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International Journal of Computational Engineering Research (IJCER) Volume 2, Issue 4, July-August, 2012

S.No. Article Title Page No. Paper Index PDF
1.

Performance Evaluation and Model Using DSDV and DSR routing in Ad-hoc network


Chetan adhikary, Dr. HB Bhuvaneswari, Prof K. Jayaraman

Abstract

A mobile ad hoc network (MANET) is a collection of wireless mobile nodes communicating with each other using multi-hop wireless links without any existing network infrastructure or centralized administration. Previously, a variety of routing protocols targeting specifically at this environment was developed and some performance simulations were made. However, the related works took the simulation model with a constant network size. On the contrary, this paper considers the problem from a different perspective, using the simulation model with dynamic network size. Furthermore, based on Quality Of Service QoS (delay, jitter) and routing load, this paper systematically discusses the performance evaluation and comparison of two typical routing protocols of ad hoc networks with different simulation model and metrics.

Keywords: Ad hoc networks, Performance evaluation, QoS, Routing protocols, Network simulation.
977-980  
03.3005/024977980
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2.

Determine the Fatigue behavior of engine damper caps screw bolt

R. K. Misra

Abstract

In this paper, fatigue strength of the engine damper cap screw bolt is determined. Engine damper cap screw is critical fastener. Critical fastener is a term used to describe a cap screw that, upon failure, causes immediate engine shutdown or possible harm to person. So, determination of fatigue strength is important. S-N method is used for cap screw fatigue strength determination by testing number of samples at different alternating load keeping mean load constant. Alternating load is increased until cap screws begin to fail. But for measurement of axial load in fasteners, ultrasonic bolt gauging method is used. It has been observed that fatigue failure takes place on the thread of cap screw bolt due to high stress concentration on the thread.

KKeywords: Caps screw bolt, Fatigue strength, Ultrasonic elongation, Preload.
981-990  
03.3005/024981990
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3.

Removal of Impulse Noise Using Eodt with Pipelined ADC

Prof.Manju Devi, Prof.Muralidhara, Prasanna R Hegde

Abstract

Corrupted Image and video signals due to impulse noise during the process of signal acquisition and transmission can be corrected. In this paper the effective removal of impulse noise using EODT with pipelined architecture and its VLSI implementation is presented. Proposed technique uses the denoising techniques such as Edge oriented Denoising technique (EODT) which uses 7 stage pipelined ADC for scheduling. This design requires only low computational complexity and two line memory buffers. It's hardware cost is quite low. Compared with previous VLSI implementations, our design achieves better image quality with less hardware cost. The Verilog code is successfully implemented by using FPGA Spatron-3 family.

Keywords: Image denoising, impulse noise, pipeline architecture, VLSI.
991-996  
03.3005/024991996
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4.

Analysis of Handover in Wimax for Ubiquitous connectivity

Pooja bhat, Bijender mehandia

Abstract

WIMAX is Wireless Interoperability for Microwave Access. It is a telecommunication technology that provides wireless data over long distances in several ways, from point-to-point links to full mobile cellular type access. The main consideration of Mobile Wimax is to achieve seamless handover such that there is no loss of data. In Wimax both mobile station (MS) and base station (BS) scans the neighbouring base stations for selecting the best base station for a potential handover. Two types of handovers in wimax are: Hard handover (break before make) and Soft handover (make before break). To avoid data loss during handover we have considered soft handovers this research topic. We have proposed a technique to select a base station for potential soft handover in wimax. We have developed a base station selection procedure that will optimize the soft handover such that there is no data loss; handover decision is taken quickly and thus improving overall handover performance. We will compare the quality of service with hard handover and soft handover. We have analysed the proposed technique with an existing scheme for soft handover in wimax with simulation results.

Key words: Wimax, Topology, handover, QOS, ubiquitous connectivity.
997-1000  
03.3005/0249971000
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5.

Dampening Flow Induced Vibration Due To Branching Of Duct at
Elbow

M.Periasamy, D.B.Sivakumar, Dr. T. Senthil Kumar

Abstract

Ducts are closed path used for conveying air, Flue gas, Material, ash and etc from one system to another, in the power plant and in the industries. Ducts are routed to long distances, having abrupt change in direction and cross section which requires proper design for preventing the energy losses. Elbows are used for changing the direction of flow to 900.Due to this abrupt change, eddies, Recirculation zones are formed. These Eddies having energy gradients, which produces thrust and in turn Vibration to the duct wall. Eddies Should be broken by stream lining the flow before taking any branching from the main duct. But in some ducting system either in power plant or Industrial, due to constraints Elbow duct itself is to be branched out. This paper presents dampening flow induced vibration, by analyzing the various arrangements using computational Fluid dynamic software Gambit-Fluent.

