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International Journal of Computational Engineering Research (IJCER) Volume 2, Issue 1, Jan-Feb. 2012

S.No. Article Title Page No. PDF  

Development of an Optimal Routing Algorithm for MANET using Neural Networks

Anuj Kumar Chauhan, Sohan Garg


This paper evaluates a self-organizing routing protocol for Ad Hoc network, called the Neuron Routing Algorithm (NEURAL). NEURAL has been designed taking into ac- count the learning and self-organizing abilities of the brain. More precisely, it was inspired by the synapses process between neurons, when a signal is propagated. Basically, the most significant characteristic of NEURAL is the uniform distribution of the information around the node's location based on the current changes in its neighborhood. Using a 2-hop acknowledgment mechanism, local information is monitored in order to be used for route selection method, classification procedures and learning algorithms.

Molecular Dynamics of Heat Transfer and Quantum Mechanics

Thomas Prevenslik


Molecular Dynamics (MD) is used in computational heat transfer to determine the thermal response of nanostructures. Finding basis in classical statistical mechanics, MD relates the thermal energy of the atom to its momentum by the equipartition theorem. Momenta of atoms in an ensemble are determined by solving Newton’s equations with inter-atomic forces derived from Lennard-Jones potentials. Statistical mechanics always assumes the atom has thermal energy, or equivalently the capacity to absorb heat. Otherwise, the temperature of the atoms cannot be related to its thermal energy, the consequence of which is atoms in nanostructures have the same heat capacity as those at the macroscale. For bulk materials, MD heat transfer is performed for an ensemble of atoms in submicron computation boxes under periodic boundary conditions. Consistent with statistical mechanics, MD simulations of the bulk are valid because atoms having heat capacity in discrete submicron boxes under periodic boundary conditions are equivalent to those in the bulk that do indeed have heat capacity. Quantum mechanics (QM) differs. Unlike MD simulations of the bulk with atoms having heat capacity, QM precludes atoms in discrete nanostructures from having heat capacity. Nevertheless, the literature is replete with MD simulations of discrete nanostructures with atoms having heat capacity. Although consistent with statistical mechanics, MD of discrete nanostructures is invalid by QM. By QM, atoms in discrete nanostructures lacking heat capacity cannot conserve heat by an increase in temperature, and therefore the classical modes of heat transfer – convection, radiation, and conduction that depend on temperature have no meaning. Instead, conservation at the nanoscale proceeds by the creation of non-thermal QED induced EM radiation that charges the discrete nanostructures by the photoelectric effect, or is emitted to the surroundings. QED stands for quantum electrodynamics and EM for electromagnetic. Examples of MD simulations are presented that by QM are valid or invalid and recommendations made for how invalid MD heat transfer of discrete nanostructures may be consistent with QM. For interacting nanostructures, MD heat transfer simulations consistent with QM are computationally intractable, and therefore finite element (FE) simulations are proposed using estimates of QED radiation from the nanostructures in programs such as ANSYS and COMSOL

Keywords: Molecular dynamics, nanostructures, heat transfer, statistical mechanics, quantum mechanics, quantum electrodynamics

Process Optimization for Laser Cladding Operation of Alloy Steel using Genetic Algorithm and Artificial Neural Network

Subrata Mondal, Bipan Tudu, Asish Bandyopadhyay, Pradip K. Pal


Abstract: This paper presents an investigation on single objective optimization for CO2 laser cladding process considering clad height (H) and clad width (W) as performance characteristics. This optimization of multiple quality characteristics has been done using Genetic Algorithm (GA) approach. The aim of this work is to predict the performance characteristics (H and W) at optimized condition by applying back propagation method of artificial neural network (ANN). The essential input process parameters are identified as laser power, scan speed of work table and powder feed rate. In order to validate the predicted result, an experiment as confirmatory test is carried out at the optimized cladding condition. It is observed that the confirmatory experimental result is showing a good agreement with the predicted one. It has also been found that the optimum condition of the cladding parameters for multi performance characteristics varies with the different combinations of weighting factors.

