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Frequency: 12 issues per year
ISSN: 2250–3005 (online version)
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International Journal of Computational Engineering Research (IJCER) November Issue, 2012

S.No. Article Title Page No. PDF
1.

Optimal Qos Attributes In Security Key Management

Akash K Singh, PhD

Abstract

System NP Hardness problem is addressed and Mathematical framework is proposed for certificates and enhancement of security systems

Keywords: Key Management, Certificates, NP
10-30 PDF
2.

Optical Coherence Tomography for Ophthalmic Imaging

Akash K Singh, PhD

Abstract

Understanding the etiology and evolution of the vulnerable coronary plaque is important for the early detection, treatment, and prevention of coronary artery disease. Intravascular optical coherence tomography (OCT) enables imaging of the coronary arteries in vivo with sufficient resolution to accurately differentiate arterial pathology, however, the clinical utility of this technology has been limited due to slow image acquisition rates. The development of high-speed Fourier-domain OCT techniques, including optical frequency-domain imaging, enables comprehensive microstructural imaging of long coronary artery segments. Other OCT advancements, including polarization sensitive OCT provides complementary birefringence information that is related to tissue composition. Together with new image processing, acquisition, and display techniques, these advances have enhanced the usability and utility of intracoronary OCT, bringing it closer to becoming a mainstream imaging modality in interventional cardiology.

Keywords: Cardiovascular, coronary arteries, intravascular imaging, optical coherence tomography (OCT), optical frequencydomain imaging (OFDI), polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT).
31-69 PDF
3.

OCT Based Nanostructures Quantification

Akash K Singh, PhD

Abstract

In this letter, a phase-sensitive, swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT) system is implemented for the optical measurement of nanostructures. A new approach is proposed to reduce the phase errors, resulting from trigger jitter of the swept source and the asynchronization between the A-scan trigger and OCT signal at the data acquisition end, with a narrowband fiber Bragg grating to generate the accurate A-scan trigger. Furthermore, combining the common-path configuration with the proposed approach, the displacement sensitivity can be calculated to be 80 pm when the swept source is operated at 30 kHz. Finally, the conducting glass was scanned with the proposed approach to quantitatively measure the thickness of conducting layer. The results show that the proposed SS-OCT approach can make be a potentially useful tool for noninvasive, real-time inspection of nanostructures.

Keywords: Conducting glass, optical coherence tomography, optical imaging, phase imaging.
70-96 PDF
4.

Neural Response

Akash K Singh, PhD

Abstract

The development of interfaces that link the human nervous system with robotic devices or man-made devices has been a main area of research for several groups in the world. These groups focus on the restoration of motor and sensory function to those with degenerative diseases, injury or in amputees. A key component is these systems is a fast, intuitive, bidirectional interface between the biological and mechatronic systems that allows the robotic limb to be controlled as if it were a natural part of the body. Current hand prostheses use electromyographic (EMG) signals, but are limited to a small number of channels and to sensing volition. To achieve sensory feedback and a higher number of control channels, a neuroprosthetic interface are required. In the present study, thin-film longitudinal intra-fascicular electrodes (tfLIFE) were implanted in the sciatic nerve of the rabbit. Various sensory stimuli were applied to the hind limb of the rabbit and the elicited signals were recorded using the tfLIFEs. These signals were processed to determine whether the different modes of information could be decoded. Signals were Kalman filtered, wavelet denoised, and spike sorted. The classes of spikes found were then used to infer the stimulus applied to the rabbit. Although the signals acquired from a single tLIFE gave poor stimulus recognition, the combination of the signals from multiple sites led to better results. The spike sorting algorithm is also helped by the use of temporal correlation between the channels. A direct outcome of the results is the possibility of increasing the number of channels of control possible with a prosthetic limb.

Key words: ENG signal, spike sorting, hybrid bionic systems, neuroprostheses.
97-125 PDF
5.

Role Based Trust Management Security Policy Analysis

Akash K Singh, PhD

Abstract

We use symmetric keys to encrypt and decrypt attribute values. These keys are distributed only to the brokers that are trusted with the attribute values. The system will never deliver these keys to clients. This reduces the number of nodes that are trusted with sensitive keys, and that take part in key management protocols. This does not affect security since local brokers encrypt and decrypt attribute values on behalf of connected clients, and deliver events to clients over secure links. To support cryptographic properties such as key freshness, and forward and backward secrecy [22], the system requires key management service(s). A representation of quantified trust relationships, the trust dependency graph, and a sample QuanTM application specific to the KeyNote trust management language, are also proposed.