Keywords: Flow Induced Vibration, Flow Recirculation, Eddy, Sharp Elbow Branching
1001-1004  
03.3005/02410011004
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6.

Location Aware Routing in Intermittently Connected MANETs

Sadhana V, Ishthaq Ahmed K

Abstract

Existing mobile ad hoc routing protocols like AODV, DSR and GPSR allow nodes to communicate with one another with an assumption that there exists a connected path from source to destination. Due to limited transmission range, power limitations, mobility of nodes, and the wide physical conditions over which ad hoc networks must be deployed; in some scenarios it is likely that this assumption is invalid leading to intermittent connectivity and absence of end-to-end connections. In this work, we propose a geographical routing algorithm called location-aware routing for delay-tolerant networks (LAROD), enhanced with a location service, location dissemination service (LoDiS), which together are shown to suit an intermittently connected MANET (IC-MANET). LAROD uses a beaconless strategy combined with a position-based routing for forwarding the packets resulting in less overhead. LoDiS maintains a local database of node locations, which is updated using broadcast gossip combined with routing overhearing.


Key words: Delay-tolerant networks, location service, mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs), routing protocols, intermittent connectivity.
1005-1011  
03.3005/0241051011
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7.

Three Bad Assumptions: Why Technologies for Social Impact Fail

S. Revi Sterling John K. Bennett

Abstract

S. Revi Sterling John K. Bennett

Keywords: humanitarian technology, community development
1012-1015  
03.3005/02410121015
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8.

Solution of Fuzzy Games with Interval Data Using Approximate Method

Dr.C.Loganathan & M.S.Annie Christi

Abstract

In this paper, we evaluate the value of the fuzzy game matrix with interval data using the approximate method. This method gives an approximate solution for the value of the game and the true value can be determined to any degree of accuracy. This method assumes that each player will play in such a manner so as to maximize the expected gain or to minimize the expected loss.

Keywords: Approximate method, Interval data, matrix game, value of the game.
1016-1019  
03.3005/02410161019
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9.

Low Power Glitch Free Modeling in Vlsi Circuitry Using Feedback Resistive Path Logic

Dr M.ASHARANI N.CHANDRASEKHAR, R.SRINIVASA RAO

Abstract

Low power has emerged as a principal theme in today‟s electronics industry. This work focus on the development of low power VLSI design methodology on system level modeling and circuit level modeling for power optimization. This work develops a power optimization approach in bus transitions using hamming coding scheme called "Unbounded Lagger algorithm‟ for transition power reduction in VLSI design. The developed transition optimization approach further merged with circuit level power optimization using Glitch minimization technique. A resistive feed back method is developed for the elimination of glitches in the CMOS circuitry which result in power consumption and reducing performance of VLSI design. The proposed system is developed on Active HDL for designing a Bus transition Optimization algorithm using Unbounded Lagger algorithm, where an encoder and decoder units are designed for the minimization of transition for parallel bus transition in data transfer.
1020-1025  
03.3005/02410201025
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10.

To Find Strong Dominating Set and Split Strong Dominating Set of an
Interval Graph Using an Algorithm

Dr. A. Sudhakaraiah, V. Rama Latha, E. Gnana Deepika, T.Venkateswarulu

Abstract

Strong and weak domination arise naturally in certain practical situations. For example, consider a network of roads connecting a number of locations. In such a network, the degree of a vertex v is the number of roads meeting at v . Suppose degu  degv. Naturally, the traffic at u is heavier than that at v . If we consider the traffic between u and v , preference should be given to the vehicles going from u to v . Thus, in some sense, u strongly dominates v and v weakly dominates u . In this paper we present an algorithm to find a strong dominating set and split strong dominating set of an interval graph which is connected.

Keywords: domination number, dominating set, Interval family, Interval graph, strong domination number , split dominating set, spit strong dominating set, strong dominating set.
1026-1034  
03.3005/02410261034
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11.

