concern. Elliptic curve can be applied to cryptography [5]. The principle attraction of ECC is that it appears to offer equal security for a far smaller key size, thereby reducing processor overhead. Applications that uses Discrete logarithm problem-based Diffie Hellman has more processing load as the key size has increased over recent years. However, the processing load is especially critical in a networks which have a relatively less bandwidth, slower CPU speed, limited battery power. Elliptic curve Diffie-Hellman (ECDH) key exchange protocol is based on the elliptic curve discrete logarithm problem(ECDLP). This paper presents the implementation of the ECDLP-based Diffie-Hellman protocol for communication over insecure channel.

Keywords:Elliptic curve cryptography, ECDLP-based Diffie-Hellman key exchange protocol.

A Multi-Machine Power System Stabilizer Using Fuzzy Logic Controller

Dr. A. Taifour Ali, Dr. Eisa Bashier M Tayeb, Ms. Kawthar A. Adam


In this paper a fuzzy logic controller as power system stabilizer for stability enhancement of a multi-machine power system is presented. Power system stabilizers (PSSs) are added to excitation system or control loop of the generating unit to enhance the damping during low frequency oscillations. In order to accomplish the stability enhancement, speed deviation ( ) and acceleration (   ) of the rotor of synchronous generator were taken as the input to the fuzzy logic controller. These variables produce significant effects on damping of the generator shaft mechanical oscillations. The simulations were tested under different operating condition and the responses of stabilizing signal were computed. The performance when compared with the conventional PID controller the results of fuzzy controller are quite encouraging and satisfactory.

Key words: adaptive controller, fuzzy logic, PID stabilizer, synchronous generators.

An Empirical Study about Type2 Diabetics using Duo mining Approach

V.V.Jaya Rama Krishnaiah, D.V. ChandraShekar, Dr. R. Satya Prasad, Dr. K. Ramchand H Rao


Due to the revolutionary change in data mining and bio-informatics, it is very useful to use data mining techniques to evaluate and analyze bio-medical data. In this paper we propose a frame work called duo-mining tool for intelligent Text mining system for diabetic patients depending on their medical test reports. Diabetes is a chronic disease and major problem of morbidity and mortality in developing countries. The International Diabetes Federation estimates that 285 million people around the world have diabetes. This total is expected to rise to 438 million within 20 years. Type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is the most common type of diabetes and accounts for 90-95% of all diabetes. Detection of T2DM from various factors or symptoms became an issue which was not free from false presumptions accompanied by unpredictable effects. According to this context, data mining and machine learning could be used as an alternative way help us in knowledge discovery from data. We applied several learning methods, such as K-Nearest Neighbor, decision tree, support vector machines, acquire information from historical data of patient‟s from medical practicing centers in and around Guntur. Rules are extracted from Decision tree to offer decision-making support through early detection of T2DM for clinicians. Through this paper, we tried to determine how the extracted knowledge by the Text Mining is integrated with expert system knowledge to assist crucial decision making process.

Keywords: Mining, K-Nearest Neighbor, Support Vector Machines, Decision Trees, Type-2 diabetes, Duo Mining, Data Mining.

A Characterization of Magneto-Thermal Convection in Rivlin-Ericksen Viscoelastic Fluid in a Porous Medium

Ajaib S. Banyal,1 Daleep K. Sharma2


A layer of Rivlin-Ericksen viscoelastic fluid heated from below in a porous medium is considered in the presence of uniform vertical magnetic field. Following the linearized stability theory and normal mode analysis, the paper mathematically established the conditions for characterizing the oscillatory motions which may be neutral or unstable, for any combination of perfectly conducting, free and rigid boundaries at the top and bottom of the fluid. It is established that all non-decaying slow motions starting from rest, in a Rivlin-Ericksen viscoelastic fluid of infinite horizontal extension and finite vertical depth in a porous medium, which is acted upon by uniform vertical magnetic field opposite to gravity and a constant vertical adverse temperature gradient, are necessarily non-oscillatory, in the regime

Keywords:Thermal convection; Rivlin-Ericksen Fluid; Magnetic field; PES; Rayleigh number; Chandrasekhar number. MSC 2000 No.: 76A05, 76E06, 76E15; 76E07; 76U05.