Keywords: Symmetric keys, Trust Management.
126-155 PDF
6.

Robotics as a Future and Emerging Technology

Akash K Singh, PhD

Abstract

Real-time in-vivo forward-viewing optical coherence tomography imaging has been demonstrated with a novel lens scanning based MEMS endoscope catheter. An endoscopic catheter with an outer dimension of 7 mm x 7 mm has been designed, manufactured and assembled. By employing high-speed spectral domain optical coherence tomography, in-vivo two-dimensional cross-sectional images of human skin tissues were obtained as a preliminary study. Imaging speed of 122 frames per second and axial resolution of 7.7 μm are accomplished. The operation voltages are only DC 3 V and AC 6 Vpp at resonance frequency of 122 Hz. The catheter can provide many opportunities for clinical applications such as compact packaging, long working distance and body safe low operating voltages.

Keywords: Biorobotics, neuro-robotics, cybernetic hand, bioinspired sensors, underactuated hand, biomimetic robot.
156-188 PDF
7.

Reputation Based Distributed Trust Model for P2P Networks

Akash K Singh, PhD

Abstract

Service-oriented Architectures (SOA) facilitate the dynamic and seamless integration of services offered by different service providers which in addition can be located in different trust domains. Especially for business integration scenarios, Federated Identity Management emerged as a possibility to propagate identity information as security assertions across company borders in order to secure the interaction between different services. Although this approach guarantees scalability regarding the integration of identity-based services, it exposes a service provider to new security risks. These security risks result from the complex trust relationships within a federation. In a federation the authentication of a user is not necessarily performed within the service provider's domain, but can be performed in the user's local domain. Consequently, the service provider has to rely on authentication results received from a federation partner to enforce access control. This implies that the quality of the authentication process is out of control by the service provider and therefore becomes a factor which needs to be considered in the access control step. In order to guarantee a designated level of security, the quality of the authentication process should be part of the access control decision. To ease this process, we propose in this paper a method to rate authentication information by a level of trust which describes the strength of an authentication method. Additionally, in order to support the concept of a two-factor authentication, we also present a mathematical model to calculate the trust level when combining two authentication methods. Quantitative Trust Management (QTM) provides a dynamic interpretation of authorization policies for access control decisions based on upon evolving reputations of the entities involved. QuanTM, a QTM system, selectively combines elements from trust management and reputation management to create a novel method for policy evaluation. Trust management, while effective in managing access with delegated credentials (as in PolicyMaker and KeyNote), needs greater flexibility in handling situations of partial trust. Reputation management provides a means to quantify trust, but lacks delegation and policy enforcement. This paper reports on QuanTM's design decisions and novel policy evaluation procedure. A representation of quantified trust relationships, the trust dependency graph, and a sample QuanTM application specific to the KeyNote trust management language, are also proposed.

Keywords: Trust management, Trust levels, Authentication and Access Control, Web Service Federation, Federated Identity Management.
189-222 PDF
8.

Replacement of Hand Function

Akash K Singh, PhD

Abstract

In recent years, thanks to the advancement of robotics and mechatronics, new and more effective devices for the restoration and replacement of sensory-motor function in disabled people have been developed. In all these systems, user acceptability is strictly connected to several issues such as the residual abilities of the subject, the mechatronic characteristics of the robot, and also the interface chosen to link them. It is possible to figure out different Bhuman-interface-device[ combinations [also defined as Bhybrid bionic systems[ (HBSs)] characterized by different properties in terms of level of hybridness, connection, and augmentation. In particular, in HBSs the interface has to be customized according to the characteristics of the robotic artefact to be controlled and to the desires and needs of the final users. In this paper, our attention has been focused on the problem of the replacement of hand function after amputation. Three HBSs characterized by different levels of complexity, dexterity, and sensorization are presented in order to show the possibility of developing acceptable and effective systems by choosing different levels of connection and hybridness (i.e., different interfaces) for different devices and applications. The following case studies are presented: 1) the use of invasive interfaces to the peripheral nervous system to control a dexterous and highly sensorized hand prosthesis; 2) the use of electromyographic signals recorded using surface electrodes to control a compliant adaptive prosthesis; and 3) the use of a foot interface to control a two-degrees-of-freedom The preliminary results achieved so far seem to confirm the idea that the correct choice of the proper interface while developing an HBS can increase effectiveness and usability.