A Compact Printed Antenna For Wimax, Wlan & C Band Applications

Barun Mazumdar

Abstract

A single feed compact microstrip antenna is proposed in this paper. One L slit & one H slit are introduced on the right edge of the patch to study the effect of the slit on radiation behaviour with respect to a conventional microstrip patch. An extensive analysis of the return loss, radiation pattern and efficiency of the proposed antenna is shown in this paper. For the optimize value of the slit parameters antenna resonant frequencies are obtained at 2.53, 4, 5.73 & 7.54 GHz with corresponding bandwidth 12.48 MHz, 37.97 MHz, 80.68 MHz , 230.67 MHz and return loss of about -17.4, -32.5, -12.4 & -29.7 dB respectively. The antenna size has been reduced by 75% when compared to a conventional microstrip patch. The characteristics of the designed structure are investigated by using MoM based electromagnetic solver, IE3D. The simple configuration and low profile nature of the proposed antenna leads to easy fabrication and make it suitable for the applications in Wireless communication system. Mainly it is developed to operate in the WiMAX & WLAN application.

Keywords- Compact, patch antenna, Quad band, slit.
1035-1037  
03.3005/02410351037
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12.

Declined Tank Irrigated Area Due To Inactive Water User's Association

B.Anuradha, V.Mohan, S.Madura, T.Ranjitha, C.Babila Agansiya

Abstract

The rainfed tank sector has traditionally been an important mainstay of Tamilnadu rural economy. In the years following independence, the performance of the sector declined for a number of economic and institutional reasons one among the predominant is inactive Water user‟s Association (WUA) in villages. WUA is a group of water users, such as irrigation, who pool their financial, technical, material and human resources for the operation and maintenance of a water system. Due to absence of WUA agricultural productivity is drastically reduced in terms of decreased cropping season and change in cropping pattern. Water scarcity from the sources (tank) due to irregular usage is the main reason for less crop production. Hence two tanks namely, Kolathur and Vellarai of Kancheepuram district, Sriperambathur taluk in Tamilnadu were selected for this study to probe the impact of inactive WUA on total land holding and cultivated land in command area by the respondents. Primary data were collected through interview schedule and was analysed using Statistical Package for Social Science. Expected result will give the regression equation for farm size, income and expenditure.

Keywords: - Irrigation, tank, water user‟s association, agriculture, crop production, SPSS.
1038-1041  
03.3005/02410381041
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13

Performance of Steel Fiber Reinforced Self Compacting Concrete

 Dr. Mrs. S.A. Bhalchandra, Pawase Amit Bajirao

Abstract

Construction of durable concrete structures requires skilled labor for placing and compacting concrete. Self Compacting Concrete achieves this by its unique fresh state properties. In the plastic state, it flows under its own weight and homogeneity while completely filling any formwork and passing around congested reinforcement. In the hardened state, it equals or excels standard concrete with respect to strength and durability. This work is aimed to study the performance of steel fiber reinforced self compacting concrete as plain self compacting concrete is studied in depth but the fiber reinforced self compacting concrete is not studied to that extent.

Keywords: - Self compacting concrete, fibers, compressive strength, flexure strength.
1042-1046  
03.3005/02410421046
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14

STUDY OF COLOR VISUAL CRYPTOGRAPHY

 ASMITA KAPSEPATIL, APEKSHA CHAVAN

Abstract

This paper shows the study on the concept of color visual cryptography. This paper includes study of color visual cryptography which involves visual information pixel (VIP) synchronization and error diffusion technique applicable for color visual cryptography. VIP carries visual information of original image and VIP synchronization helps to keep the same position of pixels throughout the color channels. Error diffusion generates shares which are clear and visible to human eyes and it improves the visibility of shares. With the help of these two concepts it results in visual quality improvement of images. It also includes a brief description of color model used for the process color visual cryptography.

Keywords: - error diffusion, visual cryptography, visual information pixel, visual information pixel synchronization.
1047-1048  
03.3005/02410471048
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15

Laplace Substitution Method for Solving Partial Differential Equations Involving Mixed Partial Derivatives

 Sujit Handibag, B. D. Karande

Abstract

In this paper we introduced a new method, named Laplace substitution method (LSM), which is based on Lapalce transform. This new method with a convenient way to find exact solution with less computation as compared with Method of Separation of Variables(MSV) and Variational iteration method (VIM). The proposed method solves linear partial differential equations involving mixed partial derivatives.