Machine Translation of Idioms from English to Hindi

Monika Gaule, Dr. Gurpreet Singh Josan


This qualitative investigation is designed to shed light on the identification and translation of idiomatic expressions from English to Hindi is analyzed in this paper. It investigates the main problems and difficulties encountered during idioms translation and the extent to which idiomaticity is retained.This identification of idioms is utmost important resource for machine translation system and research in this field. A rule based approach for identification of idioms is proposed. The sentences containing idioms are translated with goggle translate system. We have manually created testing data to test the generated resource.The aim of a proper idiom translation is achieving equivalent sense, strategies, cultural aspects and effects. The output is evaluated manually for intelligibility and accuracy. The accuracy of system is 70%. Analysis of results shows that the problems of bad translation are due to errors of different categories like-irrelevant idioms, grammar agreement, part of speech etc.

Keywords –idiom,idiom identification, idiom translation,translation strategies

Comparison of Current Controllers for a Five-level Cascaded H-Bridge Multilevel Inverter

 Sundararajan K, Alamelu Nachiappan, Veerapathiran G


The hysteresis current controller provides excellent dynamic performance, whereas the Proportional-Integral controller provides instantaneous current control and wave shaping, fixed inverter switching frequency resulting in only known harmonics. A comparative study between Hysteresis current control and Proportional-Integral (PI) current control using sinusoidal pulse width modulation (SPWM) techniques for a five-level cascaded H-bridge multilevel inverter is presented in this paper. A comparison has been made in terms of total harmonic distortion (THD) level at the three phase load current. The simulation study has been carried out with the help of MATLAB Simulink software and the performance of such controllers has been observed during load variations.

Keywords: Cascaded H-Bridge, Current controller, Hysteresis controller, Multilevel inverter, PI controller, Sinusoidal pulse width modulation (SPWM), Total harmonic distortion (THD)

Real Time Automatic Object Tracking by Pan-Tilt-Zoom cameras in an IP-Surveillance System

Navneet Kaur


Pan-tilt-zoom (PTZ) cameras are one of the advanced security cameras in the market. These cameras have the ability to cover a very far field and can acquire high resolution of images. These cameras are deployed mainly for perimeter surveillance applications where the security guards have to monitor the intruders from a long distance. Although there are intrinsic advantages of using pan-tilt-zoom cameras, their application in automatic surveillance systems is still scarce. The difficulty of creating background models for moving cameras and the difficulty of optical geometrical projection models are key reasons for the limited use of pan-tilt-zoom cameras. Geometric calibration is a useful tool to overcome these difficulties. Once developed the background and projection models, it is possible to design system simulators and surveillance methodologies similarly to the ones commonly available for fixed cameras. In this paper, the proposed system can automatically track moving objects. More specific, it is investigated how a system comprised of one pc and a PTZ camera installed within an indoor and outdoor settings can track objects in poor illumination conditions as well. The tracking and calibration results with several image processing techniques in a segmentation framework are combined, through which camera can track the target in real time.

Keywords: IP- surveillance system; PTZ Camera; tracking object

A Study on the Neural Network Model for Finger Print Recognition

 Vijaya Sathiaraj


Finger Print Recognition [ FPR] is an unique technique to avoid intruders in any part of the information system, where the data are very essential than somebody's life, like military code transaction, some secret operations at nation's higher authority level. Current finger print recognition systems are very tough to allow the intruders. This finger print recognition system is used widely, nowadays, in all part of the fields where data or information plays the key role in each and every process. But to reduce the complexity in developing these systems we need to choose between the choices of algorithms. Thus this topic induces a keenness to take as a research oriented one. There are numerous techniques are available for finger print recognition. One of them is Artificial Neural Networks( ANN) . In ANN there are many networks methodologies are available. But up to my evaluation, Backpropagation training network is the most successful one. As per the need to develop a system to recognize the exact thumb impressions from the match with the images that has already stored, the main task before is, to make the system activate through artficial neural network. There are numerous and specific types of networks such as perceptron, backpropagation network, counter propagation network, Hopfield networks, etc.., but here the backpropagation network has been selected for the study. Because of its wide range of usage in many fields, backpropagation network has been taken into account, without ignorance, because of its drawbacks.

Keywords: ANN, BPN, FP, NN

Intrusion Detection System (IDS) for Secure MANETs: A Study

 Vinay P.Virada


Flooding-based route discovery is usually preferred in MANETs in order to set up the route with reliability between transmission pair. However, this approach may cause a serious contention in information transfer between adjacent nodes and a considerable amount of control packets. The transfer of information between nodes is made secured by Intrusion detection system (IDS). The architecture of IDS is discussed in the manuscript to achieve the reliable and confidential transmission over MANET which follows some techniques such as Watch Dog, Confident, and CORE.

Keywords: Cryptographic attacks in MANET, IDS, architecture of IDS, Watch Dog, CORE.