Keywords: Biomechatronics; biorobotics; hand prostheses; neural interfaces; neurorobotics.
223-252 PDF
9

Real-Time Isometric Pinch Force Prediction from sEMG

Akash K Singh, PhD

Abstract

This paper describes a real-time isometric pinch force prediction algorithm using surface electromyogram (sEMG). The activities of seven muscles related to the movements of the thumb and index finger joints, which are observable using surface electrodes, were recorded during pinch force experiments. For the successful implementation of the real-time prediction algorithm, an off-line analysis was performed using the recorded activities. From the seven muscles, four muscles were selected for monitoring using the Fisher linear discriminant paradigm in an off-line analysis, and the recordings from these four muscles provided the most effective information for mapping sEMG to the pinch force. An ANN structure was designed to perform efficient training and to avoid both under-fitting and over-fitting problems. Finally, the pinch force prediction algorithm was tested with five volunteers and the results were evaluated using two criteria: normalized root mean squared error (NRMSE) and correlation (CORR). The training time for the subjects was only 2 min 29 sec, but the prediction results were successful with NRMSE = 0.093 ±0.047 and CORR = 0.957 ±0.031. These results imply that the proposed algorithm is useful to measure the generated pinch force without force sensors. The possible applications of the proposed method include controlling bionic finger robot systems to overcome finger paralysis or amputation.

Keywords – Biomechatronics; biorobotics; hand prostheses; neural interfaces; neurorobotics.
253-281 PDF
10

Real-time Control of Angioplasty Balloon Inflation for Beating Heart Model

Akash K Singh, PhD

Abstract

We report on real-time control of balloon inflation inside porcine arteries. In a first step, experiments were done in a coronary artery of an excised heart. In a second step, experiments were done in a beating heart setup providing conditions very close to in vivo conditions without the complications. A programmable syringe pump was used to inflate a compliant balloon in arteries, while intravascular optical coherence tomography (IVOCT) monitoring was performed. In a feedback loop, IVOCT images were processed to provide the balloon diameter values in real-time to control the pump action in order to achieve a target diameter. In different experiments, various flow rates and target diameters were used. In the excised heart experiment, there was good convergence to target diameters resulting in a satisfactory balloon inflation control. In the beating heart experiment, there were oscillations in the diameter values due to cyclic arterial contractions. In these experiments, the control system maintained diameter averages satisfactorily close to predetermined target values. Real-time control of balloon inflation could not only provide a safer outcome for angioplasty procedures but could also provide additional information for diagnostics since it implicitly provides information about the artery response to the inflation process.

Keywords – Angioplasty, control, optical coherence tomography (OCT), real-time systems.
282-310 PDF
11

Prosthetic Hand Control

 Akash K Singh, PhD

Abstract

This paper presents a five-fingered underactuated prosthetic hand controlled by surface electromyographic (EMG) signals. The prosthetic hand control part is based on an EMG motion pattern classifier which combines variable learning rate (VLR) based neural network with parametric Autoregressive (AR) model and wavelet transform. This motion pattern classifier can successfully identify flexion and extension of the thumb, the index finger and the middle finger, by measuring the surface EMG signals through three electrodes mounted on the flexor digitorum profundus, flexor pollicis longus and extensor digitorum. Furthermore, via continuously controlling single finger's motion, the five-fingered underactuated prosthetic hand can achieve more prehensile postures such as power grasp, centralized grip, fingertip grasp, cylindrical grasp, etc. The experimental results show that the classifier has a great potential application to the control of bionic man-machine systems because of its fast learning speed, high recognition capability.

Keywords – Prosthetic Hand, Underactuated,EMG, Neural Network, Wavelet Transform.
311-339 PDF
12

Quantum-Dot Laser OCT

 Akash K Singh, PhD

Abstract

In this paper, we present the design and characterization of a monolithically integrated tunable laser for optical coherence tomography in medicine. This laser is the first monolithic photonic integrated circuit containing quantum-dot amplifiers, phase modulators, and passive components. We demonstrate electro-optical tuning capabilities over 60 nm between 1685 and 1745 nm, which is the largest tuning range demonstrated for an arrayed waveguide grating controlled tunable laser. Furthermore, it demonstrates that the active-passive integration technology designed for the 1550 nm telecom wavelength region can also be used in the 1600–1800 nm regions. The tunable laser has a 0.11 nm effective linewidth and an approximately 0.1 mW output power. Scanning capabilities of the laser are demonstrated in a free space Michelson interferometer setup where the laser is scanned over the 60 nm in 4000 steps with a 500 Hz scan frequency. Switching between two wavelengths within this 60 nm range is demonstrated to be possible within 500 ns .