Keywords: Laser cladding, Taguchi method, Optimization, GA, ANN

Fuzzy Programming approach for Fractional Multi-objective Transportation Problem with Impurity Constraints

Madhuri, P.K. Saksena


Abstract: This paper presents an investigation on single objective optimization for CO2 laser cladding process considering clad height (H) and clad width (W) as performance characteristics. This optimization of multiple quality characteristics has been done using Genetic Algorithm (GA) approach. The aim of this work is to predict the performance characteristics (H and W) at optimized condition by applying back propagation method of artificial neural network (ANN). The essential input process parameters are identified as laser power, scan speed of work table and powder feed rate. In order to validate the predicted result, an experiment as confirmatory test is carried out at the optimized cladding condition. It is observed that the confirmatory experimental result is showing a good agreement with the predicted one. It has also been found that the optimum condition of the cladding parameters for multi performance characteristics varies with the different combinations of weighting factors.

Keywords: Laser cladding, Taguchi method, Optimization, GA, ANN

Design and Development of Quad Band Rectangular Microstrip

Antenna with Ominidirectional Radiation Characteristics
M. Veereshappa and S. N. Mulgi


This paper presents the design and development of slotted rectangular microstrip antenna for quad band operation and ominidirectional radiation characteristics. The quad bands are achieved between 4.81 to 16 GHz. The magnitude of operating bandwidth has been enhanced to a maximum value of 3.29, 17.22, 36.44 and 43.33% by varying the width of vertical slots on the patch. This enhancement does not affect the nature of ominidirectional radiation characteristics. The proposed antenna is simple in its geometry and has been constructed from conventional rectangular microstrip antenna by placing vertical slots on the patch and a ground plane of height equal to the length of microstripline on the top and bottom surface of the substrate. Experimental results are in close agreement with the simulated results. The proposed antenna may find application in microwave communication system.

Keywords: Bandwidth, Microstrip antenna, Ominidirectional and Slot

Location Management using Genetic Algorithm Tuned Neural Network in Mobile Networks

J. Amar Pratap Singh,Dr. S. Nirmala


Future mobile systems will be characterized by high user density and high mobility enabling users to communicate regardless of their geographical location. Large number of handovers and registrations will place great demands on radio links. One of the major issues in mobile wireless systems is location management, which is the process that allows a network to identify the exact location of a mobile terminal (MT) for call delivery. In this paper, we present a user pattern learning (UPL) strategy using genetic algorithm tuned artificial neural network (GAANN) to reduce the location update cost. the system maintains a list of places where each user is most likely to be in at each time interval. The intelligence of the location management procedure is increased by updating the profile of each user by users past calling history. Unless the MT detects that it has moved out of the registered profile, it does not perform any other location update. Paging is also done selectively as in the registered profile upon a call arrival for the MT. Experimental results shows that the profile based intelligent system using GAANN performs well than other well known strategies.

Keywords: location management, location update, paging, neural network, genetic algorithm, mobility management.

Dynamic Classification of Power Systems via Kohonen Neural Network

S.F Mahdavizadeh M.A, Sandidzadeh, M. R. Aghamohammadi


Dynamic security assessment is one of the most prominent behavioral attributes of power systems. It can be assessed and evaluated by means of various behavioral events. For dynamic analysis of power systems after faults, Critical Clearing Time (CCT) is one of the most important parameters to evaluate. Calculation of CCT requires solving complicated problems which usually involves solving time consuming non-linear equations during fault moments. In this paper we use Kohonen neural network for finding a new pattern. First some sample patterns are created, and this is done in such a way to cover the entire operating space of the system. Then parameters of this pattern are applied to the neural network in order to train it and gain the best input. After these patterns are classified (20 different classes) and based on neural network's outputs, attributes of each class is determined. Finally a program is developed to determine each new behavioral pattern's class and attribute by applying it.

Keywords: Dynamic Security, Kohonen Neural Network, Transient Stability

Actionable Knowledge Discovery
Ambikavathi.V,Veeraiah.A , Prabhu.R


The data mining process consists of a series of steps ranging from data cleaning, data selection and transformation, to pattern evaluation and visualization. One of the central problems in data mining is to make the knowledge actionable. Here the term actionable refers to the mined patterns suggest concrete and profitable actions to the decision-maker. In this paper, we present a formal view of actionable knowledge discovery (AKD) from the system and decision-making perspectives. AKD is a closed optimization problem- solving process from problem definition, framework/model design to actionable pattern discovery, and is designed to deliver operable business rules that can be seamlessly associated or integrated with business processes and systems. To support such processes, we correspondingly propose, formalize, and illustrate Multisource Combined-Mining-based AKD (MSCM-AKD). A real-life case study of MSCM-based AKD is demonstrated to extract debt prevention patterns from social security data. Substantial experiments show that the proposed frameworks are sufficiently general, flexible, and practical to tackle many complex problems and applications by extracting actionable deliverables for instant decision-making.