Low Quality Fingerprint Image Using Spatial and Frequency Domain Filter



The Biometrics indicators, Fingerprints are one of the highest levels of reliability and have been extensively used by forensic experts in criminal investigations. Anyway the performance of these techniques relies heavily on the quality of input fingerprint. But already existing STFT (short-time Fourier transform) analysis is not much perfect and best suit, to recover these unrecoverable regions of the fingerprint. In proposed a two-stage scheme to enhance the low-quality fingerprint image in both the spatial domain and the frequency domain based on the learning from the images...we use FFT (Fast Fourier Transform) algorithm to overcome the proble

Keywords: Fingerprint enhancement, learning, privacy in biometrics systems, two-Stage filtering.

Analysis of Node Localization in Wireless Sensor Networks

 Sheshmani Yadav, Dr.D.B.Ojha, Vijendra Rai


Sensor networks are dense wireless networks of small, low-cost sensors, which collect and disseminate environmental data. Sensor nodes are very small, lightweight, and unobtrusive. The problem of localization, that is, "determining where a given node is physically located in a network", can be mainly divided into two parts range-based (fine-grained) or range-free (coarse-grained) schemes. This Paper presents the analysis of range based algorithms on the basis of few network parameters (Network Size, Anchor node Density, Array node density) and tried to find out the best range based algorithms by doing simulation on matlab. The metric selected for the analysis is Standard Deviation of localization error.

Keywords:Localization, Range based schemes, Wireless Sensor Networks.

Material Modeling Of Reactive Powder Concrete Using Ansys – A Review.

 Mr. M K Maroliya


ANSYS has many finite element analysis capabilities, ranging from a simple, linear, static analysis to a complex, nonlinear, transient dynamic analysis, which is used by engineers worldwide in virtually all fields of engineering. In order to investigate the possibilities of current FE programs for implementation of steel fibre concrete this study was conducted. The aim of this study was to show the use of steel fibre concrete with FE calculations, to point out the possibilities and restrictions and to give recommendations for practical usage. Because of the complexities associated with the development of rational analytical procedures, present day methods continue in many respect to be based on the empirical approaches using result from a large amount of experimental data. The finite element (FE) method offers a powerful and generic tool for studying the behavior of structures.

Keywords: RPC, non linear analysis, ANSYS, shear

A Genetic Programming Approach for Detection of Diabetes

 Prof. M. A. Pradhan, Dr. G.R. Bamnote, Vinit Tribhuvan, Kiran Jadhav, Vijay Chabukswar, Vijay Dhobale


Diabetes is a malfunctioning of the body caused due to the deficiency of insulin & has now-a-days gained popularity, globally. Although doctors diagnose diabetes using a blood glucose test, we cannot clearly classify the person as diabetic or not based on these symptoms. Also a pre-diabetic phase can alert the doctors and the patient about the depreciating health and can aware the patient about the concerned measures. In this paper, we propose a multi-class genetic programming (GP) based classifier design that will help the medical practitioner to confirm his/her diagnosis towards pre-diabetic, diabetic and non-diabetic patients.

Keywords: Classifier, Multi Class, Genetic Programming, GP, Diabetes Detection, Pre-diabetic.

An Improved Heuristic for Permutation Flow Shop Scheduling (NEH ALGORITHM)

 Ekta Singhal, Shalu Singh, Aneesh Dayma


Flowshop Scheduling is used to determine the optimal sequence of n jobs to be processed on m machines in the same order. Permutation Flowshop Scheduling Problems (PFSP) require same job sequence on all the machines with the constraint that machines can only process one job at a time and jobs can be processed by only one machine at a time. No machine is allowed to remain idle when a job is ready for processing. Such problems are NP-Complete and hence optimal solutions are not guaranteed but heuristics have been shown to produce good working solutions. NEH (Nawaz, Enscore, Ham) Algorithm is an efficient algorithm that works by minimizing the makespan for Permutation Flowshop Scheduling Problems PFSP. The proposed algorithm is obtained by modifying the NEH algorithm and produces improved quality solutions with algorithmic complexity same as the original algorithm.

Keywords: Flowshop Scheduling, heuristics, makespan

Triple Connected Two Domination Number of a Graph

 G. Mahadevan, Selvam Avadayappan, B. Ayisha, T. Subramanian


The concept of triple connected graphs with real life application was introduced in [7] by considering the existence of a path containing any three vertices of a graph G. In[3], G. Mahadevan et. al., was introduced the concept of triple connected domination number of a graph. In this paper, we introduce a new domination parameter, called triple connected two domination number of a graph. A subset S of V of a nontrivial graph G is called a dominating set of G if every vertex in V − S is adjacent to at least one vertex in S. The domination number (G) of G is the minimum cardinality taken over all dominating sets in G. A subset S of V of a nontrivial graph G is said to be triple connected dominating set, if S is a dominating set and the induced sub graph s triple connected. The minimum cardinality taken over all triple connected dominating sets is called the triple connected domination number and is denoted by tc.