Keywords – Integrated optoelectronics, laser tuning, optical imaging, quantum dot lasers.
340-371 PDF
13

Prostate Cancer Detection and Localization

 Akash K Singh, PhD

Abstract

Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) of the human with 1.5T MRI gives the insight of Prostate Cancer Tissue details. DWI is now used also for other Liver, Kidney, and Heart Imaging than the brain, and especially focused on detection of Cancer Tissues in prostate.1H-MR spectroscopy technique is used to detect and localize prostate cancer. One difficult sight of 1.5T prostate spectroscopy is the use of a special, endorectal coil, it is a thin wire covered with a latex balloon and inserted inside the tail end of the large bowel which is rectum. We detected and identified the prostate cancer by DWI and 3D 1H-MRS with a external phase arrayed multi-coils, this is optimal tumor invasion through bowel wall and adjacent organs.

Keywords – Prostate Cancer, MRI and DWI
372-399 PDF
14

Progress in Intracoronary Optical Coherence Tomography

 Akash K Singh, PhD

Abstract

Understanding the etiology and evolution of the vulnerable coronary plaque is important for the early detection, treatment, and prevention of coronary artery disease. Intravascular optical coherence tomography (OCT) enables imaging of the coronary arteries in vivo with sufficient resolution to accurately differentiate arterial pathology, however, the clinical utility of this technology has been limited due to slow image acquisition rates. The development of high-speed Fourier-domain OCT techniques, including optical frequency-domain imaging, enables comprehensive microstructural imaging of long coronary artery segments. Other OCT advancements, including polarization sensitive OCT provides complementary birefringence information that is related to tissue composition. Together with new image processing, acquisition, and display techniques, these advances have enhanced the usability and utility of intracoronary OCT, bringing it closer to becoming a mainstream imaging modality in interventional cardiology.

Keywords – Cardiovascular, coronary arteries, intravascular imaging, optical coherence tomography (OCT), optical frequencydomain imaging (OFDI), polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT).
400-433 PDF
15

Technology in Eduction and Training

 Akash K Singh, PhD

Abstract

The Internet has enabled a great amount of information to be readily available and easily accessible. It has promoted several changes in the world, including in the education area. Nowadays, there is a great amount of educational and training systems, which provide different functionality according to specific administrative, pedagogical and technological approaches. Authoring tools, content repositories, evaluation and assessment, curriculum design and collaborative tools are some pieces of this educational "puzzle". This paper describes a generic architecture for educational and training systems from the software development point of view. Then this architecture is discussed according to web technology, enabling a better understanding of the involved technological aspects of educational and training systems.

Keywords – Advanced metering infrastructure (AMI), communication technologies, quality-of-service (QoS), smart grid, standards.
434-461 PDF
16

Thz Medical Imaging

 Akash K Singh, PhD

Abstract

The terahertz (THz) part of the electromagnetic spectrum falls between the lower frequency millimetre wave region and, at higher frequencies, the far-infrared region. The frequency range extends from 0.1 THz to 10 THz, where both these limits are rather loose. As the THz region separates the more established domains of microwaves and optics, a typical THz technique will incorporate aspects of both realms, and may even draw on the best of both. The two bounding parts of the spectrum also yield distinct sets of methods of generating and detecting THz waves. These approaches can thus be categorised as having either microwave or optical/photonic origins. As a result of breakthroughs in technology, the THz region is finally finding applications outside its traditional heartlands of remote sensing and radio astronomy. Extensive research has identified many attractive uses and has paved the technological path towards flexible and accessible THz systems. Examples of novel applications include medical and dental imaging, gene theory, communications and detecting the DNA sequence of virus and bacteria. The presentation will discuss the range of THz applications and will present the components and systems that are utilised for the frequency region.

Keywords – Terahertz (THz), Medical Imaging, and Infrared.
462-489 PDF
17

Standards for Smart Grid

 Akash K Singh, PhD

Abstract

The smart grid is a new advanced electrical network promoted by the government to address environmental sustainability, energy generation, distribution and consumption efficiency issues. As one of the enabling technologies, Advanced Metering Infrastructure refers to systems which measure, collect and analyze energy usage, and interact with advanced devices such as smart meters through various communication media either on request or on pre-defined schedules. This paper focuses on proposing the technical requirements imposed on the communications network for AMI. Then we examine each of the proposed AMI consumer application standards found in open literature based on these requirements. We will discuss the system engineering approach taken by NIST/EPRI to develop standards for smart grid and AMI and highlight outstanding security and interoperability issues concerned for deploying smart grid AMI. We compare the performances of consumer application standards in addressing these open issues. Finally, we conclude and propose our future work. Keywords-smart grid; AMI; IP-based.