Keywords— Data Mining, Domain-Driven Data Mining, Actionable Knowledge Discovery, Decision Making.


Remote-Controlled Home Automation Systems with

Different Network Technologies
Subhashrahul Shekhar, BV Sravan Kumar, S Ramesh


This paper describes an investigation into the potential for remote controlled operation of home automation systems. It considers problems with their implementation, discusses possible solutions through various network technologies and indicates how to optimize the use of such systems. The home is an eternal, heterogeneous, distributed computing environment which certainly requires a careful study before developing any suitable Home Automation System (HAS) that will accomplish its requirements. Nevertheless the latest attempts at introducing Home Automation Systems in actual homes for all kinds of users are starting to be successful thanks to the continuous standardization process that is lowering the prices and making devices more useful and easier to use for the end user. Even so several important issues are always to be handled strictly before developing and installing a Home Automation System; factors like security, reliability, usefulness, robustness and price are critical to determine if the final product will accomplish the expected requirements.

Keywords: Home Automation Systems, Home network, Domotics, Ubiquitous access, User- friendly interfaces, Standards.

Rainwater Harvesting Structures - A Case Study

C.L.Jejurkar , N.S.Naik


Feasibility of harvesting water at Konkamthan Village in Ahmednagar District of Maharashtra State is studied using yearly rainfall data. It is said that "water is life" because, the water is required from birth to death for human being. In the global picture, India is identified as a country where water scarcity is expected to grow considerably in the coming decades. Further drought condition, climatic variability cause considerable human suffering in many parts of the country in the form of scarcity of water for both satisfaction of drinking needs and irrigation needs. The results of man made crisis be seen as global warming and change in climatic conditions. The rain has become irregular because of disturbance in natural cycle and therefore do not reach when one wants them. "A Drop Harvested is a Crop Harvested" dictates upon the importance of rain water harvesting.
The quantity of rainfall is erratic, reduced and uncertain. Hence, need for conservation has been felt much more than ever before. In this study, hydro-meteorological data is obtained from Indian Meteorological Station at Kumbhari, of Kopargaon taluka. To study the profile of ground, survey was carried out with Total Station. Contour sheet was plotted with scale 1" to 160‟ at 0.5 m contour interval. The infiltration rate of soil was studied by double ring infiltrometer. Depending upon design requirements different runoff harvesting structures, like contour bunding, compartment bunding, nalah bunding and farm pound has been suggested. The study shows that with the help of harvesting structures 60 to 70 % of rainfall can be harvested.

Key words: Yearly rainfall, Rain water harvesting structures, global warming, Total stations, Profile, Contour, Infiltration, Double ring infiltrometer.

Infiltration studies for varying land cover conditions

C. L. Jejurkar, Dr. M. P. Rajurkar


Procedures adopted for infiltration calculations vary greatly in sophistication right from the application of reported average rates for specific soil types and vegetal land covers to the use of differential equations governing the flow of water in unsaturated porous media. In this work attempt is made to determine infiltration rates of soil under different land cover conditions and to compare validity of different infiltration equations viz. Kostiakov, modified Kostiakov, Horton and Philip. The various land covers such as Grapes, Gram, Bajra, Weeds and Cucumber were selected at a location Brahmangaon in Tq. Kopargaon, dist. Nagar (M.S.). Observations were taken by using double ring infiltrometer for two seasons' winter and summer. The field observations, analysis of data and graphical representations indicates that the infiltration rate in summer was around twice the infiltration rate in winter. Suitability of the infiltration model under different conditions has been indicated. Further, the Kostiakov equation was found to be the best for almost all cultivated land covers.

infiltration, double ring infiltrometer, land cover, season, Horton, Kostiakov, Philip, modified Kostiakov

Simulation of Turbulent Flow around an Airfoil by using κ-ε Model:

Angle of Attack Effects
Morteza Bayareh, Kaveh Ardeshirzadeh


In this paper, unsteady turbulent flow around an airfoil has been studied. Navier-stokes equations solved by Simple Calgorithm exerted to specified structured and unstructured grids. Turbulent models used are two-equation κ-ε standard model. Equations solved by staggered method and discretization of those done by upwind method. Results show that lift and drag coefficients are increasing functions of the angle of attack.