Keywords: duct, draught, heat transfer, rooftop, solar collector, solar chimney, ventilation.

Feasibility study of a roof top Solar room heater

 Tejinder Kumar Jindal


The present work describes a low cost solar space heater. The device is the replacement of the concrete cantilevers used above the windows in houses facing the south direction. An experiment was conducting by making a suitable device for use for the purpose. It has been observed that the device can be used to heat the space for the south facing room windows directly and for the other directions by circulating the air through the device kept at the roof top making an angle of about 38 degree with the roof top.

Keywords: Tduct, draught, heat transfer, rooftop, solar collector, solar chimney, ventilation.

Automatic Syllabification Rules for Bodo Language

 Jyotismita Talukdar, Chandan Sarma, Prof.P.H Talukdar


Syllabification performs the task of Identifying syllables in a word or in a sentence. Most of the syllabification tasks are done manually. As the syllabification rules vary from language to language so it is difficult to design a common syllabification rules or algorithm to fit all the languages. On the other hand Syllabification rules are the basic backbone for any task related to text-to-speech conversion system. An attempt has been made through this paper to design an automatic syllabification rules for Bodo language . An algorithm has been developed for automatic syllabification of Bodo language and the algorithm is evaluation on 5000 phonetically rich words obtained from different sources like Text books, Newspapers and Radio News. The result is compared with the same words manually syllabified. The algorithm performs well upto about 95.5 %

Keywords:Text-to speech, phoneme, syllable , monophthongs etc.

Promoter Recognition in human genome

Chandrashekar.Jatoth, T. Shobha Rani


promoter is a specific region of DNA that facilitates the transcription of a particular gene. Promoters are typically located near the genes they regulate, on the same strand and upstream (towards the 5′ region of the sense strand). Promoters contain specific DNA sequences and response elements which provide binding sites for RNA polymerase and for proteins called transcription factors that recruit RNA polymerase. Promoter prediction programs (ppps) are computational models which aim at identifying the promoter regions in a genome. The main approaches of the promoter prediction are either assigning scores to all single nucleotides to identify TSS or identifying a promoter region without providing scores to all nucleotides. In this project n-gram features are extracted and used in promoter prediction. Here a systematic study is made to discover the efficacy of n-grams (n=2, 3, 4, 5) as features in promoter prediction problem. Neural network classifiers with these n-grams as features are used to identify promoters in a human genome. In this case for n=4 we are getting optimal values.

Keywords: Biological data sets, machine learning method, neural networks, in silico method for promoter prediction, Binary classification, cascaded classifiers.

A Secure Model For Bluetooth Banking

 Somayeh Izadi, Kamran Morovati, Saeed Zahedi, Reza Ebrahimi Atani


Nowadays, customers' needs are more or less centered on three main axes: to remove the time and location limitations and reduce costs. This is considered an organizational value and is seen in the perspectives and institutional missions of financial organizations. In this paper, a model of secure electronic payment based on Bluetooth mobile infrastructure with biometric authentication system is presented.

Keywords: Mobile Banking; e-payment; Bluetooth; fingerprint; minutia; Rabbit ;Hash

Robotics without teacher

 AIB Abdelatif, AIB Smain, CHAIB Rachid, Verzea Ion


The modernization of the formation within a university program obliges us to implement instruments, which contribute to the methods of teaching and preparing the student to be impregnated with an effective teaching, which facilitates the acquisition of the elementary techniques of robotics and to assimilate the concepts relating to the discipline. The bulk of material dealing with robot theory, design, and applications has been widely scattered in numerous technical journals, conference proceedings, and some textbooks that either focus attention on some specialized area of robotics. Consequently, it is a rather difficult task, particularly for a newcomer, to learn the range of principles underlying this subject matter. The primary idea of this article is to give for a newcomer the basic analytical techniques and fundamental principles of robotics, and to organize them under instrument in a unified and coherent manner. To this end, the introduction of new methods of training for the courses, TD and TP (Simulation) is essential, from where the idea to design a didactic tools. In this article, we chose a presentation of a teaching tool in the field of robotics judging essential to any student of the specialty, and we enriched this didactic course by complements allowing better seize the range of the put tools and to stress the importance of the ideas developed in this work. These complements present original applications in the field of robotics. This tool is designed under environment MAPLE, with the use of the MAPLETS for the design of the interfaces.