Keywords – Immune pathology; artificial immune system; negative selection algorithm; immunodeficiency; system Efficiency.
490-521 PDF
18

Smart Microgrid

 Akash K Singh, PhD

Abstract

Smart microgrids offer a new challenging domain for power theories and compensation techniques, because they include a variety of intermittent power sources, which can have dynamic impact on power flow, voltage regulation, and distribution losses. When operating in the islanded mode, low-voltage smart microgrids can also exhibit considerable variation of amplitude and frequency of the voltage supplied to the loads, thus affecting power quality and network stability. Due to limited power capability in smart microgrids, the voltage distortion can also get worse, affecting measurement accuracy, and possibly causing tripping of protections. In such context, a reconsideration of power theories is required, since they form the basis for supply and load characterization, and accountability. A revision of control techniques for harmonic and reactive compensators is also required, because they operate in a strongly interconnected environment and must perform cooperatively to face system dynamics, ensure power quality, and limit distribution losses. This paper shows that the conservative power theory provides a suitable background to cope with smart microgrids characterization needs, and a platform for the development of cooperative control techniques for distributed switching power processors and static reactive compensators.

Keywords – Advanced metering infrastructure (AMI), communication technologies, quality-of-service (QoS), smart grid, standards.
522-552 PDF
19

Smart Grid Wide Area Monitoring, Protection and Control

 Akash K Singh, PhD

Abstract

For century, there has been no change in the fundamental structure of the electrical power grid and vehicle networks. Current hierarchical, centrally controlled grid of the electrical grid is not best for growing demand. To address the challenges of the existing power grid, the new concept of smart grid and smarter planet are under research. The smart grid can be considered as a modern electric power grid infrastructure for enhanced efficiency and reliability through automated control, high-power converters, modern communications infrastructure, sensing and metering technologies, and modern energy management techniques based on the optimization of ondemand, energy and network availability. While current power systems are based on a solid information and communication infrastructure, the new smart grid needs a different and much more complex one, as its dimension is much larger and needs utmost performance. This paper addresses critical issues on smart grid technologies primarily in terms of information and communication technology (ICT) issues and opportunities. The main objective of this paper is to provide a contemporary look at the current state of the art in smart grid communications as well as to discuss the still-open research issues in this field. It is expected that this paper will provide a better understanding of the technologies, potential advantages and research challenges of the smart grid and provoke interest among the research community to further explore this promising research area.

Keywords – Advanced metering infrastructure (AMI), communication technologies, quality-of-service (QoS), smart grid, standards.
553-584 PDF
20

Trust and Trust Management Models for Ecommerce & Sensor Network

 Akash K Singh, PhD

Abstract

Service oriented cloud technologies are emerging as next computing platform for social media. SOA stack development and deployment undergoes architecture principles to improve service identification, service realization and service orchestration in Cloud Fabrics. Distributed services are composed and serves highly complex computing environment. In Mobile world service deployment and service access are primarily dependent upon the service subscriber and telecom provider. Thus, a reliable service fabric is highly required for the mobility computing. This paper proposes to achieve the reliable service orchestration and service fabrics along with mobility platform and the localization of the service operators and subscribers. Between the randomness and chaos communication channels there are higher chances of uncertainty. Occurrence of multiple chaos events increases the uncertainty in mobile service subscriber and provider communication channel and service availability.

Keywords – SOA, Mobility, Localization, Entropy, Randomness and Chaos Trust management Trust levels, Authentication and Access Control, Web Service Federation, Federated Identity Management.
585-619 PDF
21

Trust Management and Security Access Controls in High Payload System Architecture

 Akash Singh, PhD

Abstract

Enterprise services are commonly deployed on Internet facing applications and Mobile Apps. There is a need to have an Infrastructure and Application Framework to protect the information flow web layer and mobile apps. Trust management is being recognized in the industry along with Federated Single Sign on to cater the need of data protection at rest and in transits. Web layer need to be very light to have better performance. However, there are multiple products and services are available to measure and control security problems. In Web based architecture still companies are maintain credentials and access level in the database. As a matter of fact connectivity to database needs to have a secure channel and database manages the information that is being access via web layer (browsers, Webservice, Restful APIs etc). In multiple scenarios Service registry acts as metadata repository for external partners interface with Webservice using WS – Security or Security Assertion Markup Language (SAML). Web Services Trust Language (WS – Trust) plays a vital role in providing secure messaging and adds on to security token exchange within different trust domains for better credentials management. Web and Application Layer need to have WS Trust association to handle request and response of security tokens, managing trusts within the extended Enterprise Architecture and establishing trust relationships within Intra Organization and external partners, vendors and suppliers. This paper addresses the fit/gap and design approach to integrate Trust management model and Security Access Control with Database. Proposed Trust model illustrate the optimal security model and Asymmetric/ Symmetric Cryptography. This Trust management architecture model enhances the existing models in the current Database systems. Strategic model approach guarantee the enterprise wide security controls for PHI / PI datasets in database as well as complete data model and data at rest. This paper also illustrates the modeling technique and implement of open source Data repositories, metamodel and design and performance constraints in Data Architecture.