Keywords: - Approximate solution, Adomian decomposition method, Laplace decomposition method, Nonlinear partial differential equations.
1049-1052  
03.3005/02410491052
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16

ARkanoid: Development of 3D Game and Handheld Augmented Reality

 Markus Santoso, Lee Byung Gook

Abstract

In this paper, researcher presents ARkanoid, a 3D Handheld Augmented Reality game. Through this project, researcher tried to remake the old 2D game and brought it into something new. This time, researcher chooses an Arkanoid game which was first introduced in 1986 and became very famous together with the raise of video game era on that moment. Not only makes it in the 3D version, but also researcher combines it with an Augmented Reality (AR) technology. And finally, this AR project is finalized through handheld devices so that it can be commercialized to the real world in the future. This paper discusses the technical aspect of the game, the design and development process and the result of user study. The goal of this research is to explore the affordances and constraints of handheld AR interfaces for 3D games. This project showed some promising results of handheld AR application in game. User feels that the game presentation with 3D and AR technology is more interesting than general 2D game, the immersion of virtual object in real world also brings unique game ambient and touch-screen gameplay makes the player becomes more engaged to the game. Researcher hopes this research can be the milestone and will inspire the further research of respected field. Researcher also hopes this Arkanoid AR game can educate the user of handheld device who mostly grew up in previous era of Arkanoid game, that they can easily get familiar with AR technology applications.

Keywords: - Arkanoid game, 3D Game, Handheld AR.
1053-1059  
03.3005/02410531059
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17

A Selective Survey and direction on the software of Reliability Models

 Vipin Kumar

Abstract

Software development, design and testing have become very intricate with the advent of modern highly distributed systems, networks, middleware and interdependent application. The demand for complex software systems has increased more rapidly than the ability to design, implement, test, and maintain them and the reliability of software systems has become a major concern for our modern society. Software reliability modeling and measurements have drawn quite a bit of attention recently in various industries due to concerns about the quality of software. In few years of 21st century, many reported system outages or machine crashes were traced back to computer software failures. In this paper, I have many challenges in getting wide spread use of software reliability models. I am focus on software reliability models and measurements. A software reliability model specifies the general form of the dependence of the failure process on the principal factors that affect it: fault introduction, fault removal and the operational environment. During the test phase, the failure rate of a software system is generally decreasing due to discovery and correction of software faults. With careful record-keeping procedures in place, it is possible to use statistical methods to analyze the historical record. The purpose of these analyses is twofold:(1) to predict the additional time needed to achieve a specified reliability objective; (2) to predict the expected reliability when testing is finished.

Keywords: - Dynamic model, Growth model, Reliability software, Static model, Telecommunication.
1060-1064  
03.3005/02410601064
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18

An Application of Linguistic Variables in Assignment Problem with Fuzzy Costs

 K.Ruth Isabels, Dr.G.Uthra

Abstract

This paper presents an assignment problem with fuzzy costs, where the objective is to minimize the cost. Here each fuzzy cost is assumed as triangular or trapezoidal fuzzy number. Yager's ranking method has been used for ranking the fuzzy numbers. The fuzzy assignment problem has been transformed into a crisp one, using linguistic variables and solved by Hungarian technique. The use of linguistic variables helps to convert qualitative data into quantitative data which will be effective in dealing with fuzzy assignment problems of qualitative nature. A numerical example is provided to demonstrate the proposed approach.

Keywords: - Fuzzy Assignment Problem, Fuzzy Numbers, Hungarian method, Ranking of Fuzzy numbers.
1065-1069  
03.3005/02410651069
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19

Characterization of Paired Domination Number of a Graph

 G. Mahadevan, A. Nagarajan A. Rajeswari

Abstract

Paired domination is a relatively interesting concept introduced by Teresa W. Haynes [9] recently with the following application in mind. If we think of each vertex s ∈ S, as the location of a guard capable of protecting each vertex dominated by S, then for a paired domination the guards location must be selected as adjacent pairs of vertices so that each guard is assigned one other and they are designated as a backup for each other. A set S V is a paired dominating set if S is a dominating set of G and the induced subgraph has a perfect matching. The paired domination number pr(G) is the minimum cardinality taken over all paired dominating sets in G. The minimum number of colours required to colour all the vertices so that adjacent vertices do not receive the same colour and is denoted by . In [3], Mahadevan G proved that pr +   2n 1, and characterized the corresponding extremal graphs of order up to 2n 5. In this paper we characterize the classes of all graphs whose sum of paired domination number and chromatic number equals to 2n 6, for any n ≥ 4.

Keywords: - Paired domination number, Chromatic number AMS (2010) 05C69.
1070-1075  
03.3005/02410701075
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20

The Role of Decision Tree Technique for Automating Intrusion Detection System

 Neha Jain, Shikha Sharma

Abstract

Security of computers and the networks that connect them is increasingly becoming of great significance. Intrusion detection is a mechanism of providing security to computer networks. Although there are some existing mechanisms for Intrusion detection, there is need to improve the performance. Data mining techniques, such as decision tree analysis, offers a semi-automated approach to detect threats. In this paper, decision tree technique is applied on a small set of network data. Then build a decision tree model, and incorporates the model's logic into snort signatures or firewall rules.