Keywords: Turbulent flow, κ-ε model, airfoil, angle of attack, lift, drag.

Numerical simulation of the motion of a drop in plane poiseuille flow: density ratio effects

Morteza Bayareh


The density ratio effects on the motion of a three-dimensional drop in Poiseuille flow are examined at finite Reynolds numbers using a finite difference front tracking method. The elliptic pressure equation is solved by a multi-grid method. For deformable drops, the wall repulsion increases and this effect moves the equilibrium position closer to the centerline of the channel. Results show that all drops with deferent density ratios migrate to an equilibrium position about halfway between the centerline and the wall. The drops move to an equilibrium position closer to the wall with increasing the density ratio. The axial velocities of the drops increase with decreasing the density ratio, because the drop with smaller density ratio moves to a lower final position. Also, the deformation of the drops is the same after an initial transient period. During the initial transient period, the deformation increases as the density ratio increases.

Keywords: Poiseuille flow, finite difference method, front tracking method, density ratio, Reynolds number.


V.Mariappan , M.Udayakumar , Pratisthit Lal Shrestha , S.Suresh


This study primarily focuses on the thermodynamic analysis of single stage vapor absorption refrigeration system using R134a – DMAC solution as the working fluid. Variations in the performance parameters of the system are studied against various operating temperatures of generator and absorber. The result of this theoretical study show that coefficient of performance (COP) value can be improved by elevating generator temperature up to certain level and lowering absorber temperature. At such elevated generator temperature, value of circulation ratio (CR) is lowered. The scope of this study is limited to the system with 1kW evaporator capacity and effectiveness of solution heat exchanger (SHX) as 0.8. For the proposed condition of source and sink temperature 120°C and 40°C respectively the maximum value of COP was found to be 0.41 and corresponding CR value as 3.90.

Keywords: Thermodynamics analysis, absorption refrigeration, generator temperature, absorber temperature, R134a–DMAC


B.Sreenivasulu , S.V.Naidu ,V.Dharma Rao,G.Vasu


The effects of different operating parameters on the performance of proton exchange membrane (PEM) 4-Serpentine flow channel fuel cell have been studied theoretically by modeling the problem in FLUENT. Pure hydrogen is used on the anode side and oxygen on the cathode side. Computer simulation results are obtained for voltage as a function of current density at different cell temperatures, operating pressures ,different humidities, gas diffusion layer thickness and catalyst layer thickness . The simulation results are compared with the experimental data, and the agreement is found to be good.

Keywords : 4-Serpentine flow channels, Fuel cell , GDL, PEM


Mr. Jaysukh Ghetiya, Mr. Amitesh Paul, Dr. G.R. Selokar


Many researchers have done a lot of experimental studies in the field of biodiesel to find an alternative to mineral diesel. It has shown that Jatropha biodiesel can be used as an alternative fuel in Diesel engine without modification. An experimental study was carried out to find out the effect of Jatropha bio-diesel on engine performance and emissions. For this experimental setup a 7 kW single cylinder, air-cooled, constant speed direct injection diesel engine with alternator was used for the experimental work. Emissions like NOX, CO, HC and smoke opacity were measured. Engine performance parameters such as brake thermal efficiency (BTE), brake specific energy consumption (BSEC) and exhaust gas temperature were also calculated. Results indicated that B20 have closer performance to diesel. The brake thermal efficiency for bio-diesel fuelled engine was slightly higher than diesel fuelled engine. There was increase in specific energy consumption and exhaust gas temperature with increase in bio diesel proportion in biodiesel blends. The rate of NOX emissions from biodiesel was gradually increased by 15, 18, 16 and 11 per cent higher than that of the diesel at 2.58, 3.83, 4.99 and 5.88 BMEP (2.9, 4.3, 5.6 and 6.6 kW) load conditions respectively. The carbon monoxide reduction by biodiesel was 11, 10, 15 and 19 per cent at 2.58, 3.83, 4.99 and 5.88 BMEP (2.9, 4.3, 5.6 and 6.6 kW) load conditions. Hydrocarbon (HC) and smoke opacity from the biodiesel and its blends was found lower than diesel fuel during the whole experimental range. Exhaust gas temperature increased with increase in load and amount of biodiesel. The highest exhaust gas temperature was observed as 455ºC for biodiesel among the four load conditions. The diesel mode exhaust gas temperature was observed as 368ºC.