Keywords:Didactic tool, Education, Formation, Training, Robotics, Maple, Maplets.

Phase Watermarking Algorithm using Hybrid Multi-Polarity Hadamard Transform

 Sk. Khamuruddeen, S.V.Devika, Neerugatti Vishwanath, P.Prem Kishan, J.Chandra Shekar, G.Shravan Kumar, G.Swetha


In this paper, a robust phase watermarking algorithm for still images is presented where the watermark information is conveyed in the phase spectrum in the transform domain. Phase watermarking algorithm that uses multi-polarity Walsh-Hadamard and Complex Hadamard transform is developed. The robustness of presented algorithm is investigated by its uniqueness, JPEG encoding, image resizing, dithering noise distortions, sharpening, cropping and successive watermarking.

Keywords:Unified complex Hadamard transform ·Multi-polarity complex Hadamard transform ·Multi-polarity Walsh-Hadamard transform ·Phase watermarking · Spectral techniques.

Content Based Image Retrieval Using Multiwavelet

 N.Santhosh, Mrs.T.Madhavi Kumari


This paper presents Content Based Image Retrieval using multiwavelet. The database image features are extracted by multiwavelet based features at different levels of decompositions. In this paper, we have tested 500 images with 11 different categories. The experimental results show the better results in terms of retrieve accuracy and computation complexity. Euclidean Distance and Canberra Distance are used as similarity measure in the proposed CBIR system.

Keywords:Accuracy, Energy, Euclidean distance and Canberra distance, Image retrieval, multiwavelet.

Caching Strategies Based on Information Density Estimation in Wireless Ad Hoc Networks

 D.Nagaraju, L.Srinivasa rao, K.Nageswara Rao


We address cooperative caching in wireless networks, where the nodes may be mobile and exchange information in a peer-to-peer fashion. We consider both cases of nodes with largeand small-sized caches. For large-sized caches, we devise a strategy where nodes, independent of each other, decide whether to cache some content and for how long. In the case of small-sized caches, we aim to design a content replacement strategy that allows nodes to successfully store newly received information while maintaining the good performance of the content distribution system. Under both conditions, each node takes decisions according to its perception of what nearby users may store in their caches and with the aim of differentiating its own cache content from the other nodes'. The result is the creation of content diversity within the nodes neighborhood so that a requesting user likely finds the desired information nearby. We simulate our caching algorithms in different ad hoc network scenarios and compare them with other caching schemes, showing that our solution succeeds in creating the desired content diversity, thus leading to a resource-efficient information access.

Keywords:Data caching, mobile ad hoc networks.

Design and Simulation of High Performance Low Power Control Circuits at Gate and Layout Levels

 Venkatesh Kumar. N, Amritha Mulay. V, Mujeeb Ulla Jeelani


Many integrated circuits of today contain a very large number of transistors, over 1 million in some designs. The aim is to design a low power high performance sequencer and program counter, analyze and simulate at gate and layout levels. High level description language to be used to construct layout of program counter and sequencer.

Keywords:Sequencer, Controller, Program Counter, Low Leakage.

Security Enhanced Dynamic Routing using Quasigroups

 Mr. K.J. Pavithran Kumar, Mr. D. Vivekananda Reddy


Security has become one of the major issues for data communication over wired and wireless networks. The dynamic routing algorithm is used to randomize delivery paths for data transmission which is compatible with popular routing protocols, such as the Routing Information Protocol in wired networks and Destination-Sequenced Distance Vector protocol in wireless networks, without introducing extra control messages. This paper proposes the dynamic routing algorithm with cryptography-based system design for more security in data transmission.

Keywords:Security, Quasigroup cryptography-based system, dynamic routing, RIP, DSDV.

Analyzing Of Low Altitude Mimo Radarbeampattern Design

 Amirsadegh Roshanzamir,,Mohammad hasan Bastani


A multiple input multiple output (MIMO) radar is an emerging field which has attracted many researchers recently. In this type of radar, unlike an standard phased array radar, one can choose transmitted probing signals freely to maximize the power around the locations of the targets of interest, or more generally to approximate a given transmit beam-pattern, or to minimize the cross-correlation of the signals reflected back to the radar by the targets of interest. These signals can be correlated to each other or non-correlated. Many papers have investigated beampattern design and waveforming in MIMO radars. One of the most famous approaches for beampattern design is named covariance based method which design cross-correlation matrix of transmitted signals instead of the own signalsdirectly. Many papers have investigated the problem of MIMO radar beampattern design in an ideal operational environment. But one of the important operational situations which causes faults and errors to the radar systems is low altitude track, detection and etc. It is because of in low altitude operations beside of the desire reflected signals multipath signals will be received too. In this article it is desirable to study the effect of multipath of a MIMO radar system which is employing cross-correlation matrix of transmitted signals to designing the transmitted beampattern. MATLAB software is being employed for simulations.