Keywords: - Denial of Service, Data mining, IDS, Network security, decision tree.
1076-1078  
03.3005/02410761078
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21

Echo Cancellation by Adaptive Combination of Nsafs Adaptedbystocastic Gradient Method

 Rekha Saroha, Sonia Malik, Rohit Anand

Abstract

In acoustic echo cancellation the highly correlated speech input signal and very large impulse response path of echo signal will slow down the convergence rate of adaptive filters if fullband adaptive filter is used. To solve these problems subband adaptive filters are used. Adaptive combination methods provide an interesting way to improve adaptive filter's performance. A tradeoff between fast convergence rate and small steady state mean square error (MSE) in adaptive combination is achieved by stochastic gradient algorithm. The individual each filter is independently adapted by it's own error signal while combination is adapted by sum of squared subband errors as the cost function. Adaptive combination of normalized sub band adaptive filters is used. In our proposed method, adaptive combination of sub band signals before going to the adaptive filters. Experimental results show that the combination method can obtain both fast convergence rate and small steady state MSE by using less number of adaptive filters.

Keywords: - Round Trip Delay (RTD), Acoustic Echo Cancellation (AEC), Normalized Least Mean Square Algorithm (NLMS), Mean Square Error (MSE), Subband Adaptive Filters (SAF), Adaptive Combination Normalized Subband Adaptive Filters (NSAF) ,signal to noise ratio (SNR).
1079-1083  
03.3005/02410791083
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22

An Improved Self Cancellation Scheme to Reduce Non-Linearity in OFDM
Spectrum

 Kunal mann, Rakesh kumar, Poonam

Abstract

As the wireless communication system has evolved tremendously, leading to the need for high performance and much higher capacity for the multiuser communication systems but within the constraints of limited spectrum and limited bandwidth. The main function of OFDM is to convert a frequency selective channel into a collection of frequency- Flat sub channels with partially overlapping spectra. The differentiating factor of this scheme is the orthogonality provided to the subcarriers that provided synchronisation and helps in avoiding ISI .An OFDM signal consists of a number of closely spaced modulated carriers.
1084-1086  
03.3005/02410841086
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23

A Survey on Models and Test strategies for Event-Driven Software

Mr.J.Praveen Kumar, Manas Kumar Yogi

Abstract

A Graphical User Interface (GUI) testing tool is one to test applications user Interface and to detect the correctness of applications functionality. Event-Driven Software (EDS) can change state based on incoming events; common examples are GUI and web applications. These EDS pose a challenge to testing because there are a large number of possible event sequences that users can invoke through a user interface. While valuable contributions have been made for testing these two subclasses of EDS, such efforts have been disjoint. This work provides the first single model that is generic enough to study GUI and web applications together. This paper presentsdetail survey of the existing GUI testing tools . This paperalso summarizes various existing automated GUI testing approaches such as PerformanceTesting and Analysis (PTA), Model Based Testing (MBT), Combinatorial InteractionTesting (CIT), (GUI)-based Applications (GAPs). The feasibility of using java GUI captureand replay tools for GUI performance test automation has been studied. The severelimitations of GUI tools when used for recording and replaying realistic session of the realworld Java applications have been also addressed. Various GUI testing tool are comparedin terms of performance.In this we use the model to define generic prioritization criteria that are applicable to both GUI and web applications. Our ultimate goal is to evolve the model and use it to develop a unified theory of how all EDS should be tested.

Keywords: - Graphical User Interface, Performance Testing, event driven software (EDS), t-way interaction coverage, test suite prioritization, user-session testing, web-application testing, GUI testing.
1087-1091  
03.3005/02410871091
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24

Comparison of Power Consumption and Strict Avalanche Criteria at Encryption/Decryption Side of Different AES Standards

 Navraj Khatri, Rajeev Dhanda, Jagtar Singh

Abstract

The selective application of technological and related procedural safeguards is an important responsibility of every organization in providing adequate security to its electronic data systems. Now as the world is moving towards high speed of communication (larger data rate),more secure and fast algorithms are required to keep the information secret. In the present work, a new model is proposed and implemented, which is very similar to the conventional AES. The fundamental difference in the AES and proposed model is in block size which has been increased from 128 bits in conventional AES to 200 bits in proposed algorithm[1-4].The proposed algorithm is giving very good randomness and hence enhances the security in comparison to conventional AES. The performance is measured based upon Power Consumption at Encryption/Decryption time, and Strict Avalanche Criteria of various AES Standards. In this paper, we showed the effect in security increment through AES methodology.