Keywords – Trust management, relational database, security controls, Data Protection.
620-646 PDF
22

Upper Bound and HRU Access Matrix Model

 Akash K Singh, PhD

Abstract

Service-oriented Architectures (SOA) facilitate the dynamic and seamless integration of services offered by different service providers which in addition can be located in different trust domains. Especially for business integration scenarios, Federated Identity Management emerged as a possibility to propagate identity information as security assertions across company borders in order to secure the interaction between different services. Although this approach guarantees scalability regarding the integration of identity-based services, it exposes a service provider to new security risks. These security risks result from the complex trust relationships within a federation. In a federation the authentication of a user is not necessarily performed within the service provider's domain, but can be performed in the user's local domain. Consequently, the service provider has to rely on authentication results received from a federation partner to enforce access control. This implies that the quality of the authentication process is out of control by the service provider and therefore becomes a factor which needs to be considered in the access control step. In order to guarantee a designated level of security, the quality of the authentication process should be part of the access control decision. To ease this process, we propose in this paper a method to rate authentication information by a level of trust which describes the strength of an authentication method. Additionally, in order to support the concept of a two-factor authentication, we also present a mathematical model to calculate the trust level when combining two authentication methods. Quantitative Trust Management (QTM) provides a dynamic interpretation of authorization policies for access control decisions based on upon evolving reputations of the entities involved. QuanTM, a QTM system, selectively combines elements from trust management and reputation management to create a novel method for policy evaluation. Trust management, while effective in managing access with delegated credentials (as in PolicyMaker and KeyNote), needs greater flexibility in handling situations of partial trust. Reputation management provides a means to quantify trust, but lacks delegation and policy enforcement. This paper reports on QuanTM's design decisions and novel policy evaluation procedure. A representation of quantified trust relationships, the trust dependency graph, and a sample QuanTM application specific to the KeyNote trust management language, are also proposed.

Keywords – Trust management, Trust levels, Authentication and Access Control, Web Service Federation, Federated Identity Management.
647-673 PDF
23

Smart Grid Cloud

 Akash K Singh, PhD

Abstract

This paper presents a model for smart grid data management based on specific characteristics of cloud computing, such as distributed data management for real-time data gathering, parallel processing for real-time information retrieval, and ubiquitous access. The appliance of the cloud computing model meets the requirements of data and computing intensive smart grid applications. We gathered these requirements by analyzing the set of well-known smart grid use cases, most of which demand flexible collaboration across organizational boundaries of network operators and energy service providers as well as the active participation of the end user. Hence, preserving confidentiality and privacy, whilst processing the massive amounts of smart grid data, is of paramount importance in the design of the proposed Smart Grid Data Cloud.

Keywords – Advanced metering infrastructure (AMI), communication technologies, quality-of-service (QoS), smart grid, standards.
674-704 PDF
24

Smart Grid Dynamic Pricing

 Akash K Singh, PhD

Abstract

Dynamic energy pricing is a promising development that addresses the concern of finding an environmentally friendly solution to meeting energy needs of customers while minimizing their electrical energy bill. In this paper, we mathematically formulate the electrical energy bill minimization problem for cooperative networked consumers who have a single energy bill, such as those working in a commercial/industrial building. The idea is to schedule user requests for appliance use at different times during a fixed interval based on dynamic energy prices during that interval. Two different methods are presented to minimize the energy cost of such users under non-interruptible or interruptible jobs. The methods relay on a quasi-dynamic pricing function for unit of energy consumed, which comprises of a base price and a penalty term. The methods minimize the energy cost of the users while meeting all the scheduling constraints and heeding the pricing function. The proposed methods result in significant savings in the energy bill under different usage pricing, and scheduling constraints.