Keywords— diesel, biodiesel, bio-diesel blends, performance, emissions.

Wired Network Security – Challenges for Researcher

Aiyeshabi S. Mulla Riyajuddin Y. Mujawar


Network security has become more important to personal computer users, organizations, and the military. Thus Security is crucial to networks and applications. Although, network security is a critical requirement in emerging networks, there is a significant lack of security methods that can be easily implemented. Securing the network is just as important as securing the computers and encrypting the message. This paper focuses on the fuzzy based approach for various parameters of network security that will adjust the security measure and improve the security performance.

Keywords - Fuzzy logic, Network security, Security Measure, Security Performance.

Color Image Segmentation Based on a Modified Fuzzy C-means Technique and Statistical Features

R. Harrabi, E. Ben Braiek


In this paper, a novel method of color image segmentation based on the Fuzzy C-means algorithm and statistical features is presented. The role of including first order statistical feature vector in the Fuzzy C-means technique is studied in this paper to obtain the optimally segmented image. Instead of using the simple pixel value, feature vectors are extracted from sliding window centered on the pixels. The Fuzzy C-means (FCM) algorithm is used to cluster the obtained feature vectors into several classes corresponding to the different regions of the image. Classification accuracies of the proposed technique are compared with those of the recent techniques in literature for the same image data. The experimental results on medical and textures color images demonstrate the superiority of combining statistical features and the standard Fuzzy C-Means algorithm for image segmentation.

Texture segmentation, Medical color image, Fuzzy Logic, Fuzzy C-means, Statistical features.

A Fast and Efficient Non-Blocking Coordinated Movement-Based Check pointing Approach for Distributed Systems

Jayanta Datta, Harinandan Tunga, Rudranath Mitra


In this paper, we have presented an efficient non-blocking coordinated check pointing algorithm for distributed systems. It produces a consistent set of checkpoints, without the overhead of taking temporary checkpoints; the algorithm also makes sure that only few processes are required to take checkpoints in its any execution; it uses very few control messages and the participating processes are interrupted fewer number of times when compared to some noted related works. The two most important criteria are non-blocking and minimum number of checkpoints. Cao-Singhal showed in their algorithm that it is impossible to design minimum process non-blocking algorithm but it is not desirable in mobile environment that underlying computation will be blocked whenever a check pointing algorithm invoked. If the check pointing scheme is blocking then the performance of the system will be highly affected by the frequent initiation of check pointing algorithm. We must try to minimize the blocking time while keeping the number of checkpoints minimum. So, the proposed scheme concentrate to minimize this overhead by combining coordinated check pointing with minimum blocking time.

Check-pointing, Dependency Vector (DV), distributed algorithm, Mobile Support Stations (MSS), Message Handling System (MHS), and Received Pronunciation (RP).

Studies on effect of salt stress on some medicinal plants

S.P Kiran kumari ,V. Sridevi , M.V.V. Chandana Lakshmi


Climatic change has become increasingly recognized as one of the greatest challenges to humankind and all other life on earth. The productivity of plants is greatly affected by various environmental stresses. Plant stress is a condition where excessive salts in soil solution cause inhibition of plant growth or plant death. Salinity stress negatively impacts agricultural yield throughout the world affecting production whether it is for subsistence or economic gain. The medicinal properties of plant species have made an outstanding contribution in the origin and evolution of many traditional therapies. In India, many government and non-government organizations have had focused attention on improving the medicinal plants sector. So the study is related to effect of salt stress on our selected medicinal plants which may help upto some extent for their cultivation. Azadirachta indica , Cassia fistula, Catharanthus roseus, Aloe barbadensis, and Ocimum sanctum were selected for our study and there biochemical parameters like total chlorophyll content and total carbohydrate content were estimated to know the salt tolerance among those plants. Through our field experiment Azadirachta indica showed the highest tolerance towards salinity both by morphological parameters and by biochemical parameters and remaining all four get wilted and the quality reduced gradually.