Keywords: - Plain text, cipher text, stream cipher, Symmetric Encryption, Computer Security.
1092-1096  
03.3005/02410921096
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25

A SIMPLE ALGORITHM FOR REDUCTION OF BLOCKING ARTIFACTS USING SAWS TECHNIQUE BASED ON FUZZY LOGIC

 Sonia Malik, Rekha Saroha, Rohit Anand

Abstract

Reducing blocking artifacts encountered in highly compressed images is a very active research area in image processing. Coding artifacts are very annoying in these highly compressed images. Most of the artifact reduction techniques blur the details of the images while removing coding artifacts. In this paper , we propose a novel and explicit approach for reducing coding artifacts in an image by using the combination of SAWS equation and Fuzzy Rules. We use FIDRM for the detection of noisy pixel and NAFSM filter for correction. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed approach achieves excellent visual quality and PSNR as compared to a number of deblocking methods in the literature.

Keywords: - Block Based Discrete Cosine Transform (BDCT), Deblocking Block (DB), Fuzzy Impulse Artifact Detection and Reduction Method (FIDRM), Noise Adaptive Fuzzy Switching Median Filter (NAFSM), Signal Adaptive Weighted Sum Technique (SAWS).
1097-1101  
03.3005/02410971101
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26

A Study on Strength Characteristics of Flyash, Lime and Sodium Silicate Mixtures at Their Free Pouring Conditions

 P.V.V.Satayanarayana, Ganapati Naidu. P, S .Adiseshu, P.Padmanabha Reddy

Abstract

For the utilization of flyash in improving the strength of problematic soils a detail experimental study on the behavior of flyash stabilized with various percentages of lime and sodium silicate and the strength characteristics at their free pouring (30%, 35% & 40% of water by weight of flyash)consistencies have been studied. Different percentages of lime and sodium silicate (gel) were added to flyash and tested for UCS and split tensile strength for different curing periods like 3 days, 7 days and 28 days to obtain optimum dosage of lime and sodium silicate. From the test data it was found that 10 to 15 % of lime and 3 to 5 % of sodium silicate have been identified as optimum dosages. These mixes can be used for bricks and grouting techniques in civil engineering sector.

Keywords: - flyash, sodium silicate (gel), unconfined compressive strength (UCS), split tensile strength.
1102-1108  
03.3005/02411021108
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27

Performance Analysis of Epileptic Seizure Detection Using DWT & ICA with Neural Network

 M. Stella Mercy

Abstract

This paper presents the design and implementation of a low-energy asynchronous logic topology using sense amplifier- based pass transistor logic (SAPTL). The SAPTL structure can realize very low energy computation by using low-leakage pass transistor networks at low supply voltages. The introduction of asynchronous operation in SAPTL further improves energy-delay performance without a significant increase in hardware complexity. We show two different self-timed approaches: 1) the bundled data and 2) the dual-rail handshaking protocol. The proposed self-timed SAPTL architectures provide robust and efficient asynchronous computation using a glitch-free protocol to avoid possible dynamic timing hazards. Simulation and measurement results show that the self-timed SAPTL with dual-rail protocol exhibits energy-delay characteristics better than synchronous and bundled data self-timed approaches in 180-nm, 120-nm CMOS.

Keywords: - Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT), Independent Component Analysis (ICA), Support Vector Machines (SVM), Electroencephalogram (EEG).
1109-1113  
03.3005/02411091113
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28

Self-Timed SAPTL using the Bundled Data Protocol

 K.V.V.Satyanarayana, T.Govinda Rao, J.Sathish Kumar

Abstract

This paper presents the design and implementation of a low-energy asynchronous logic topology using sense amplifier- based pass transistor logic (SAPTL). The SAPTL structure can realize very low energy computation by using low-leakage pass transistor networks at low supply voltages. The introduction of asynchronous operation in SAPTL further improves energy-delay performance without a significant increase in hardware complexity. We show two different self-timed approaches: 1) the bundled data and 2) the dual-rail handshaking protocol. The proposed self-timed SAPTL architectures provide robust and efficient asynchronous computation using a glitch-free protocol to avoid possible dynamic timing hazards. Simulation and measurement results show that the self-timed SAPTL with dual-rail protocol exhibits energy-delay characteristics better than synchronous and bundled data self-timed approaches in 180-nm, 120-nm CMOS.
1114-1121  
03.3005/02411141121
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29