Keywords:Multipath, MIMO radar, low altitude; beampatterndesign, covariance based method.

Optimal Location of TCSC by Sensitivity Methods

 Madhura Gad, Prachi Shinde, Prof. S.U.Kulkarni


Due to the deregulation of the electrical market, difficulty in acquiring rights-of-way to build new transmission lines, and steady increase in power demand, maintaining power system stability becomes a difficult and very challenging problem. In a competitive power market, the system is said to be congested when the volume of transactions exceeds the transfer capability of the transmission corridor. In deregulated electricity market transmission congestion occurs when there is insufficient transmission capacity to simultaneously accommodate all constraints for transmission of a line. FACTS devices can be an alternative to reduce the flows in heavily loaded lines, resulting in an increased loadability, low system loss, improved stability of the network, reduced cost of production and fulfilled contractual requirement by controlling the power flow in the network. A method to determine the optimal location of TCSC has been suggested in this paper. The approach is based on the sensitivity of the reduction of total system reactive power loss and real power performance index. The proposed method has been demonstrated on 5-bus power systems.

Keywords:Congestion, Compensation, Deregulated Power System, Flexible AC Transmission Systems (FACTS), Optimal location, Performance Index, Thyristor Controlled Series Capacitor (TCSC), Static Modelling.

Reusability Framework for Cloud Computing

 Sukhpal Singh, Rishideep Singh


Cloud based development is a challenging task for several software engineering projects, especially for those which needs development with reusability. Present time of cloud computing is allowing new professional models for using the software development. The expected upcoming trend of computing is assumed to be this cloud computing because of speed of application deployment, shorter time to market, and lower cost of operation. Until Cloud Computing Reusability Model is considered a fundamental capability, the speed of developing services is very slow. This paper spreads cloud computing with component based development named Cloud Computing Reusability Model (CCR) and enable reusability in cloud computing. In this paper Cloud Computing Reusability Model has been proposed. The model has been validated by Cloudsim and experimental result shows that reusability based cloud computing approach is effective in minimizing cost and time to market.

Keywords:Cloud based software development, Component based development, Cloud Component, Cloud computing, Reusability, Software engineering, Software reuse.

Lateral-Torsional Buckling Of Steel Beam



Lateral Torsional Buckling (LTB) is a failure criteria for beams in flexure. The AISC defines Lateral Torsional Buckling as: the buckling mode of a flexural member involving deflection normal to the plane of bending occurring simultaneously with twist about the shear center of the cross-section. LTB occurs when the compression portion of a beam is no longer sufficient in strength and instead the beam is restrained by the tension portion of the beam (which causes deflection or twisting to occur). The design buckling (bending) resistance moment of laterally unsupported beams are calculated as per Section 8.2.2,IS 800:2007 of the code. If the non-dimensional slenderness λLT ≤ 0.4, no allowance for lateral-torsional buckling is necessary. ANNEX E (CL.,IS 800:2007) of the code gives the method of calculating Mcr,, the elastic lateral torsional buckling moment for different beam sections, considering loading and a support condition as well as for non-prismatic members. Elastic critical moment Mcr can be obtained using FE modeling techniques. The effects of various parameters such as shear force, bending moment are to be studied analytically.

Keywords:Lateral torsional buckling, finite element method, simply supported steel I-beam.

Application Of Off Grid Solar PV System for Power Processing Unit

 Dr S.M.Ali, Arupananda Pattanaik, Lipsa Nayak, Naina Mohanty


In this paper a novel multi-functional power processing unit capable of extracting maximum power from solar photovoltaic panels is described. It employs a combination of a voltage controlled voltage source inverter (VCVSI) and a current controlled voltage source inverter (CCVSI), connected in series on the DC side and in parallel on the AC side. This Power Processing Unit is able to provide an uninterruptible power supply feature, load voltage stabilization, unity power factor operation, maximum power point tracking, and higher efficiency for charging the battery from renewable energy sources and more reactive power support. The experimental results from the proto typed system confirm validity of the proposed topology.