Keywords: Biochemical parameters , Chlorophyll content ,Medicinal plants, Salt stress.

The Growing Phenomenon of Wireless Crime Forensic a Tracing and Tracing

Mr. Kapil Vyas, Mr. Ashish Sharma, Mr. Dalpat Songara


The wireless technology use is so widely spread illustrates that its benefits of the technology for now compensate the risks. Now the major bandwidth of the internet is being accessed more by the wireless links without concerning the security. The paper discusses the various aspects of wireless cyber crime with perspective of the venerability, detection and preventions of the malefic intentional use of the technology.

Key Words – Wireless forensic, Hitech Crime ,Wireless security. Wi-Fi threat.

Towards the Artificial Vision – the retina implanting and visual Perception

Mr. Ashish Sharma, Mr. Kapil Vyas, Mr. Dalpat Songara


Artificial vision for the blind was once the stuff of science fiction. But now, a limited form of artificial vision is a reality .Now we are at the beginning of the end of blindness with this type of technology. In an effort to illuminate the perpetually dark world of the blind, researchers are turning to technology. They are investigating several electronic-based strategies designed to bypass various defects or missing links along the brain's image processing pathway and provide some form of artificial sight.

Distribution Simulation Package for Low Voltage Distribution Network

R. Chitra, R. Neelaveni


Distribution loads vary in response to temperature, time of the day, day of the week and other factors such as humidity precipitation and season. The effects of daily load patterns of a typical low voltage network (LV network) need to be studied in depth for optimization. This requires a detailed collection of distribution transformer load recordings of all electrical parameters such as voltage, current, power and power factor for all three phases. Load analysis is the detailed systematic study of all load recordings to derive significant conclusions. Hence there arises a need for the development of distribution simulation package (DSP) for LV network load analysis and optimization.
In the design of simulation package, LabVIEW is used as software simulation tool. There are four modules developed in the DSP namely, Load Survey Module, Power measurement Module, Display Module and Unbalance Prediction Module. In the existing system of distribution network, the distribution transformers (DT) are fixed with energy meters in the secondary of the DT and energy meter readings are downloaded with common meter reading instrument (CMRI). The energy meter reading includes voltage current profile (vi – profile) with power factor and serves as input to the DSP. Outputs of DSP are Power and Energy Measurement, Voltage Graph, Load Graph, Power Graph and Prediction of unbalance in the LV distribution Network.
DSP can be termed as effective Management and Monitoring Module (MMM) for LV networks. With the DSP, LV networks are studied, analyzed results obtained; Hypotheses derived and significant conclusions are drawn.

Keywords: distribution simulation package, load analysis, lv network, optimization, reconfiguration and unbalance prediction.

Survey on Content Based Image & Information Retrieval

S.Singaravelan, Dr.D.Murugan


In this paper, we present an complete survey about information and image retrieval process .users are not satisfied with the traditional information retrieval techniques. so nowadays the content based image retrieval are becoming a source of exact and fast retrieval. In this paper the techniques of content based image retrieval are discussed, analyzed and compared. It also introduced the feature like visual descriptor and ontology methods. The suggestion for feature methodology's to over come the difficulties and improve the result performance.

Keywords: Content based image retrieval, Visual descriptor, ontology, Relevance Feedback.

Simulation of Unsteady Laminar Flow around a Circular Cylinder

Morteza Bayareh


In this paper, unsteady laminar flow around a circular cylinder has been studied. Navier-stokes equations solved by Simple C algorithm exerted to specified structured and unstructured grids. Equations solved by staggered method and discretization of those done by upwind method. The mean drag coefficient, lift coefficient and strouhal number are compared from current work at three different Reynolds numbers with experimental and numerical values.

Keywords: Laminar flows, circular cylinder, lift, drag, Strouhal number.


Pallab Kanti Podder, Fahmida Islam, Dilip Kumar Sarker, Md. Galib Hasan, Diponkar Kundu


In this paper, we compare and analyze six different path loss models (i.e. FSPL model, COST 231 Hata model, ECC-33 model, SUI model, Ericsson model and COST 231 Walfish-Ikegami model) in different receiver antenna heights in urban, suburban and rural environments in NLOS condition for WiMAX. We consider Bangladesh as three regions such: Urban, Suburban, flat area and use operating frequency 2.5 GHz. Our observation shows that none of a single propagation model is well suited for all environments. SUI model showed the lowest prediction in urban environment. ECC-33 model showed the heights path loss and also showed huge fluctuations due to change of receiver antenna height. COST-Hata model showed the moderate result and ECC-33 model showed the same path loss as like as urban environment because of the same parameters are used in the simulation. In flat or rural, COST 231 Hata model showed the lowest path loss.