Keywords – Advanced metering infrastructure (AMI), communication technologies, quality-of-service (QoS), smart grid, standards.
705-742 PDF
25

Smart Grid Load Forecasting

 Akash K Singh, PhD

Abstract

Electrical load modeling and forecasting are critically important in the electrical network and smart grid. The sparse Bayesian Learning (SBL) algorithm can be utilized to model and forecast the electrical load behavior. The SBL algorithm can solve a sparse weight vector with respect to a kernel matrix for modeling electricity consumption. However, traditional SBL can only handle an electricity consumption record of one user at a time period. In this paper, we propose a joint SBL algorithm to model and forecast multi-users' electricity consumption at multiple time periods. The spatial and historical similarity in multi-users' electricity consumption records are exploited and integrated in the joint SBL algorithm for accurate prediction and good modeling. Experimental results based on real data show that the proposed joint SBL algorithm can produce much better prediction accuracy than the traditional SBL algorithm.

Keywords – Advanced metering infrastructure (AMI), communication technologies, quality-of-service (QoS), smart grid, standards.
743-773 PDF
26

Service Oriented Computing

 Akash K Singh, PhD

Abstract

Service-oriented Architectures (SOA) facilitate the dynamic and seamless integration of services offered by different service providers which in addition can be located in different trust domains. Especially for business integration scenarios, Federated Identity Management emerged as a possibility to propagate identity information as security assertions across company borders in order to secure the interaction between different services. Although this approach guarantees scalability regarding the integration of identity-based services, it exposes a service provider to new security risks. These security risks result from the complex trust relationships within a federation. In a federation the authentication of a user is not necessarily performed within the service provider's domain, but can be performed in the user's local domain. Consequently, the service provider has to rely on authentication results received from a federation partner to enforce access control. This implies that the quality of the authentication process is out of control by the service provider and therefore becomes a factor which needs to be considered in the access control step. In order to guarantee a designated level of security, the quality of the authentication process should be part of the access control decision. To ease this process, we propose in this paper a method to rate authentication information by a level of trust which describes the strength of an authentication method. Additionally, in order to support the concept of a two-factor authentication, we also present a mathematical model to calculate the trust level when combining two authentication methods. Quantitative Trust Management (QTM) provides a dynamic interpretation of authorization policies for access control decisions based on upon evolving reputations of the entities involved. QuanTM, a QTM system, selectively combines elements from trust management and reputation management to create a novel method for policy evaluation. Trust management, while effective in managing access with delegated credentials (as in PolicyMaker and KeyNote), needs greater flexibility in handling situations of partial trust. Reputation management provides a means to quantify trust, but lacks delegation and policy enforcement. This paper reports on QuanTM's design decisions and novel policy evaluation procedure. A representation of quantified trust relationships, the trustdependency graph, and a sample QuanTM application specific to the KeyNote trust management language, are also proposed.

Keywords – Trust management, Trust levels, Authentication and Access Control, Web Service Federation, Federated Identity Management.
774-809 PDF
27

Smart Acess Control Model

 Akash K Singh, PhD

Abstract

For century, there has been no change in the fundamental structure of the electrical power grid and vehicle networks. Current hierarchical, centrally controlled grid of the electrical grid is not best for growing demand. To address the challenges of the existing power grid, the new concept of smart grid and smarter planet are under research. The smart grid can be considered as a modern electric power grid infrastructure for enhanced efficiency and reliability through automated control, high-power converters, modern communications infrastructure, sensing and metering technologies, and modern energy management techniques based on the optimization of ondemand, energy and network availability. While current power systems are based on a solid information and communication infrastructure, the new smart grid needs a different and much more complex one, as its dimension is much larger and needs utmost performance. This paper addresses critical issues on smart grid technologies primarily in terms of information and communication technology (ICT) issues and opportunities. The main objective of this paper is to provide a contemporary look at the current state of the art in smart grid communications as well as to discuss the still-open research issues in this field. It is expected that this paper will provide a better understanding of the technologies, potential advantages and research challenges of the smart grid and provoke interest among the research community to further explore this promising research area.

Keywords – Advanced metering infrastructure (AMI), communication technologies, quality-of-service (QoS), smart grid, standards.
810-860 PDF
28

Smart Grid Architceture

 Akash K Singh, PhD

Abstract

At present, "Smart Grid" emerged to be one of the best advanced energy supply chain. This paper looks into the security system of Smart Grid via Smart Planet system. The scope focused onto information security criteria that impacts consumer trust and satisfaction. The importance of information security criteria is the main aspect perceived to impact customer trust towards the entire smart grid system. On one hand, it also focused on the selection of the model in developing information security criteria on smart grid.