Influence of Calcium Sulphate on Cement Motor and Characteristics Behaviour at Different Proportions

 Md. Jalal Uddin, Md. Quayyum


Cement is considered one of the most important building materials around the world. It is mainly used for the production of concrete. Concrete is a mixture of inert mineral aggregates, e.g. sand, gravel, crushed stones, and cement. Cement consumption and production is closely related to construction activity, and therefore to the general economic activity. Cement is one of the most produced materials around the world. Due to the importance of cement as a construction material, and the geographic abundance of the main raw materials, i.e. limestone, cement is produced in virtually all countries. Many cement concretes have been found to be susceptible to deterioration in soils, ground waters, or seawaters that contain high levels of sulphates. Sulphates react with the aluminium-containing phases of portland cement concrete-mortar-paste, causing internal expansion. It has been found that the resistance of a concrete to sulphate attack is related to the C3A content of the cement and to the total amount of aluminate compounds, C3A and C4AF. Sulphate attack is consider one of the major deteriorative problems occurred when the cement based materials, such as concrete, mortars and buildings, are exposed to this environment. Sulphate ions in soil, ground water and sea water may cause deterioration of reinforced concrete structures by provoking expansion and cracking due to factors such as type of cement, sulphate cation type, sulphate concentration and the period of exposure. Many structures affected by sulphate degradation often need to be repaired or, in most severe cases, they need to be reconstructed. In this investigation the work is carried out to examine calcium sulphate particularly effecting the different parameters , such as strength , setting times, soundness, consistency etc. the sand used is ennore sand of three different grades. Calcium sulphate is added in different proportions to cement and its effect is studied at different ages.

Keywords:Cement mortar, calcium sulphate (caso4), strength, soundness.


 Tanumeet Kaur, Amardeep Kaur


Ever since its inception, web has remained a huge repository for information and with each passing day it is growing at a rapid pace. It has become increasingly important for the computer programs to handle the information on web autonomously and intelligently and hence the vision of semantic web has emerged. Some domains have an inherent vagueness and in order to exploit knowledge from these sources traditional structures are not self sufficient. In order to adapt uncertainty or ambiguity in domain knowledge, Linguistic variables in fuzzy logic should be included. This paper discusses the extension of a crisp ontology to fuzzy ontology.

Keywords:crisp ontology, fuzzy logic, fuzzy ontology, linguistic variables, semantic web, uncertainty, vagueness.

A Survey on Video Streaming Methods in Multihop Radio Networks



Multimedia ad multi hop networks are the prominent sources to deliver wide varieties of data. The data are in the form of motion with sound track called video, this type of data is differs from other formats and processing is alsodiffers. rocessing the video formatted data with compressed formats over network is streaming. The live video/realtime viewing applications work with streaming only.In this paper we mainly focuses on the video streaming in multihop networks with better approaches than fine grain and medium grain videos by concerning dynamic conditions . so we proposes the approaches to improve the video streaming with intellectual aspects of vedio quality and fairness among the vedio sessions, collision rates are to be considered in multihop radio networks.

Keywords:Cross-layer optimization, dynamic spectrum access, distributed algorithm, multi-hop cognitive radio Networks.

The Tools, Technology and Mathematical Model of Impactive Superficial Plastic Deformation of Metals

 Dr., prof. S. Shestakov, Dr., prof. E. Smeshek


The paper shows scientific substantiation and practical confirmation of possibility, application expediency and efficiency of the ultrasonic superficial plastic deformation in zones of welded connections after performance of welding works. For this purpose, a mathematical model to the process of superficial plastic deformation is represented, as the hypercycle of loading consisting of elementary cycles – impacts. we described the standard measurement devices. The technology is intended to use the manufacturing and repair of any metal walls in places of dimensional and structural nonuniformity, such as mechanical defects or a local thinning of a surface owing to corrosion, and the microcracks. The microcracks is influenced by the external forces and become zones of concentration of mechanical tension. Hardening in such places of the pipes walls and tanks working under pressure is effective for pipelines of an oil and gas, water supply systems, and also for caissons and tanks of other appointment. The scopes of technology include the repair of river and sea vessels, objects of oil production. The technology can be applied to improvement of operational characteristics of mechanical engineering and transport details, objects of energetic and construction: surfaces of a rolling motion and sliding of machines and devices, wheels of a rolling stock of railway transport, a metalwork of support of power lines, platforms and bridges for increases in resistance of fatigue at cyclic loadings, wear resistance and corrosion.

Keywords:Impactive superficial plastic deformation – a peening, the tension-deformed conditions, ultrasonic impaction tool, ultrasonic peening, welding connection, welding.