A survey on retrieving Contextual User Profiles from Search Engine Repository

 G.Ravi, JELLA SANTHOSH

Abstract

Personalized search is an important research area that aims to resolve the ambiguity of query terms. Therefore a Personalized Search engine return the most appropriate search results related to users interest. For example, a query "apple" a farmer would be interested in the apple fruits plants, farm etc. a technician would be interested in apple OS, Mac, Macintosh where as a gadget freak would be interested in latest apple products like ipad, iphone, iPod etc. Here we focus on search engine personalization and develop several concept-based user profiling methods that are based on both positive and negative preferences. We evaluate the proposed methods against our proposed personalized query clustering method. Experimental results show that profiles which capture and utilize both of the user's positive and negative preferences perform the best. An important result from the experiments is that profiles with negative preferences can increase the separation between similar and dissimilar queries. The separation provides a clear threshold for an agglomerative clustering algorithm to terminate and improve the overall quality of the resulting query clusters.
1122-1125  
03.3005/02411221125
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30

Optimized solutions for mobile Cloud Computing

 Mr.J.Praveen Kumar, Rajesh Badam

Abstract

As mobile device popularity grows, end-user demands to run heavier applications are equally increasing. Mobile cloud computing integrates the cloud computing into the mobile environment and overcomes obstacles related to the performance environment and security discussed in mobile computing. This paper gives an idea of MCC, which helps general readers have an overview of the MCC including the architecture, applications and solutions. The issues, existing solutions and approaches are presented. In addition, the future research directions of MCC are discussed.

Keywords: - Mobile cloud computing, offloading, Mobile services.
1126-1129  
03.3005/02411261129
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31

Effect of dyke structure on ground water in between Sangamner and Sinnar area: A Case study of Bhokani Dyke.

 P. D. Sabale, S. A. Meshram

Abstract

In semi-arid regions, particularly in hard rock areas, shallow aquifers are a major source of potable groundwater. These aquifers are indiscriminately exploited to meet the growing demand of water for domestic, irrigation as well as industrial uses. Therefore, peoples in this area are continuously pumping ground water from the well and in most of the days they found empty. Due to the over pumping through tube wells and dug wells, the ground water level is goes down below day to day. Therefore, due to such situation, people move to search the water from one place to another. In this situation, presence of a dyke is gives a new avenue to recharge the wells in the concern area. Dykes in the Deccan Trap areas are to a great extent, known to control the movement of groundwater, and success or otherwise of the well in the field area depends very much upon its location. The Bhokani dyke area has opened the door of excellent irrigation. Those wells which are taken on dyke are giving good yield and therefore farmers are pumping water continuously. In short, in areas of harsh Ground water situation, presence of dyke is an good as avenue for the ground water in the said region. This avenue acts as a source for the supply for irrigation and drinking water needs of the study area. Therefore this is an important factor in deciding the socio-economical conditions of the farmers in this area. This paper deals with study of such dyke which occurs near Sangamner area.
1130-1136  
03.3005/02411301136
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32

Algorithm for Merging Search Interfaces over Hidden Web

 Harish Saini, Kirti Nagpal

Abstract

This is the world of information. The size of world wide web [4,5] is growing at an exponential rate day by day. The information on the web is accessed through search engine. These search engines [8] uses web crawlers to prepare the repository and update that index at an regular interval. These web crawlers [3, 6] are the heart of search engines. Web crawlers continuously keep on crawling the web and find any new web pages that have been added to the web, pages that have been removed from the web and reflect all these changes in the repository of the search engine so that the search engines produce the most up to date results.

Keywords: - Hidden Web, Web Crawler, Ranking, Merging.
1137-1144  
03.3005/02411371144
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33