Keywords – Advanced metering infrastructure (AMI), communication technologies, quality-of-service (QoS), smart grid, standards.
861-895 PDF
29

Runtime Processes and Trust Management Model in MANET and GRID

 Akash K Singh, PhD

Abstract

Service-oriented Architectures (SOA) facilitate the dynamic and seamless integration of services offered by different service providers which in addition can be located in different trust domains. Especially for business integration scenarios, Federated Identity Management emerged as a possibility to propagate identity information as security assertions across company borders in order to secure the interaction between different services. Although this approach guarantees scalability regarding the integration of identity-based services, it exposes a service provider to new security risks. These security risks result from the complex trust relationships within a federation. In a federation the authentication of a user is not necessarily performed within the service provider's domain, but can be performed in the user's local domain. Consequently, the service provider has to rely on authentication results received from a federation partner to enforce access control. This implies that the quality of the authentication process is out of control by the service provider and therefore becomes a factor which needs to be considered in the access control step. In order to guarantee a designated level of security, the quality of the authentication process should be part of the access control decision. To ease this process, we propose in this paper a method to rate authentication information by a level of trust which describes the strength of an authentication method. Additionally, in order to support the concept of a two-factor authentication, we also present a mathematical model to calculate the trust level when combining two authentication methods. Quantitative Trust Management (QTM) provides a dynamic interpretation of authorization policies for access control decisions based on upon evolving reputations of the entities involved. QuanTM, a QTM system, selectively combines elements from trust management and reputation management to create a novel method for policy evaluation. Trust management, while effective in managing access with delegated credentials (as in PolicyMaker and KeyNote), needs greater flexibility in handling situations of partial trust. Reputation management provides a means to quantify trust, but lacks delegation and policy enforcement. This paper reports on QuanTM's design decisions and novel policy Evaluation procedure. A representation of quantified trust relationships, the trust dependency graph, and a sample QuanTM application specific to the KeyNote trust management language, are also proposed.

Keywords – Trust management, Trust levels, Authentication and Access Control, Web Service Federation, Federated Identity Management.
896-929 PDF
30

Smart Grid Sensor

 Akash K Singh, PhD

Abstract

For century, there has been no change in the fundamental structure of the electrical power grid and vehicle networks. Current hierarchical, centrally controlled grid of the electrical grid is not best for growing demand. To address the challenges of the existing power grid, the new concept of smart grid and smarter planet are under research. The smart grid can be considered as a modern electric power grid infrastructure for enhanced efficiency and reliability through automated control, high-power converters, modern communications infrastructure, sensing and metering technologies, and modern energy management techniques based on the optimization of ondemand, energy and network availability. While current power systems are based on a solid information and communication infrastructure, the new smart grid needs a different and much more complex one, as its dimension is much larger and needs utmost performance. This paper addresses critical issues on smart grid technologies primarily in terms of information and communication technology (ICT) issues and opportunities. The main objective of this paper is to provide a contemporary look at the current state of the art in smart grid communications as well as to discuss the still-open research issues in this field. It is expected that this paper will provide a better understanding of the technologies, potential advantages and research challenges of the smart grid and provoke interest among the research community to further explore this promising research area.

Keywords – Advanced metering infrastructure (AMI), communication technologies, quality-of-service (QoS), smart grid, standards.
930-963 PDF
31

Smart Grid Voltage Regulations

 Akash K Singh, PhD

Abstract

The large-scale deployment of the Smart Grid paradigm will support the evolution of conventional electrical power systems toward active, flexible and self-healing web energy networks composed of distributed and cooperative energy resources. In a Smart Grid platform, the optimal coordination of distributed voltage controllers is one of the mainissues to address. In this field, the application of traditional hierarchical control paradigms has some disadvantages that could hinder their application in Smart Grids where the constant growth of grid complexity and the need for massive pervasion of Distribution Generation Systems (DGS) require more scalable, more flexible control and regulation paradigms. To try and overcome these challenges, this paper proposes the concept of a decentralized non-hierarchal voltage regulation architecture based on intelligent and cooperative smart entities. The distributed voltage controllers employ traditional sensors to acquire local bus variables and mutually coupled oscillators to assess the main variables that characterize the operation of the global Smart Grid. These variables are then amalgamated by a Fuzzy Inference System in order to identify proper control actions aimed at improving the grid voltage profile and reducing power losses.

Keywords – Immune pathology; artificial immune system; negative selection algorithm; immunodeficiency; system Efficiency.
964-994 PDF