Semantic Based XML Context Driven Search And Retrieval System

 M.V.V.Nagendra, K.Devi Priya, ,Vedula Venkateswara Rao


we present in this paper, a context-driven search engine called XCD Search for answering XML Keyword-based queries as well as Loosely Structured queries, using a stack-based sort-merge algorithm. Most current research is focused on building relationships between data elements based solely on their labels and proximity to one another, while overlooking the contexts of the elements, which may lead to erroneous results. Since a data element is generally a characteristic of its parent, its context is determined by its parent. We observe that we could treat each set of elements consisting of a parent and its children data elements as one unified entity, and then use a stack-based sort-merge algorithm employing context-driven search techniques for determining the relationships between the different unified entities. We evaluated XCD Search experimentally and compared it with other search engines. The results showed marked improvement .Research works propose techniques for XML Loosely Structured querying, where the user provides search terms consisting of label-keyword pairs. Computing the Lowest Common Ancestor (LCA) of elements containing keywords is the common denominator among these proposed techniques. Despite the success of the proposed search engines, they suffer recall and precision limitations. The reason is that they employ mechanisms for building relationships between data elements based solely on their labels and proximity to one another while overlooking the contexts of the elements. The context of a data element is determined by its parent, because a data element is generally a characteristic of its parent. We propose in this paper a search engine called XCD Search that avoids the pitfalls of non-context driven search engines. This paper presents a data-centric approach to XML information retrieval which benefits from XML document structure and adapts traditional text-centric information retrieval techniques to deal with text content inside XML. Document. Narrower contexts could be separate XML elements or their combinations. Our setting assumes.

Keywords:crisp ontology, fuzzy logic, fuzzy ontology, linguistic variables, semantic web, uncertainty, vagueness.

Influence of Geometrical Ability and Study Habit on the Achievement in Mathematics at Secondary Stage

 Dr. Ranjana Choudhury, Dhiraj kumar Das


The present study aims at studying the influence of areas in relation to the geometrical ability and study habit on the achievement in mathematics to the pupils‟ at secondary stage. A sample of 500 students of standard IX from secondary school of south kamrup district, Assam, participated in the present study, in which the relationship among the achievement in mathematics was most closely related with geometrical ability and study habit. Analysis of data indicated that there was no significant difference on the achievement in mathematics of the students in case of medium and sex for different sub categories. The regression equation thus obtained shows that geometrical ability and study habit contributes 20.33% and 35.91% respectively to the Achievement in mathematics.

Keywords:Geometrical Ability, Study Habit, Achievement in Mathematics, Sex, Medium.

Global and Localized Histogram Equalization of an Image

 Pradeep, Namratha M, Manu G V


The paper mainly deals with processing an image as well as enhancing it. To achieve the before said target we grab the pixel information from the input image, convert that information into RGB model, then using that model we process and/or enhance it based on the algorithms. The processing of the image is done by modifying the pixel data in relative context while enhancing the image is done based on enhancement algorithms. We analyse the enhancement of the image by comparing the enhanced image with the initial image using their respective histograms.The coding part of the project uses JAVA language on PC platform with Linux/Windows operating system. We have used an integrated development environment called Netbeans which is written in Java and runs everywhere where a JVM is installed, that is on almost all operating systems including Windows and Linux.

Keywords:Global Histogram Equalization, Image enhancement, Image processing, Linear equalization, Pixel grabber, Resolution modification, Scaling and Shearing.

Analyzing & Identifying The Superlative Keying Protocol To Support Sensor Networking

 Akula Santha Manohari, Ravi Kumar. Singisetti


The sensor networks like mobile sensor networks or the network that are built in a hurry are deployed in whimsical and undersigned configuration. For this reason, the sensor in such a network may become eventually adjacent to any other sensor in the network. In order to make a communication between every pair of adjacent sensors, in a secure way in such an arbitrary network, each sensor ,let x in the network be in need to store n-1 symmetric keys that sensor x shares with all the other sensors where n is the number that represents the count of the sensors in the network. When the number n is large and if the availability of storage in each sensor is reserved, then the storage requirement for the keying protocol is a bit hard. Some earlier achievements were made just to redesign this keying protocol and also to reduce the number of keys to be stored in each sensor .Those achievements have exhibited protocols that are accessible to collusion attacks, eavesdropping, and impersonation. We want to present a secure keying protocol that makes each sensor to store (n+1)/2 keys that are less that n-1 keys that are needed to be stored in each sensor in the original keying protocol. In this paper we also want to show that each sensor needs to store at least (n-1)/2 keys, in any of the fully secure keying protocol.