Performance Evaluation in Wireless Network

 Harish Saini, Renu Ghanghs

Abstract

An ad hoc network is a self –configuring network of wireless links connecting mobile nodes. These nodes may be routers and/or hosts. Each node or mobile device is equipped with a transmitter and receiver. They are said to be purpose-specific, autonomous and dynamic. Ad hoc networking is a concept in computer communications, which means that users wanting to communicate with each other from a temporary network, without any form of central administration. Term ad hoc means a network, which can take different forms in terms of topologies and in term of devices used. Ad hoc devices can be mobile, standalone or networked. A Mobile Ad hoc Network (MANET) is an autonomous system of mobile hosts, which are free to move around randomly and organize themselves arbitrarily. MANET is viewed as suitable systems which can support some specific applications as virtual classrooms, military communications, emergency search and rescue operations, data acquisition in hostile environments, communications set up in exhibitions, conferences and meetings, in battle field among soldiers to coordinate defense or attack, at airport terminals for workers to share files etc. In ad hoc networks nodes can change position quite frequently. The nodes in an ad-hoc network can be laptops, PDA (Personal Digital Assistant) or palm tops etc. These are often limited in resources such as CPU capacity, storage capacity, battery power, and bandwidth. Each node participating in the network acts both as a router and as a host and must therefore be willing to transfer packets to other nodes. For this purpose routing protocol is needed and the new protocol should try to minimize control traffic. An ad hoc network has certain characteristics, which impose new demands on routing protocols. The most important characteristic is dynamic topology, which is a consequence of node mobility. It should be reactive i.e. calculates routes only upon receiving a specific request.
1145-1152  
03.3005/02411451152
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34

A survey on anonymous ip address blocking

 Prof. P.Pradeepkumar, .Amer Ahmed khan, .B. Kiran Kumar

Abstract

These days, the Internet is full of suspicious actions and people. We always advise to not take a chance in protecting your IP Address information online. TheIP was being shown everywhere! To advertisersandother places ,even from SPAM who compromised usersidentity. No more I said, and developed software that would hide ip address.we outline a security protocol that uses resource constrained trusted hardware to facilitate anonymous IP-address blocking in anonym zing networks such as Tor. Tor allows users to access Internet services privately by using a series of Tor routers to obfuscate the route from the client to the server, thereby hiding the client's IP address from the server. The success of Tor, however, has been limited because of malicious users who misuse the network. administrators block all known exit nodes of anonymizing networks, denying nonymous access to misbehaving and behaving users alike. To address this problem, we present Nymble, a system in which servers can ―blacklist‖ misbehaving users, thereby blocking users without compromising their anonymity. Our system is thus agnostic to different servers' definitions of misbehavior servers can blacklist users for whatever reason, and the privacy of blacklisted users is maintained. The IP-address anonymity provided by Tor, however, makes it difficult for administrators to deny access to such offenders .As a result, administrators resort to blocking all Tor exit nodes, effectively denying anonymous access for all Tor's users. Our solution makes use of trusted hardware and allows services like Tor to provide anonymous blocking of IP addresses while requiring only a modest amount of storage at the trusted node.

Keywords: IP , pockets, NYMBLE,Anonymizing networks, privacy.
1153-1159  
03.3005/02411531159
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35

A Technique for Importing Shapefile to Mobile Device in a Distributed System Environment

 Manish Srivastava, Atul Verma, Kanika Gupta

Abstract

Mobile GIS emerged in the 1990s, with integration of GPS is one of the leading technique. It is a Location Based Services which can be defined as any application that extends spatial information processing or GIS capabilities to end users (based on their geographic location) (ESRI 2000 & 2001d). In other words it can be used to gather information from any place, and in no time. It's where wireless and GIS technologies meet on the Web and it is changing the way businesses and individuals operate"(ESRI 2001a). The technology of mobile devices has been improving since 2000.The various improvements has resulted in developing a high promising technology by taking into account issues like.
1160-1164  
03.3005/02411601164
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36

Experimental Evaluation of Mechanical Properties of 3d Carbon Fiber/Sic Composites Prepared By LSI

 Dr. S. Khadar Vali, Dr. P. Ravinder Reddy, Dr. P. Ram Reddy

Abstract

The structural engineer needs to be familiar with the property of the composite material structures. The behavior of ceramic composite material under impact load plays a pivotal role in designing such structures. An impact test is a test for determining the energy absorbed in fracturing a test piece at high velocity. The impact resistance of a part is, in many applications, a critical measure of service life. In the current work, an attempt is made to present the dynamic behavior of the advanced ceramic composite material, i.e., 3 Dimensional Carbon-Silicon Carbide (3D C-SiC) under the impact, tensile and flexure loads and the mechanical properties, viz., Impact Strength, Tensile Strength and Flexural Strength are determined. 3D C-SiC composite specimens with a fiber volume fraction of 40% are prepared by Liquid Silicon Infiltration (LSI) process to conduct the required experiments for evaluating the mechanical properties. The experimental results of impact, tensile, flexure and shear strengths recorded during the tests are 26.82 kJ/m2, 70.2 MPa, 230.3 MPa and 30.5 MPa respectively.

Keywords: Carbon Silicon Carbide (C-SiC), Impact strength, Liquid Silicon Infiltration (LSI)
1165-1172  
03.3005/02411651172
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