Keywords: MATLAB, Path loss models, Propagation models, WiMAX.

2n:1 Reversible Multiplexer and its Transistor Implementation

Praveen.B, Vinay Kumar S.B


The advantages of reversible logic systems and circuits have drawn a significant interest in recent years as a promising computing paradigm having applications in low power CMOS, quantum computing, nano technology, digital signal processing, computer graphics, cryptography and optical computing. In this paper, new reversible PV gate is proposed and the design of 2:1, 4:1 and 8:1 reversible multiplexer using the proposed reversible gate is discussed. Transistor implementation of proposed gate is done using virtuoso tool of cadence. Based on the result of the analysis, some of the trade-offs are made in the design to improve the efficiency.

Keywords- Basic reversible gates; Constant inputs; Reversible Multiplexer; Garbage; Gate count; Transistor count.

A Hybrid Approach for Web Service Selection

Mojtaba Khezrian, Wan M. N. Wan Kadir, Suhaimi Ibrahim, Alaeddin Kalantari


Web service selection which is specified to evaluate and select the best candidate from discovered Web services became one of the most significant topic in recent research on Service oriented Architecture (SOA). Indeed, current approaches are not sufficient enough to overcome Web service selection problems. Due to the nature of Web service selection, it is important to lead it to Multi Criteria Decision Making (MCDM). However, there are several MCDM methods such as AHP, ANP, TOPSIS and VIKOR. In this paper we propose a hybrid approach to solve Web service selection problem. First, we apply Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) to evaluate the weights of criteria instead of collect the weights directly from service consumer. In the next tread, we use VIKOR (VIšekriterijumsko KOmpromisno Rangiranje) to identify and rank the appropriate candidate services. Finally, in order to demonstrate the proposed method we have afforded an example using four criteria of QoS and five alternative services.

Keywords: Web Service, Web Service Selection, MCDM, AHP, VIKOR.

Image Processing Software Package in Medical Imaging: A review

Nasrul Humaimi Mahmood, Ching Yee Yong, Kim Mey Chew, Ismail Ariffin


MATLAB is at present among the best available technique for image processing. Medical images after digitalized processed can help reducing the number of false positives and they assist medical officers in deciding between follow-up and biopsy. This paper gives a survey of image processing algorithms that have been developed for detection of masses and segmentation techniques. 35 students from university campus participated in the Development of Biomedical Image Processing Software Package for New Learners Survey investigating the use of software package for processing and editing image. Composed of 19 questions, the survey built a comprehensive picture of the software package, programming language, workflow of the tool and captured the attitudes of the respondents. The result of this study shows that MATLAB is among the famous software package and this result is expected to be beneficial and able to assist users on effective image processing and analysis in a newly developed software package.

Keywords- MATLAB; image processing; image editting; software package.


Mr. Janak Rathavi, Mr. Amitesh Paul, Dr. G.R. Selokar


The quest for higher efficiencies has spurred the innovation of energy efficient technologies such as waste heat recovery. The recovery and utilization of waste heat not only conserves fuel, usually fossil fuel, but also reduces the amount of waste heat and greenhouse gases dumped to the environment. CI engines exchange approximately 30-40% of heat generated in the process of fuel combustion into useful mechanical work with the current available technology. The remaining heat is emitted to the environment through the exhaust gases (35%) and the engine cooling systems (31%). Experiment show that the boiling point of fossil fuels can be reduced by 50% by preheating. Large part of waste heat exhaust gases can be recovered by vaporizing the fuel through a small heat exchanger. This technical paper shows the experimental results for significant reduction of engine fuel consumption and hazardous emissions could be attained by recovering of exhaust heat by using self made Heat Exchanger. One of the most important issues is to develop an efficient heat exchanger which provides optimal recovery of heat from exhaust gases.

Key words: Emissions, Efficiency, Fuel consumption, Heat Exchanger, Waste Heat Recovery.